Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Turkey, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Küçüksüleymanoglu, R.
Title: Cyberbullying among Secondary School Teachers by Parents
Journal: International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education
Abstract: Cyberbullying which is known as violence on the Internet is a dimension of peer bullying takes places through electronic communication technologies. Cyberbullying which can occur in any environment regardless of the time and place is the way in which individuals with higher ability to use communication technologies to lead other individuals in a series of negative behaviors over time. With the rapid development of technology and the ease with which internet access becomes easier and cheaper, it becomes a problem that needs to be studied more and more importantly day by day. Facebook, twitter and whatss up, the most widely used social network today, has the potential to become the most commonplace for cyberbullying behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine cyberbullying towards teachers by parents in secondary schools based on teachers views according to sex, tenure and school size. The sample of the study was 181 teachers from 14 secondary schools. The experiences and perspectives of 181 teachers were assessed regarding the incidence and perceptions of the likelihood of cyber harassment by parents. The results presented here indicate that nearly 3/4 of teachers in the sample had received harassing or threatening messages from parents.
Citation: Küçüksüleymanoğlu, R. (2019). Cyberbullying among secondary school teachers by parents. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 8(1), 151. doi: 10.11591/ijere.v8i1.16549
Authors: Tolga, A., Sinem, S., Aysegul, U., Sevda, S., Songul, C., Nesrin, Y., Cemil, M.
Title: Cyberbullying among Turkish Adolescents
Journal: CyberPsychology & Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying, harassment through the use of information and communication technology such as cell phones and the Internet, is an emerging phenomenon all around the world. Extensive research on aggression and bullying is guiding educators’ understanding of cyberbullying. Yet the gap between the advancement in technology and the dearth of study on cyberbullying suggests that more research is needed to understand the scope of this form of bullying. In order to fill the gap in literature, 269 secondary school Turkish students were surveyed on their engagement in and coping strategies for cyberbullying. The results show that 35.7% of the students displayed bully behaviors, and 23.8% of the students displayed bully-victim behaviors. Only 5.9% of the students were victims. More boys displayed bully, victim, and bully-victim behaviors than girls. When faced with cyberbullying, 25% of the students reported telling their peers and parents about the cyberbullying incident, and 30.6% of the students reported finding active solutions such as blocking the harasser. The implication of the study for future research is discussed.
Citation: Tolga Aricak, Sinem Siyahhan, Aysegul Uzunhasanoglu, Sevda Saribeyoglu, Songul Ciplak, Nesrin Yilmaz, and Cemil Memmedov.CyberPsychology & Behavior.Jun 2008. ahead of print http://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0016
Author(s): Turan, S.G. & Dilmen, N.E.
Title: Justification of Cyber-Harassment in terms of Digital Media Literacy
Journal: Yeni Symposium
Objective: Violence and the media are an important issue that takes up a large part in media theories and research. The interaction between the individual and the society and the phenomenon of violence which can be increased or normalized can be examined and discussed not only in the media axis but also in many other disciplines in terms of different variables. Though it is unlikely to be the only factor affecting the phenomenon of violence, media tools and developments in technology have now caused violence to be debated in different dimensions. In this research, the effects of the concepts of information literacy, cyber violence and emotional deafness (alexithymia) on the perception of individuals as violating legitimacy are discussed as factors that cause individuals to perceive violence as legitimate through communication means.
Method:Present research was conducted with 400 university students by survey methods.
Results: Data was analyzed in SPSS computer program. According to the results it was deter- mined that variables of cyber violence exposure, perpetrator of cyber violence, digital media literacy and alexithymia (emotional deafness) were explanatory effects on justification of cyber harassment.
Conclusions: In this context, it has come to the point that the digital media literacy and conscious internet usage are important in order to prevent individuals from seeing cyber violence as legitimate and justification of it.
Keywords: Cyber-harassment, justification of cyber-harassment, digital media literacy, alexithymia
Citation: Turan, S.G. ve Dilmen, N.E.(2016). Justification of Cyber-Harassment in terms of Cyber-Harassment, Yeni Symposium, September 2016, Volume 54, Number 3: 25-29. 2)
Author(s): Yaman, E., & Çelik, İ.
