Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Spain, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Author(s): Quintana-Orts, C. & Rey, L.
Title: Forgiveness and cyberbullying in adolescence: Does willingness to forgive help minimize the risk of becoming a cyberbully?
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying has received recent research attention due to the frequent use of social media and electronic devices among adolescents. This study examined forgiveness and cybervictimization as predictors of cyberbullying aggression in a sample of 1650 secondary school adolescents (50.5% females). Results of regression analyses indicated that cybervictimization was a significant predictor of indices of cyberbullying. The inclusion of forgiveness was found to significantly augment the prediction of cyberbullying aggression, even after accounting for sex and grade. Furthermore, the cybervictimization ×
Specifically, cybervictimized adolescents with high forgiveness, compared to those with low forgiveness, reported significantly lower levels of cyberbullying behaviors. Implications of the present findings are discussed in terms of the protective role of forgiveness for preventing aggressive behavior and for preventing individuals from becoming a bully after suffering victimization. The results suggest that anti-cyberbullying interventions also need to focus on promoting forgiveness in adolescents.
Citation: Quintana-Orts, C., & Rey, L. (2018). Forgiveness and cyberbullying in adolescence: Does willingness to forgive help minimize the risk of becoming a cyberbully? Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 209–214.
Author(s): Rodríguez Ferrández, S., Fernández Castejón, E. B., & Bautista Ortuño, R.
Title: Cyber-victimization prevention of minors in Alicante province
Journal: Revista Española de Investigación Criminológica
Abstract: The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of a prevention program addressed to reduce the children’s rates cybervictimization reported in 2014 (in the province of Alicante), from a previous study named “CiberApp”. The intervention program included 66 briefings of 50 minutes (59 sessions with minors and 7 with their parents and educators) on a sample of 1,575 children under ESO. A questionnaire designed ad hoc to measure the actual frequency of risky behavior on the Internet (pretest) and the intentions of doing these behaviors in the future (post-test) was applied. The intervention has been effective in reducing minors’ intentions to make each of the evaluated risk behaviors and promoting their self-protection in front of cybervictimization.
Citation: Rodríguez-Ferrández, S., Fernández-Castejón, E. B., & Bautista-Ortuño, R. (2017). Prevención de la cibervictimización en menores de la provincia de Alicante. Revista Española de Investigación Criminológica, 15(2), 1-25.
Author(s): Cuadrado-Gordillo, I., & Fernández-Antelo, I.
Title: Adolescents’ perception of the characterizing dimensions of cyberbullying: Differentiation between bullies’ and victims’ perceptions.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Being aware of the adolescent perceptions’ on cyberbullying is one of the main factors that determine the real prevalence of this phenomenon and allows the adequacy of intervention programs. The objectives pursued in this study were: (a) to determine the perceptions adolescents have about cyberbullying and cyber abuse; and (b) to analyse the influence of experiences of cybervictimization and cyberaggression on the perception of cyberbullying and its various forms. The sample consisted of 1753 adolescents of 12–16 years in age. The instrument used to acquire the data was a questionnaire. The results reveal that, of the 5 identifying criteria of cyberbullying, Spanish adolescents have recourse to just three: intent to hurt, imbalance of power, and advertising. Also, this study shows that verbal and visual aggressions, far from being interpreted as forms of cyberbullying, are considered to be mechanisms that foster and facilitate their communication and interaction. Although the victims and aggressors allude to the same set of identifying criteria, the aggressors emphasize the imbalance of power criterion as against the intent to hurt. For the victims, the intentionality being the primary factor, followed by advertising, while the imbalance of power is relegated to a background role
Citation: Cuadrado-Gordillo, I., & Fernández-Antelo, I. (2016). Adolescents’ perception of the characterizing dimensions of cyberbullying: Differentiation between bullies’ and victims’ perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 653-663.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Lazuras, L., Casas, J. A., Barkoukis, V., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Tsorbatzoudis, H.
Title: Does empathy predict (cyber) bullying perpetration, and how do age, gender and nationality affect this relationship?
