Cultivating Youth Resilience to Prevent Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin In an effort to better prevent and respond to bullying and cyberbullying, schools are recognizing a need to focus on positive youth development. One often-neglected developmental construct in this rubric is resilience, which can help students successfully respond to the variety of challenges they face. Enhancing this internal…

Digital Self-Harm - Journal of Adolescent Health

Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja Purpose: Despite increased media and scholarly attention to digital forms of aggression directed toward adolescents by their peers (e.g., cyberbullying), very little research has explored digital aggression directed toward oneself. “Digital self-harm” is the anonymous online posting, sending, or otherwise sharing of hurtful content about oneself. The current…

Measuring cyberbullying: Implications for research Cyberbullying Research Center

Measuring Cyberbullying: Implications for Research

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja Despite a significant amount of attention by both the academic community and society at large, there continues to exist much confusion about both the conceptual and operational definitions of cyberbullying (and by implication, bullying in general). The trouble with this lack of clarity is that it leads to…

Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009 Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Cyberbullying Myths and Realities

By Russell A. Sabella, Justin W. Patchin, and Sameer Hinduja Bullying has long been a concern of youth advocates (e.g., educators, counselors, researchers, policy makers). Recently, cyberbullying (bullying perpetrated through online technology) has dominated the headlines as a major current-day adolescent challenge. This article reviews available empirical research to examine the accuracy of commonly-perpetuated claims…

Digital Self-Harm - Journal of Adolescent Health

Cyberbullying Among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja Research into the causes and consequences of cyberbullying among adolescents has exploded in the past 5 years [1]. However, much of the literature is largely descriptive in nature and/or suffers from methodological limitations associated with accessing and studying young people who are engaged in constantly changing high-tech behaviors.…

Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors among Middle and High School Students Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors among Middle and High School Students

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin Cyberbullying is a problem affecting a meaningful proportion of youth as they embrace online communication and interaction. Research has identified a number of real-world negative ramifications for both the targets and those who bully. During adolescence, many behavioral choices are influenced and conditioned by the role of major…

School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying – as it is termed – has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals,…

Cyberbullying: Neither an Epidemic Nor a Rarity

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin Growing public awareness of electronic bullying and harassment among adolescents suggests the need to empirically investigate this increasingly common and problematic behavior. Although studies of cyberbullying and online harassment among young people are nascent, preliminary findings suggest that victimization can undermine the freedom of youth to use and…

Cyberbullying: A Review of the Legal Issues Facing Educators

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin School districts are often given the challenging task of addressing problematic online behaviors committed by students while simultaneously protecting themselves from civil liability by not overstepping their authority.  This is difficult because the law concerning these behaviors is ambiguous and continuously evolving, and little consensus has yet been…

Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja This article examines the relationship between middle school students’ experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending and lower self-esteem. It is therefore…

Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009 Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja As online social networking has become an immersive and pervasive phenomenon, traditional considerations and expectations of personal privacy have been drastically altered. This paradigmatic change has led to adolescents possibly making themselves vulnerable to embarrassment, censure, damage to one’s name or reputation, or even victimization by others because…

Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression – cyberbullying – is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. Among a…

Traditional and Nontraditional Bullying among Youth: A Test of General Strain Theory Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Traditional and Nontraditional Bullying among Youth: A Test of General Strain Theory

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja Bullying at school is a common problem facing youth, school officials, and parents. A significant body of research has detailed the serious consequences associated with bullying victimization. Recently, however, a new permutation of bullying has arisen and arguably become even more problematic. Cyberbullying, as it has been termed, occurs when youth…

Trends in Online Social Networking: Adolescent Use of MySpace over Time Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Trends in Online Social Networking: Adolescent Use of MySpace over Time

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja MySpace has received a significant amount of negative attention from the media and many concerned adults, who point to several isolated incidents where predators have contacted, become involved with and even assaulted adolescents whom they met through the popular social networking web site. Furthermore, concerned parents have expressed…

Offline Consequences of Online Victimization: School Violence and Delinquency Cyberbullying Research Center image 1

Offline Consequences of Online Victimization: School Violence and Delinquency

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin As increasing numbers of youth embrace computer-mediated communication to meet academic and social needs, interpersonal violence directly and indirectly related to the Internet is occurring more often. Cyberbullying in particular has shot to the forefront of agendas in schools and communities due to the emotional, psychological, and even…

Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin Victimization on the Internet through what has been termed cyberbullying has attracted increased attention from scholars and practitioners. Defined as “willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text” (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006), this negative experience not only undermines a youth’s freedom to use and explore…

Bullies Move beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja Bullying in a school setting is an important social concern that has received increased scholarly attention in recent years. Specifically, its causes and effects have been under investigation by a number of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. A new permutation of bullying, however, has recently arisen…