Title: The Mediator Effect of Loneliness between Perceived Social Competence and Cyber Bullying in Turkish Adolescents.
Journal: International Journal of Progressive Education
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine whether loneliness might play a mediating role between perceived social competence and cyberbullying in Turkish adolescents. The participants were 326 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Cyberbullying Scale, the Perceived Social Competence Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Relationships between loneliness, social competence and cyberbullying were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and predictions of each variable by the domains of the other were calculated with Linear Regression Analysis (LRA). Findings showed that perceived social competence, cyberbullying and self-efficacy were related to each other’s. Hierarchical Regression Analysis results indicated that loneliness partially mediated the relationship between perceived social competence and school burnout.
Citation: Yaman, E., & Çelik, İ. (2016). The Mediator Effect of Loneliness between Perceived Social Competence and Cyber Bullying in Turkish Adolescents. International Journal of Progressive Education, 12(1).
Author(s): Sari, S. V., & Camadan, F.
Title: The new face of violence tendency: Cyber bullying perpetrators and their victims.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: The present study examines the role of violence tendecy on cyberbullying perpetrations and their victims. Turkish adolescents [N = 286, 167 girls (58,4%) and 119 boys (41,6%)] aged 15–18 years [mean age of 17.6 years (df:0.78)] were recruited from different high school types [101 (35.4%) of the participants were students in vocational high school, 88 (30.7%) anatolian high school and 97 (33.9%) public high school]. Participants completed Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory (RCBI, Topçu & Erdur-Baker, 2010) and Violence Tendency Scale (VTS, Haskan & Yıldırım, 2012). Collected data were analyzed Pearson correlation coefficients and simple regression. Pearson correlations revealed that violence tendency was positively related to cyberbullying perpetration (r = 0.344, p < 0.01). Also, violence tendency was positively related to cyber victimization (r = 0.242, p < 0.01). Also simple regressions revealed that violence tendency was significant individual predictors both cyberbullying perpetration and cyber victimization.
Citation: Sari, S. V., & Camadan, F. (2016). The new face of violence tendency: Cyber bullying perpetrators and their victims. Computers in Human Behavior, 59, 317-326.
Author(s): Akturk, A. O.
Title: Analysis of cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social support levels.
Journal: Interactive Technology and Smart Education,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also investigated. While current communication technologies such as mobile phones, the Internet and social network sites provide new opportunities for learning and interaction, they may also pose a threat to personal security. The rapid increase in access to information and communication technologies by young people can also cause those technologies to be used for bullying their peers – called cyberbullying.
Citation: Akturk, A. O. (2015). Analysis of cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social support levels. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 12(1), 44.
Author(s): Sezer, B., Yilmaz, R., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G.
Title: Cyber bullying and teachers’ awareness.
Journal: Internet Research
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the awareness levels of teachers with regard to cyber bullying. In line with this purpose, the extent of awareness levels of teachers in general, regarding the issue of personal cyber security in their daily lives and the precautions that can be taken in this context have been measured
Citation: Sezer, B., Yilmaz, R., & Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. G. (2015). Cyber bullying and teachers’ awareness. Internet Research, 25(4), 674-687.
Author(s): Ozgur, H.
Title: Exploring the distance education students’ cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels
Journal: Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education
Abstract: The purpose of present research is to detect cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels of distance education students and analyze these levels with respect to several variables. The research has been patterned on relational screening model. Study group consisted of 297 distance education students studying at university in Marmara region during fall term of 2012-2013 academic year. Data have been obtained via cyberbullying scale, cybervictimization scale and cyberbullying sensibility scale. In the analysis of obtained data descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis H and correlation tests have been utilized. Obtained findings manifested that distance education students received low scores on cyberbullying and mid level scores from cybervictimization; that they possess high sensibility towards cyberbullying and there is statistically meaningful differentiation between cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It has also been detected that the increase in Internet usage has accelerating effect on cyberbullying and cybervictimization and that there is correlation between cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Furthermore it has been revealed that compared to female students male students are engaged in higher levels of cyberbullying and they become cybervictimized more frequently.
Citation: Ozgur, H. (2015). Exploring the distance education students’ cyberbullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying sensibility levels. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education.
