The Criminalization of Cyberbullying

The Criminalization of Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Research Center image 2

I have written quite a bit over the years on the question of whether it is necessary to enact new criminal statutes to combat cyberbullying. Be it a proposal for an amended state statute or a new city ordinance, it seems popular these days for politicians to publicly proclaim the scourge of cyberbullying by offering legislation to make it a crime. Few stand on the side of cyberbullies on Election Day, so it is probably a safe platform. But is it the right approach?

The latest incident to thrust this issue into the public light is a test case out of Albany, New York, where, back in 2011, a 15-year-old student was arrested and charged with a then recently-passed county-level cyberbullying law. The student in this case is accused of having created a “flame page” wherein he posted photos and disparaging comments about a number of his classmates. Some of the comments were sexual in nature. He attempted to challenge the law in city court, but lost and ultimately pled guilty to one count of cyberbullying, pending appeal. The Albany County Court affirmed the city court judge’s ruling and it is now being reviewed by the New York State Court of Appeals.

Proponents of the law (and of the criminalization of bullying behaviors generally) say that cyberbullies need to be held accountable, and if schools and parents can’t—or won’t—do it, then society should. Opponents see this law as an attack on free speech, or challenge it as hastily written, with many essential elements left undefined or otherwise ambiguous. Others point out (quite rightly, in my opinion), that further criminalization will do little to solve the underlying causes of bullying overall.

Generally speaking, I feel that the criminal justice system should be the absolute last resort when trying to resolve the vast majority of cyberbullying incidents. If a teen repeatedly targets a peer with hurtful, harassing, or malicious online insults, and family- and/or school-based responses prove ineffective, then perhaps law enforcement does need to get involved. Even with that, though, I would hope the police and prosecutor would work to develop an appropriate solution that avoids a criminal stigma being placed on the teen.

For example, one option might be a deferred prosecution deal that is contingent on improved online behaviors. If the teen refrains from inappropriate online interactions for a specified period of time, then the charges would go away. Or maybe the accused could participate in a teen court, or meet with people who have been victimized by bullying in the past in a kind of restorative justice approach. Again, there are so many other possible avenues for dealing with bullying that hold much more promise for effectiveness than a misdemeanor criminal charge. All of these other options should be exhausted before requiring the teen to appear in front of a judge.

The other, broader issue being evaluated in Albany, is whether laws like this one infringe on a person’s right to free speech. All U.S. citizens—even students—have free speech rights. There are, of course, limitations to this. We simply don’t have the right to say anything to anyone under any circumstances. Moreover, inasmuch as the content of the speech matters (what is being said), so too does the context and consequences of that speech.

For example, it is perfectly fine for me to express my hatred for the University of Michigan athletic teams. I can stand on a public park bench and proudly and loudly proclaim my disdain for the Wolverines. That is protected speech. But if I am a high school student and repeatedly express that view during the middle of algebra class, in a way that disrupts the learning environment at school, well then that speech which was otherwise protected is now subject to reasonable discipline. The school has long been recognized as a unique environment where extraordinary restrictions on speech and other forms of expression are allowed, when necessary, to uphold school rules and maintain an appropriate school climate. As noted in Bethel School Dist. No. 403 v. Fraser, 1986: “The undoubted freedom to advocate unpopular and controversial views in schools and classrooms must be balanced against the society’s countervailing interest in teaching students the boundaries of socially appropriate behavior. … Nothing in the Constitution prohibits the states from insisting that certain modes of expression are inappropriate and subject to sanctions.” More recently, this interpretation has been expanded to include some student behaviors and speech expressed from beyond the school walls (to the extent they impact the school).

Similarly, if I call someone up in the middle of the night and repeatedly, over the course of many weeks, tell them that “the Wolverines suck!” – that too may be subject to criminal sanction (for harassment or stalking). While the content of the speech is protected, the way in which it is conveyed is not. So, those tasked with keeping schools safe and orderly need to evaluate not only what was being said, but also what impact it had (or is likely to have) on the environment at school. Even speech that is protected in most circumstances could be subject to discipline under certain conditions.

I don’t know much more about the Albany case other than what has been discussed in the media, so it is difficult to comment on whether a criminal response was necessary in that particular situation. I don’t know if the school intervened or if the child’s parents disciplined their son in an effort to resolve the situation. But I also don’t believe that his speech should be protected by the First Amendment. The appellate court in New York is expected to return its findings within the next several weeks. But rest assured, no matter what the ruling, this will not be the end of this debate.

