Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Tanzania, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.



Authors: Danielle M Law, Bowen Xiao, Hezron Onditi, Junsheng Liu, Xiaolong Xie, Jennifer Shapka

Year: 2022

Title: Measurement Invariance and Relationships Among School Connectedness, Cyberbullying, and Cybervictimization: A Comparison Among Canadian, Chinese, and Tanzanian Adolescents

Journal: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment


Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement invariance of the School Connectedness Scale for Chinese, Canadian, and Tanzanian adolescents, and to explore the inter association between school connectedness and cyberbullying/cybervictimization. Participants included 3872 adolescents from urban settings in China (N= 2053, Mage=16.36 years, SD = 1.14 years; 44.6% boys), Canada (N = 642, Mage = 12.13 years, SD = 0.77 years; 50.1% boys), and Tanzania (N = 1056, Mage=15.87 years, SD = 2.03 years; 52.8% boys). Adolescents self-reported their cybervictimization and cyberbullying experiences, as well as their perceived school connectedness. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed an approximate measurement invariance of the scale across the three countries. Chinese students showed the lowest levels of school connectedness while Tanzanian students showed the highest. The findings of the multivariate multigroup regression analyses across the three countries revealed similar relationships between school connectedness and cyberbullying/cybervictimization, thus broadening our understanding of school connectedness and its relationship to cyberbullying/cybervictimization across these three different countries.



Authors: Onditi, H., and Shapka, J.D.

Year: 2021

Title: The Negative Effects of Cyberbullying Among Secondary School Adolescents in Tanzania

Journal: Journal of Education, Humanities & Science


Abstract: Cyberbullying and its associated consequences on children and adolescents has recently become a problem of global concern. Using phenomenological research design, this study explores the negative effects of cyberbullying on Tanzanian secondary school female and male adolescents. A total of 20 adolescents (50% female) in secondary schools (Form I to Form IV) who identified themselves as victims of cyberbullying were involved in the interview to share their lived experiences on the negative effects of cyberbullying. From thematic analysis, results indicated that, similar to their counterpart adolescents in the developed countries, Tanzanian female and male adolescents have experienced emotional, social, cognitive, behavioural, academic, and health problems as outcomes of cyberbullying. The findings provide further evidence that cyberbullying and its negative consequences is a problem to adolescents in many countries in the world, including Tanzania. Implications and suggestions for intervention programmes, practice and future research are discussed.



Author: Fabian Mahundu, G.

Year: 2020

Title: COVID-19 Disease Pandemic Lockdown: Schools Closure and Students E-Learning Options in Tanzania

Journal: SSRN


Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning options adopted by students during the closure of schools due to the COVID-19 disease pandemic in Tanzania. It examines the way learners harness the advantage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and the role played by parents and guardians at home in supporting their children during the COVID-19 lockdown. The discussion of the findings is supported by “situated learning” theoretical perspective (Barab and Duffy, 2000). The content analysis was adopted and reflected on different themes of the study. Interviews and open-ended questions (using google forms) inquired issues related to home-based learning options among students during the COVID-19 lockdown. The author argues that a give-way for free access to materials online by students during the COVID-19 lockdown is paramount. However, the sharing of parents’ and guardians’ phones must be monitored to safeguard the learners from cyberbullying. More efforts are needed particularly the intervention of private sector to prepare the ‘smart LMS’ that can be used by ready-students and as a backup space for students during the disasters that may compel the closure of schools. This paper deploys “situated learning” theoretical perspective to explain the learning options adopted by students during the COVID-19 lockdown through the use of parents/guardians gadgets, and LMS analysis.



Author: Mfaume, H.

Year: 2020

Title: Modern Technology and Teachers’ professional ethics in Tanzania: an investigation in the use of mobile phones by Teachers in Secondary Schools.

Journal: UDSM Library Repository

URL: (Now defunct)

Abstract: This study investigated the state of the use of mobile phones by teachers in public secondary schools in the Kinondoni Municipality in the Dar es salaam, region , Tanzania. it was guided by four research objectives: to determine teachers; awareness of mobile phone as a potential pedagogical tool; to investigate teachers practice in relation to mobile phone use in schools: to examine the role played by the education authorities in the promotion of the proper use of mobile phones in schools, and explore the respondents; views on the strategies that can be employed in promoting proper use of mobile phones in the school settings. The study drew on the qualitative interpretive research that was informed by a multiple case design. The purposive sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of forty four (44) respondents including 03 heads of school. 18 school teachers, 01 District secondary education officer 03 Teachers’ Services Commission (TSC) Officer, 01 school quality assurance officer and 18 students. Data were sought through semi-instructured interviews. Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and documentary review. The generated data were subjected to thematic data analysis procedures. The findings of the study indicated that teachers were adequately aware of the educational benefits of mobile phones. However, the majority hardly utilized the services for educational. The under utilization of the devices by teachers was attributed to the lack of knowledge and skills on the pedagogical use of the devices, negative attribute and reluctance to change, lack of awareness of the presence of the ICT policy and the exorbitant cost of the latest devices among others. Also the findings revealed that through teachers demonstrated adequate awareness of what constitutes improper practices regarding the use of mobile phones, they were found to the perpetrators of mobile phone misuse in schools. They used their phones in classrooms, during invigilation of examinations, chatting excessive during the working hours as well as sexting and cyber bullying among other forms of misuse. The misuse of the device s by teachers was attributed to the lack of a national policy and legislation that provide for mobile phone use in school teachers, lack of knowledge of the teachers’ codes of professional conduct, lack of effective probation and mentorship and the lack of students’ empowerment, among others. Misuse of mobile phones indicated to have several adverse effects on the education system and national development as a whole. The findings disclosed that the heads of school and the TSC officers played a significant role to curb misuse of the mobile phones in schools. They oriented teachers about proper use of the devices through various assemblies, made regular visits and classroom inspections, counselling of teachers and provision of copies of various ethical related guidelines. However, their effort was hampered by several constraints, including the absence of mobile phone use guidelines in schools, lack of supporting ethical related materials, poor cooperation between heads of school and TSC officers, the nature and moral character of some teachers and the absence of counselling specialists in schools. In order to promote professionalism in the use of mobile phones in schools, the study recommended for training of teachers on the pedagogical use of the devices, deployment of ICTs in educating teachers on the proper use of the devices and dissemination of ethical guidelines, the formulation of national policy on the formally acceptable and responsible ICT uses in schools, broadening the curriculum of the teacher education by integrating content on the ICT use etiquette and empowering students so that they become assertive in reporting misbehaving teachers