Author(s): Akbulut, Y.
Title: Effect of case–based video support on cyberbullying awareness
Journal: Australian Educational Computing
Abstract: When it comes to safe and ethical information technology use, cyberbullying stands out. Indeed, it is seen to be a prevalent and complex problem. Prevention suggestions tend to rely on implications of descriptive and correlational studies rather than true experimental works. In this regard, the current study investigated the effect of case–based video (CBV) support on empowering cyberbullying awareness among 120 pre–service information technology teachers. Solomon four–group design was used in which four groups of students were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions. In the experimental groups, CBVs on authentic victimization instances were integrated into the instructional module on cyberbullying. The same cases and the content were provided without the CBV support in the control groups. One group from each condition was pretested before the implementation. Following the treatment, all groups were post–tested through a one–factor cyberbullying awareness scale. Two–way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that both types of instructional modules were useful whereas the CBVs led to better outcomes. Findings are discussed with regard to the relevant literature and suggestions for further studies are provided.
Citation: Akbulut, Y. (2014). Effect of case–based video support on cyberbullying awareness. Australian Educational Computing, 29(1).
Author(s): Çetinkaya, A., Şahin, Ö.E. Turan, S.G.
Title: Cyber-Bullying: Taboos and Cultural Attitudes
Journal: International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Communication and Humanities Research
Abstract: Although definitions of cyberbullying vary, generally the term is used to describe the use of e-mail, cell phones, instant messaging, and/or web sites by individuals or groups with intent to harm others. Bullying, which is no longer limited to space and time boundaries due to recent advances in new communication technologies, can now be perpetrated more secretly, spread rapidly and preserved easily. Cultural attitudes and taboos affect the problematic internet usage of adolescents and increase the risk for cyberbullying as both victim and perpetrator. In this study, survey method is used to examine the nature and extent of cyber-bullying experiences of adolescents in Turkey, both as victims and perpetrators.
Keywords: Cyber-bullying, Adolescents, Taboos, Cultural Attitudes, Internet
Citation: Çetinkaya, A. , Şahin, Ö.E. ve Turan, S.G. (2014) Cyber Bullying: Taboos And Cultural Attitudes, International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Communication and Humanities Research, Volume 2, Number 3: 252-259.
Author(s): Gökler, R.
Title: Relation between cyberbullying and problem solving: A study on Turkish university students
Journal: Educational Research and Reviews
Abstract: In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between “being victim of cyberbullying” and “being cyberbullying” status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five different faculties of Cankiri Karatekin University. Data is collected by “Cyberbullying and Internet Aggression Scanning Scale-CIASS” and “Problem Solving Inventory-PSI”. Data is analysed with arithmetical average, standard deviation, percentage and correlation techniques. It is determined at the end of the research that 87% of the attendants are exposed to cyberbullying in the recent month. However, at the same period, it is determined that 13% of the attendances are exposed to cyberbullying. Also, in the recent month 3% of the attendants are found that they are doing cyberbullying. It is seen that cyberbullying occurs mostly in chat-rooms and facebook. It is determined that problem solving skills of the attendants is at the middle level. A negative relation between being exposed to cyberbullying and problem solving is determined. There is not a relation between being cyberbullying and problem solving.
Citation: Gökler, R. (2013). Relation between cyberbullying and problem solving: A study on Turkish university students. Educational Research and Reviews, 8(19), 1763.
Author(s): Topcu, Ç., & Erdur-Baker, Ö.
Title: Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males’ and females’ bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The participants of the study were 795 Turkish adolescents (455 females, 340 males) ranging in age from 13- to 18-years-old. The Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory, Traditional Bullying Questionnaire and Basic Empathy Scale were utilized to gather data from participants. Findings revealed that the total effect of cognitive and affective empathy mediated the gender differences in traditional bullying in addition to the unique effect of affective empathy. However, only the combined effect of affective and cognitive empathy mediated the gender differences in cyberbullying. The findings are discussed in the light of the related literature and implications for practice.
Citation: Topcu, Ç., & Erdur-Baker, Ö. (2012). Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying. School Psychology International, 33(5), 550-561.
Author(s): Eksi, F.
