1. As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires:
a. “Accompanying offense” means any public offense committed as part of the course of conduct engaged in while committing the offense of stalking.
b. “Course of conduct” means repeatedly maintaining a visual or physical proximity to a person without legitimate purpose, repeatedly utilizing a technological device to locate, listen to, or watch a person without legitimate purpose, or repeatedly conveying oral or written threats, threats implied by conduct, or a combination thereof, directed at or toward a person.
c. “Immediate family member” means a spouse, parent, child, sibling, or any other person who regularly resides in the household of a specific person, or who within the prior six months regularly resided in the household of a specific person.
d. “Repeatedly” means on two or more occasions.
2. A person commits stalking when all of the following occur:
a. The person purposefully engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, or threatened or to fear that the person intends to cause bodily injury to, or the death of, that specific person or a member of the specific person’s immediate family.
b. The person has knowledge or should have knowledge that a reasonable person would feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, or threatened or fear that the person intends to cause bodily injury to, or the death of, that specific person or a member of the specific person’s immediate family by the course of conduct.
3. a. A person who commits stalking in violation of this section commits a class “C” felony for a third or subsequent offense.
b. A person who commits stalking in violation of this section commits a class “D” felony if any of the following apply:
(1) The person commits stalking while subject to restrictions contained in a criminal or civil protective order or injunction, or any other court order which prohibits contact between the person and the victim, or while subject to restrictions contained in a criminal or civil protective order or injunction or other court order which prohibits contact between the person and another person against whom the person has committed a public offense.
(2) The person commits stalking while in possession of a dangerous weapon, as defined in section 702.7.
(3) The person commits stalking by directing a course of conduct at a specific person who is under eighteen years of age.
(4) The offense is a second offense.
c. A person who commits stalking in violation of this section commits an aggravated misdemeanor if the offense is a first offense which is not included in paragraph “b”.
4. Violations of this section and accompanying offenses shall be considered prior offenses for the purpose of determining whether an offense is a second or subsequent offense. A conviction for, deferred judgment for, or plea of guilty to a violation of this section or an accompanying offense which occurred at any time prior to the date of the violation charged shall be considered in determining that the violation charged is a second or subsequent offense. Deferred judgments pursuant to section 907.3 for violations of this section or accompanying offenses and convictions or the equivalent of deferred judgments for violations in any other states under statutes substantially corresponding to this section or accompanying offenses shall be counted as previous offenses. The courts shall judicially notice the statutes of other states which define offenses substantially equivalent to the offenses defined in this section and its accompanying offenses and can therefore be considered corresponding statutes. Each previous violation of this section or an accompanying offense on which conviction or deferral of judgment was entered prior to the date of the violation charged shall be considered and counted as a separate previous offense. In addition, however, accompanying offenses committed as part of the course of conduct engaged in while committing the violation of stalking charged shall be considered prior offenses for the purpose of that violation, even though the accompanying offenses occurred at approximately the same time. An offense shall be considered a second or subsequent offense regardless of whether it was committed upon the same person who was the victim of any other previous offense.
5. Notwithstanding section 804.1, rule of criminal procedure 2.7, Iowa court rules, or any other provision of law to the contrary, upon the filing of a complaint and a finding of probable cause to believe an offense has been committed in violation of this section, or after the filing of an indictment or information alleging a violation of this section, the court shall issue an arrest warrant, rather than a citation or summons. A peace officer shall not issue a citation in lieu of arrest for a violation of this section. Notwithstanding section 804.21 or any other provision of law to the contrary, a person arrested for stalking shall be immediately taken into custody and shall not be released pursuant to pretrial release guidelines, a bond schedule, or any similar device, until after the initial appearance before a magistrate. In establishing the conditions of release, the magistrate may consider the defendant’s prior criminal history, in addition to the other factors provided in section 811.2.
6. For purposes of determining whether or not the person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.
1. a. A person commits harassment when, with intent to intimidate, annoy, or alarm another person, the person does any of the following:
(1) Communicates with another by telephone, telegraph, writing, or via electronic communication without legitimate purpose and in a manner likely to cause the other person annoyance or harm.
(2) Places a simulated explosive or simulated incendiary device in or near a building, vehicle, airplane, railroad engine or railroad car, or boat occupied by another person.
(3) Orders merchandise or services in the name of another, or to be delivered to another, without the other person’s knowledge or consent.
(4) Reports or causes to be reported false information to a law enforcement authority implicating another in some criminal activity, knowing that the information is false, or reports the alleged occurrence of a criminal act, knowing the act did not occur.
(5) Disseminates, publishes, distributes, posts, or causes to be disseminated, published, distributed, or posted a photograph or film showing another person in a state of full or partial nudity or engaged in a sex act, knowing that the other person has not consented to the dissemination, publication, distribution, or posting.
b. A person commits harassment when the person, purposefully and without legitimate purpose, has personal contact with another person, with the intent to threaten, intimidate, or alarm that other person.
2. a. A person commits harassment in the first degree when the person commits harassment involving any of the following:
(1) A threat to commit a forcible felony.
(2) A violation of subsection 1, paragraph “a”, subparagraph (5).
(3) Commits harassment and has previously been convicted of harassment three or more times under this section or any similar statute during the preceding ten years.
(4) Harassment that occurs against another person who is lawfully in a place of public accommodation as defined in section 216.2.
b. Harassment in the first degree is an aggravated misdemeanor.
3. a. A person commits harassment in the second degree when the person commits harassment involving a threat to commit bodily injury, or commits harassment and has previously been convicted of harassment two times under this section or any similar statute during the preceding ten years.
b. Harassment in the second degree is a serious misdemeanor.
4. a. Any other act of harassment is harassment in the third degree.
b. Harassment in the third degree is a simple misdemeanor.
5. For purposes of determining whether or not the person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126. However, the fact finder shall not make a determination as provided in section 692A.126 regarding a juvenile convicted of a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “a”, subparagraph (5), and the juvenile shall not be required to register as a sex offender with regard to the violation.
6. The following do not constitute harassment under subsection 1, paragraph “a”, subparagraph (5):
a. A photograph or film involving voluntary exposure by a person in public or commercial settings.
b. Disclosures made in the public interest, including but not limited to the reporting of unlawful conduct, disclosures by law enforcement, news reporting, legal proceeding disclosures, or medical treatment disclosures.
c. Disclosures by an interactive computer service of information provided by another information content provider, as those terms are defined in 47 U.S.C. § 230.
7. A person injured by a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “a”, subparagraph (4), may bring a civil action against the person whose conduct violated subsection 1, paragraph “a”, subparagraph (4).
8. As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires:
a. “Full or partial nudity” means the showing of any part of the human genitals or pubic area or buttocks, or any part of the nipple of the breast of a female, with less than fully opaque covering.
b. “Personal contact” means an encounter in which two or more people are in visual or physical proximity to each other. “Personal contact” does not require a physical touching or oral communication, although it may include these types of contacts.
c. “Photographs or films” means the making of any photograph, motion picture film, videotape, or any other recording or transmission of the image of a person.d. “Sex act” means the same as defined in section 702.17.