Journal: Learning and Individual Differences
Abstract: The present study set out to investigate which role empathy plays in traditional bullying and cyberbullying in a sample of adolescents from Greece and Spain. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess invariance of the relationship between empathy and (cyber) bullying across gender, age and nationality.
Citation: Del Rey, R., Lazuras, L., Casas, J. A., Barkoukis, V., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2016). Does empathy predict (cyber) bullying perpetration, and how do age, gender and nationality affect this relationship?. Learning and Individual Differences, 45, 275-281.
Author(s): Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Gámez-Guadix, M.
Title: Cyberbullying Victimization and Depression in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Body Image and Cognitive Schemas in a One-year Prospective Study.
Journal: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Abstract: Cyberbullying, the harassment of others via new technologies, is a growing phenomenon with important consequences for its victims. Despite the growing interest in this new form of violence, only a few longitudinal studies have analyzed the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and psychological problems, such as depression, in adolescents. Furthermore, the mechanisms through which cyberbullying victimization contributes to the development of depressive symptoms remain almost unexplored. The current study assesses whether cyberbullying victimization predicts the increase in depressive symptoms over time and the role of body image and cognitive schemas in the association between cyberbullying victimization and depression. We hypothesized that victims of cyberbullying would develop a negative body image, the belief that others would hurt them and that they were defective to some degree, and that, as a consequence of these cognitions, they would increase their symptoms of depression. A sample of 1015 adolescents (mean age = 15.43, SD = 1.09) completed measures of depressive symptoms at three waves (T1, T2, and T3) spaced 6 months apart, measures of body image and cognitive schemas at T1 and T2, and measures of CB victimization at T1. Findings indicated that CB victimization at T1 predicted a worsening of body image and cognitive schemas of mistrust and defectiveness at T2, and those changes in cognitions predicted in turn an increase in depressive symptoms from T2 to T3. Gender differences were also examined. The model was very similar for boys and girls. However, changes in body image acted as a mediator between CB victimization and depression only in girls. Therefore, this study contributes to clarifying the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of depression among victims of CB. These findings suggest that intervention programs with victims of CB should address the cognitions that are relevant for the development of depression.
Citation: Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Gámez-Guadix, M. (2015). Cyberbullying Victimization and Depression in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Body Image and Cognitive Schemas in a One-year Prospective Study. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 1-14.
Author(s): Garaigordobil, M., & Martínez-Valderrey, V.
Title: Effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on” face-to-face” bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy.
Abstract: Background: The considerable prevalence of cyberbullying and its noxious effects on all those concerned reveals the need for programs to prevent and/or intervene in this type of violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on “face-to-face” bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. Method: A sample of 176 adolescents of the Basque Country (Spain), aged between 13 and 15 years, who studied Compulsory Secondary Education, was used. Of them, 93 were randomly assigned to the experimental condition, and 83 to the control condition. The study used a pretest-posttest repeated measures design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered. Results: The results confirmed that the program significantly stimulated: (a) a decrease in the amount of bullying and cyberbullying behaviors suffered and/or carried out (level of victimization, perpetration, aggressive-victimization); and (b) an increase in the capacity for empathy. Conclusions: The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to prevent and reduce bullying and cyberbullying. The discussion analyzes aspects of the program that may account for the significant intervention effects.
Citation: Garaigordobil, M., & Martínez-Valderrey, V. (2015). Effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on” face-to-face” bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. Psicothema, 27(1), 45-51.
Author(s): Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A.
Title: A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: In recently published studies on cyberbullying, students are frequently categorized into distinct (cyber)bully and (cyber)victim clusters based on theoretical assumptions and arbitrary cut-off scores adapted from traditional bullying research. The present study identified involvement classes empirically using latent class analysis (LCA), to compare the classification of cyber- and traditional bullying and to compare LCA and the conventional approach. Participants were 6,260 students (M = 14.8 years, SD = 1.6; 49.1% male) from six European countries. LCA resulted in three classes for cyberbullying and four classes for traditional bullying. Cyber- and traditional bullying differed from each other, as did LCA and the conventional approach. Country, age, and gender differences were found. Implications for the field of traditional and cyberbullying research are discussed.