Title: Examination of Narcissistic Personality Traits’ Predicting Level of Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying through Path Analysis.
Journal: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice
Abstract: The main aim of this study is to find out to what extent do narcissistic personality traits predict internet addiction and cyber bullying in vocational high school students. For this study five hundred and eight vocational high school students (331 male students–66,2%, 169 female students 33,8% and 8 unstated [x-bar] 16,24) from Anatolian side of Istanbul Province have been selected by using cluster sampling method. As data collection tools, Narcissistic Personality Inventory adopted by Atay, Internet Addiction Scale developed by Gunuc and Kayri, and Cyber Bullying Inventory developed by Aricak et.al have been used. The model shows that narcissism has an indirect effect on cyber bullying. As a trait of narcissistic personality “entitlement”, significantly predicts “deprivation” and controlling difficulty in internet addiction, besides, the trait of narcissistic personality, “superiority” predicts significantly “social isolation” in internet addiction. It is found out that the scores of narcissistic personality “exploitativeness” negatively predict the scores of internet addiction “controlling difficulty”.
Citation: Eksi, F. (2012). Examination of Narcissistic Personality Traits’ Predicting Level of Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying through Path Analysis. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 1694-1706.
Author(s): Cetin, B., Eroglu, Y., Peker, A., Akbaba, S., & Pepsoy, S.
Title: The Investigation of Relationship among Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal, Cyberbullying, and Psychological Disharmony in Adolescents: An Investigation of Structural Equation Modelling.
Journal: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale were used. In correlational analysis, cyberbullying and cyber victimization were found negatively related to relational-interdependent self-construal. On the other hand, cyberbullying and cyber victimization were found positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress. The goodness of fit indices indicated that the model was fit. According to structural equation modelling (SEM) results, relational-interdependent self-construal predicted negatively cyberbullying, and cyberbullying predicted psychological disharmony in a positive way.
Citation: Cetin, B., Eroglu, Y., Peker, A., Akbaba, S., & Pepsoy, S. (2012). The Investigation of Relationship among Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal, Cyberbullying, and Psychological Disharmony in Adolescents: An Investigation of Structural Equation Modelling. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(2), 646-653.
Author(s): Çelik, S., Atak, H., & Erguzen, A.
Title: The Effect of Personality on Cyberbullying among University Students in Turkey.
Journal: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research
Abstract: Problem Statement: Cyberbullying is associated with significant psychological issues among young people such as depression, emotional distress, low self-esteem, and poor academic achievement. It is also regarded as an increasingly emergent problem in educational settings, putting learners’ psychological health, safety, and well-being at risk. Recent research has shown that a growing number of students are victims of cyberbullying and a wider realization and a thorough understanding of cyberbullying is needed. Purpose of the Study: This survey-based study set out to explore the relationship between personality traits and cyberbullying among university students receiving education through either face-to-face or distance education modes. Methods: A sectional research design and correlation survey method was adopted throughout the study. As a causal and comparative study, the dependent variable was set as cyberbullying (actively bullying others and/or being bullied) and the independent variable included five personality types. A path model was developed and tested in order to investigate the effects of learning modes and aforementioned personality types on two levels of cyberbullying. Findings and Results: The good fit indexes belonging to the model indicated acceptable conditions and capacity for explaining the relations among the variables. Emotional instability was observed as the leading predictor of being cyberbullied with a medium effect size. On the other hand, the weakest predictor of being bullied was found to be openness to experience with a minor level negative effect size. The developed model was observed to be valid for both face-to-face and distance education learning modes. In addition, a positive and medium level relationship between bullying and being exposed to bullying was observed. Ward’s hierarchical cluster analysis conducted on the points obtained from the cyberbullying scale revealed that the majority of the group rarely bullies and is rarely exposed to cyberbullying. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study contributes to the extant literature on bullying in a few conceptual areas. For instance, few research studies have examined the bullying issue in the tertiary context and through learning modes. The current investigation was limited by using a single data set to conduct all analyses. Further research is recommended to involve various variables such as cross-cultural effects on cyberbullying.
Citation: Çelik, S., Atak, H., & Erguzen, A. (2012). The Effect of Personality on Cyberbullying among University Students in Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 49, 129-150.