Image courtesy of Morse v Frederick (2007) (U.S. Supreme Court Case in which student speech was legitimately restricted)


  1. This makes a great point. Teens do not realize the affects of their actions/words have on others. What we have been doing, letting families and schools deal with it, is simply not working. Having a record as a minor may not be the answer at first but simply involving police could be a great start to a big problem.

  2. This makes a great point. Teens do not realize the affects of their actions/words have on others. What we have been doing, letting families and schools deal with it, is simply not working. Having a record as a minor may not be the answer at first but simply involving police could be a great start to a big problem.

  3. To Whomever Wrote This Periodical… Criminalization viewed as the last resort due to social stigma?! What in the world? So, a child whom gets bullied never really grows out of it yet has to have the stigma for the rest of his or her life! It is why kids do what they do because there is NO enforcement and a child grows up to be a criminal. I believe it is why weapons are brought to school and school shootings… Ever hear of post traumatic stress disorder?

  4. Now, I’ve even read further and research shows that cyber-bullying exists. Okay… Now what? How about a study done on the psychological impact of bullying and school performance. I have a science background and an Master Level Counselor plus Massage Therapist, so I know how to do research, which gets to the point of criminalization where bullying may impact psychological development for a lifetime! And Justin the author is more worried about stigma than he is about the consequences of bullying on children! I’m going through this with my child as a write. To me this isn’t enough just talk and general science reports. You want to do a studying how about polling kids whom have a difficult life and have roots in rejection. How do you get this personality disorders and features of those disorders and what happens on a snap when a child is developing cluster B personality features. Furthermore, what about children whom suffered abuse whom tend to attract bullies. It exists, so what are you going to do about? I’ve reported and reported. Her is another study. How about a child’s stress threshold before the snap? Measure the levels of cortisol when it gets too high then the damage to the physical body… There is more you can do here

  5. I apologize Justin for being so direct yet I am a counselor whom deals with the aftermath of troubled youth and to me this is talking about a slap on the wrist for the bully when others have to live with the scars for life. I taught at Universities where ADULTS are still afraid to be up front then fail because they will not do a public speech. Or in the counseling session with cutting, suicide. To me, bullying has always existed and has never truly been criminalized; therefore, its getting worse as society morals and family unit declines. My child has me some kids don’t have a parent or only a parent whom looks at the result of a failing kid or a kid who brought a weapon to school to defend himself against a bully. For instance if my child hauls off and hits this girl both get suspended and it could get worse. Where is the justice in this when a parent reports, reports and reports?

  6. Proverbs 12:18 states that “The words of the reckless pierce like swords, but the tongue of the wise brings healing”. Bullying has been around since the beginning of time. And I don’t see an end to it anytime soon.
    As a parent, I hope that my children would never be on the receiving end of cyber-bullying or be the initiator of such. The fact that we have a problem is an understatement. The effects are far reaching. This is complicated in cyber space because the victim can also be the bully at the same time because they are more willing to retaliate as a response to their own victimization. Currently we are focused on fixing the “broken” part or dealing with the aftermath. In problem solving, one must find the root of the problem and begin re-framing at that level. Bullying’s basis is that of “hurt people, in turn, hurt people”. It is my opinion that it begins in the formative stages of raising children. Teaching children their value in Christ and to respect others are two of the most primal needs for change. I understand that a person cannot give what they don’t possess. That’s where we, as a society, need to engage with one another in order to develop relationships. When we have relationships developed we earn the right to speak truth into each others lives. Our motives must be intentional and yet sincere.

  7. With all do respect. As someone living with PTSD, and the recurring horrific memories I lived through my entire life – this article does not take in to consideration the victims. 12 out of 15 school shooting gun men reported being bullied, the impact of bullying is a life sentence, therefore should be punished by law.

    • Thanks for offering your thoughts. I’m not arguing that bullying should never be punished criminally. I am only arguing that increasing the criminal penalty will have little effect on teen bullying. It is not like an adolescent will stop and think about the possibility of getting a ticket with a monetary fine and as a result refrain from bullying. Without a doubt the impact of bullying on people can be significant. And in some circumstances a criminal response is necessary (for accountability or retribution, but not for deterrence purposes).

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