Citation: Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A. (2015). A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries. Journal of School Violence, 14(1), 47-65.
Author(s): Orue, I., & Andershed, H.
Title: The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in Spanish Adolescents—Factor Structure, Reliability, and Relation with Aggression, Bullying, and Cyber Bullying.
Journal: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) which assesses the interpersonal, affective and behavioral dimensions of psychopathy. The factor structure, reliability of the scale and subscales and their relationships with proactive and reactive aggression, bullying and cyberbullying were evaluated. A total of 993 adolescents (58.9 % girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 completed the YPI-S along with the aggression measures. The internal consistency of the total and the three subscales was good. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three factor structure which was invariant for boys and girls. At a correlational level the three factors were related to all aggressive measures, however different patterns emerged in regression analyses. Finally, a triple interaction between the three factors was the best predictor of proactive aggression. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the Spanish YPI-S is a reliable, valid, and time effective instrument to assess psychopathic traits.
Citation: Orue, I., & Andershed, H. (2015). The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in Spanish Adolescents—Factor Structure, Reliability, and Relation with Aggression, Bullying, and Cyber Bullying. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37(4), 563-575.
Author(s): Garaigordobil, M., & Martínez-Valderrey, V.
Title: he effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem.
Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Abstract: Purpose: In recent years, the problem of youth violence has been a cause of increasing concern for educational and mental health professionals worldwide. The main objective of the study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of an anti-bullying/cyberbullying program (Cyberprogram 2.0; Pirámide Publishing, Madrid, Spain) on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 176 Spanish adolescents aged 13–15 years (93 experimental, 83 control) was employed. The study used a repeated measures pretest–posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program (19 one-hour sessions), two assessment instruments were administered: the questionnaire for measuring conflict management message styles and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Results: The analyses of covariance of the posttest scores confirmed that the program stimulated an increase of cooperative conflict resolution strategies, a decrease in aggressive and avoidant strategies, and an increase of self-esteem. The change was similar in both sexes. Conclusions: The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to improve the capacity for conflict resolution and self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote socioemotional development and to prevent violence.
Citation: Garaigordobil, M., & Martínez-Valderrey, V. (2015). The effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(2), 229-234.
Author(s): Buelga, S., Cava, M. J., Musitu, G., & Torralba, E.
Title: Cyberbullying aggressors among Spanish secondary education students: an exploratory study
Journal: Interactive Technology and Smart Education
Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to explore the prevalence rate of adolescents engaging in aggressive behaviours towards their peers using the Internet and mobile phones, while examining the duration and intensity of this cyberbullying, and to analyse differences in cyberbullying behaviours based on gender and age (academic grades). Research on cyberbullying indicates that it is a global problem that is increasing dramatically among adolescents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The sample was composed of 1,415 Spanish adolescents of both sexes (760 boys and 655 girls) between 12 and 17 years old (M = 13.9 years old; SD = 1.4). Findings: The results indicated that the cyberbullying prevalence among adolescents in the past year was 32 per cent. Likewise, the data suggest that boys and students in their fourth year of secondary education (15-17 years old) perpetrated cyberbullying on their peers more than girls and students in lower grades. Research Limitations/Implications: The results presented in this research should be interpreted with caution due to its cross-sectional nature; a longitudinal study with measurements at different times would help to confirm the results observed here. On the other hand, in this study, the adolescents’ responses were obtained through self-reports and, although they could be subject to social desirability effects and biases, as indicated by Flisher et al. (2004), the reliability and validity of adolescent self-reports in the measurement of risk behaviours were quite acceptable. Practical Implications: It is of crucial importance to develop educational strategies designed to favour the responsible use of the new technologies. In many cases, children and adolescents are not aware of psychological and legal consequences that their cyber-aggressions can have on themselves, on the victims and on their families and social environment. Social Implications: The authors feel that this research may contribute to clarifying some crucial issues related to the growing problem of cyberbullying that affects adolescents in many countries of the world. As the present research deals with aspects of interactive technology and smart education, the authors believe that the findings reported in the manuscript would be of interest to potential readers of this Journal. Originality/Value: This paper is an original perspective on cyberbullying aggressors among secondary education students in a Spanish context.