Author(s): Bayar, Y., & Uçanok, Z.
Title: School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status.
Journal: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in secondary and high schools. The sample consisted of 1263 students (612 male, 651 female), of mean age 14.92 years (SD = 2.07). The results revealed that adolescents who were not involved both in school and cyberspace perceived the school and their teachers more positively than bullies and bully-victims, and also victims in cyberspace perceived their teachers more positively than bullies. Furthermore, not involved adolescents in school and cyberspace perceived other students in school more positively than bullies. In terms of peer perception, not involved adolescents and bullies in school and cyberspace significantly differed from bully-victims, and also not involved adolescents and bullies in school differed significantly from victims; not involved adolescents and bullies had more positive perception about their peers. Results also revealed that the Turkish adaptation of these two measurement instruments had sufficiently high validity and reliability.
Citation: Bayar, Y., & Uçanok, Z. (2012). School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 2352-2358.
Author(s): Arslan, S., Savaser, S., Hallett, V., & Balci, S.
Title: Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: Self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life.
Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Abstract: The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; p<0.05) and achievement (bullies OR: 3.85; victims OR: 3.47, p<0.05). Paternal unemployment was also associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood of being a cyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.
Citation: Arslan, S., Savaser, S., Hallett, V., & Balci, S. (2012). Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: Self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(10), 527-533.
Author(s): Sahin, M., Aydina, B., & Sari, S. V.
Title: Cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms: a study in adolescents.
Journal: Çukurova University. Faculty of Education Journal
Abstract: In this study, the relationship between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms was investigated in adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 300 high school student adolescents who attend different types of high schools in Trabzon in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study, demographic data form, The Scale of Cyber bullying and Brief Symptom Inventory were used as data collection instruments. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, One-Way ANOVA and independent samples T test were conducted to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that there were significant relationships between cyber bullying, cyber victimization and some psychological symptoms. Furthermore, significant differences were found in cyber bullying and cyber victimization in terms of school type and gender variables. These results were discussed in light of relevant literature and some recommendations were made.
Citation: Sahin, M., Aydina, B., & Sari, S. V. (2012). Cyber bullying, cyber victimization and psychological symptoms: a study in adolescents. Çukurova University. Faculty of Education Journal, 41(1), 53.
Author(s): Ryan, T., Kariuki, M., Yilmaz, H.
Title: A comparative analysis of cyberbullying perceptions of preservice educators: Canada and turkey.
Journal: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
Abstract: Canadian preservice teachers (year one N= 180 & year two N= 241) in this survey study were compared to surveyed preservice educators in Turkey (N=163). Using a similar survey tool both Turkish and Canadian respondents agreed that cyberbullying is a problem in schools that affects students and teachers. Both nations agreed that children are affected by cyberbullying however a lack of confidence was found in the Canadian sample yet Turkish educators believed they could both identify and manage cyberbullying. Cyberbulling in comparison to other topics covered in the current teacher preparation program, was believed to be equally important. Preservice teachers in both countries believed they should use an anti-cyberbully infused curriculum which had activities and current resources. A school-wide approach, in combination with professional development coupled with counselling from community supports was perceived to be essential to deal with cyberbullying in each country. Parents and community members were believed to be essential as was the idea that various media sources should be used to reach the larger community. As a result of their university training both Turkish and Canadian respondents felt unprepared to deal with cyberbullying.
Citation: Ryan, T., Kariuki, M., & Yilmaz, H. (2011). A Comparative Analysis of Cyberbullying Perceptions of Preservice Educators: Canada and Turkey. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(3), 1-12.
Author(s): Turan, N. , Polat, O. , Karapırlı, M. Uysal, C. & Turan, S.G.
Title: The New Violence Type Of The Era: Cyber Bullying Among University Students
Journal: Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
Backgrounds: Researchers have stated that internet has both positive and negative features just like all the other information technology tools. The most important example to give of the negative outcomes is peer-to-peer cyber bullying. The most general definition of peer-to-peer cyber bullying is to harm individuals deliberately and repetitively through electronic media.
Methods: The survey study was conducted in Istanbul Bilgi University Law School, Istanbul Ticaret University Law School and Marmara University Law School by the students to the faculties’ students. All results were evaluated with SPSS (Statistical Package for Social for Sciences).
Results: 579 persons in the range of 18–30 years were included in the survey. A total of 346 (59.8%) cases were cyberbullied on electronic media. 20.7% stated that they were disturbed through internet, 27.7% by mobile phone and 51.7% both by internet and mobile phone. 80% of those who have been exposed to violence through electronic means have been found to be exposed to more than one form of violence.
Conclusions: More than half of our subjects have notified that they have been negatively affected by cyber violence. Prevention strategies should be created as well as the recognition of cyber bullying.
Citation: Turan, N. , Polat, O. , Karapırlı, M. Uysal, C. & Turan, S.G. (2011). The New Violence Type Of The Era: Cyber Bullying Among University Students. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, Vol.17, Issue 1 : 21-26.
Author(s): Yilmaz, H.
Title: Cyberbullying in Turkish middle schools: An exploratory study.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: This study explored Turkish students’ experience of cyberbullying and their use of social networking tools. A total of 756 7th-grade students participated from eight different middle schools in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A 15-item questionnaire was used in a classroom environment to collect data. Results revealed that male students were more involved in cyberbullying than female students. Students used instant messaging programs in cyberbullying, and bullying victims did not communicate with adults when they were exposed to harassment. The majority of students did not know effective safety strategies for use in cyberspace. Those who were themselves cyberbullied tended to engage in cyberbullying. The prevalence of cyberbullying in Turkish middle schools suggests that schools should adopt appropriate prevention strategies.
Citation: Yilmaz, H. (2011). Cyberbullying in Turkish middle schools: An exploratory study. School Psychology International, 0143034311410262.
Author(s): Akbulut, Y., & Eristi, B
Title: Cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students
Journal: Australasian Journal of Educational Technology
Abstract: This study investigated the extent of cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students at a state college of education. A personal information form and 56 scaled items were administered to 254 students. Items addressing cyberbullying victimisation were adopted from a recent study, whereas parallel cyberbullying items were developed and piloted in the current study. High internal consistency coefficients and explained variance values were observed in both “cyberbullying” and “victimisation” forms of the instrument. Findings revealed a moderate relationship between cyberbullying and victimisation. That is, being a victim in the cyberspace predicted 23 percent of being a cyberbully. Males were more likely to be both cybervictims and cyberbullies. Neither the cyberbullying nor the victimisation average differed with regard to age, program of study, daily Internet use, language proficiency, socioeconomic status, and the location where Internet was used. Reasons to cyberbully were investigated, which were mostly stemmed from interpersonal problems of participants. Limitations were discussed followed by suggestions for further research.
Citation: Akbulut, Y., & Eristi, B. (2011). Cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(7).
Author(s): Erdur-Baker, Ö.
Title: Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools.
Journal: New Media & Society
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between cyber and traditional bullying experiences regarding gender differences. Also, the contributions of frequent and risky usage of internet to cyberbullying experiences were examined. The participants were 276 adolescents (123 females, 151 males and 2 unknown) ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. The results revealed that 32 percent of the students were victims of both cyber and traditional bullying, while 26 percent of the students bullied others in both cyber and physical environments. Compared to female students, male students were more likely to be bullies and victims in both physical and cyber-environments.The multivariate statistical analysis indicated that cyber and traditional bullying were related for male students but not for female students. Moreover, the multiple regression analysis revealed that both frequent and risky usage of internet account for a significant variance of cyberbullying but their contributions differ based on genders.
Citation: Erdur-Baker, Ö. (2010). Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109-125.
Author(s): Yilmaz, H.
Title: An examination of preservice teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying
Journal: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education
Abstract: Today, in parallel with the increase of technology use, cyberbullying becomes one of the major issues in schools affecting students’ lives negatively similar to bullying. To minimize the negative effects of cyberbullying and to get preservice teachers ready for managing cyberbullying, it is necessary to examine preservice teachers’ perception about cyberbullying. For this mission, the present study was conducted. Data were collected using a web-based survey form from seven different state universities in Turkey. One hundred and sixty three preservice teachers, who are senior level students, participated in the study. The results indicate that a majority of the preservice teachers recognize cyberbullying as a problem and understand its negative effects on students, as well as the need for school commitment on preventing cyberbullying. Although a majority of the preservice students have a high level of awareness for cyberbullying, they indicate the need for cyberbullying training during university education.
Citation: Yilmaz, H. (2010). An examination of preservice teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 6(4), 263-270.
Author(s): Akbulut, Y., Sahin, Y. L., & Eristi, B.
Title: Cyberbullying victimization among Turkish online social utility members.
Journal: Educational Technology & Society
Abstract: There is growing evidence to suggest that bullying results in deep emotional damage. Borderless cyberspace transforms the nature of bullying and serves as a risky territory where more and more bullies are at large, which in turn, increases the extent of victimization in cyber-space. The current study investigated the cyberbullying victimization among Turkish members of an online social utility. The analysis sample consisted of 1470 participants who were recruited with a 28-item web-based survey. The survey had a high internal consistency coefficient and explained more than half of the total variance with a single-factor structure. Findings revealed that several background variables influenced cyberbullying victimization, including: gender; marital and socioeconomic status; purpose; frequency; location; time and nature of Internet use and language proficiency. Observed gender differences varied according to Internet connection locations. In addition, socioeconomic differences varied according to surfing patterns. Forum and blog use predicted victimization significantly. On the other hand, some critical variables did not have an influence on the extent of victimization such as age, education level and Internet proficiency. The source of victimization was predominantly international websites rather than Turkish websites. Findings were discussed followed by implications and suggestions for further research.
Citation: Akbulut, Y., Sahin, Y. L., & Eristi, B. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization among Turkish online social utility members. Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 192-201.
Author(s): Dilmac, B.
Title: Psychological Needs as a Predictor of Cyber Bullying: A Preliminary Report on College Students.
Journal: Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice
Abstract: Recent surveys show that cyber bullying is a pervasive problem in North America. Many news stories have reported cyber bullying incidents around the world. Reports on the prevalence of cyber bullying and victimization as a result of cyber bullying increase yearly. Although we know what cyber bullying is it is important that we learn more about the psychological effects of it. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between psychological needs and cyber bullying. Participants of the study included 666 undergraduate students (231 males and 435 females) from 15 programs in the Faculty of Education at Selcuk University, Turkey. Questions about demographics, engagement in and exposure to cyber bullying, and the Adjective Check List were administered. 22.5% of the students reported engaging in cyber bullying at least one time, and 55.3% of the students reported being victims of cyber bullying at least once in their lifetime. Males reported more cyber bullying behavior than females. Results indicate that aggression and succorance positively predict cyber bullying whereas intraception negatively predict it. In addition, endurance and affiliation negatively predict cyber victimization. Only the need for change was found as a positive, but weak predictor of cyber victimization. In light of these findings, aggression and intraception should be investigated further in future research on cyber bullying.
Citation: Dilmac, B. (2009). Psychological Needs as a Predictor of Cyber Bullying: A Preliminary Report on College Students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(3), 1307-1325.
Author(s): Topcu, C., Erdur-Baker, Ö., & Capa-Aydin, Y.
Title: Examination of cyberbullying experiences among Turkish students from different school types.
Journal: CyberPsychology & Behavior
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of cyberbullying experiences among public and private school students in Turkey. One hundred eighty-three participants between the ages of 14 and 15 were recruited for the study. Participants were asked to respond to questionnaires measuring demographic information, usage frequency of Internet-mediated communication tools (IMCT), and cyberbullying experience (as a victim and as a bully). Participants who reported cyberbullying victimization were also asked how they felt and whether they sought help after such experiences. Results indicated that public school students were more likely than private school students to report being cyberbullies and cybervictims despite that private school students were more likely than public school students to report more frequent usage of IMCT. The findings of the logistic regression analyses indicated that usage frequency of IMCT was a significant predictor of cyberbullying/victimization for public school students but not for private school students. While victims from private school revealed that they did not mind the cyberbullying experience because they thought it was a joke, victims from public school reported that they felt angry when they experienced cyberbullying. Both public and private schools indicated that friends were their first choice for help.