Citation: Buelga, S., Cava, M. J., Musitu, G., & Torralba, E. (2015). Cyberbullying aggressors among Spanish secondary education students: an exploratory study. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 12(2), 100-115.
Author(s): Gámez-Guadix, M., Gini, G., & Calvete, E.
Title: Stability of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents: Prevalence and association with bully–victim status and psychosocial adjustment.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to examine the possible presence of an identifiable group of stable victims of cyberbullying; (b) to analyze whether the stability of cybervictimization is associated with the perpetration of cyberbullying and bully–victim status (i.e., being only a bully, only a victim, or being both a bully and a victim); and (c) to test whether stable victims report a greater number of psychosocial problems compared to non-stable victims and uninvolved peers. A sample of 680 Spanish adolescents (410 girls) completed self-report measures on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use at two time points that were separated by one year. The results of cluster analyses suggested the existence of four distinct victimization profiles: “Stable-Victims,” who reported victimization at both Time 1 and Time 2 (5.8% of the sample), “Time 1-Victims,” and “Time 2-Victims,” who presented victimization only at one time (14.5% and 17.6%, respectively), and “Non-Victims,” who presented minimal victimization at both times (61.9% of the sample). Stable victims were more likely to fall into the “bully–victim” category and presented more cyberbullying perpetration than the rest of the groups. Overall, the Stable Victims group displayed higher scores of depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use over time than the other groups, whereas the Non-Victims displayed the lowest of these scores. These findings have major implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing cyberbullying and its consequences.
Citation: Gámez-Guadix, M., Gini, G., & Calvete, E. (2015). Stability of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents: Prevalence and association with bully–victim status and psychosocial adjustment. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 140-148.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A.
Title: Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: During the last decade, cyberbullying has become an increasing concern which has been addressed by diverse theoretical and methodological approaches. As a result there is a debate about its nature and rigorously validated assessment instruments have not yet been validated. In this context, in the present study an instrument composed of 22 items representing the different types of behaviours and actions that define cyberbullying has been structurally validated and its cross-cultural robustness has been calculated for the two main dimensions: cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression. To this end, 5679 secondary school students from six European countries (Spain, Germany, Italy, Poland, United Kingdom, and Greece) were surveyed through this self-report questionnaire which was designed based on previously existing instruments and the most relevant conceptual elements. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and the global internal consistency was computed for the instrument and its two dimensions. Identical factor structures were found across all of the six subsamples. The results contribute to existing research by providing an instrument, the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, which has been structurally validated in a wide sample from six different countries and that is useful to evaluate psycho-educative interventions against cyberbullying.
Citation: Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A. (2015). Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 141-147.
Author(s): Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Wójcik, S., Makaruk, K., Tzavela, E., Tzavara, C., … & Richardson, C.
Title: Cyberbullying victimization prevalence and associations with internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents in six European countries.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying victimization is an important adolescent health issue. The cross-national study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cyber victimization and associated internalizing, externalizing and academic problems among adolescents in six European countries. A cross-sectional school-based study of 14–17 year-old adolescents (N = 10,930; F/M: 5719/5211; mean age 15.8 ± 0.7 years) was conducted in Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, Iceland and Greece. In total, 21.4% of adolescents reported cyber victimization in the past 12 months. Reports were more frequent among girls than boys (23.9% vs. 18.5%), and among the older adolescents compared to the younger ones (24.2% vs. 19.7%). The prevalence was highest in Romania and Greece (37.3% and 26.8%) and lowest in Spain and Iceland (13.3% and 13.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that cyber victimization was more frequent among adolescents using the internet and social networking sites for two or more hours daily. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing, internalizing and academic problems were associated with cyber victimization. Overall, cyber victimization was found to be a problem of substantial extent, concerning more than one in five of the studied European adolescents. Action against cyber victimization is crucial while policy planning should be aimed at the prevention of the phenomenon.
Citation: Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Wójcik, S., Makaruk, K., Tzavela, E., Tzavara, C., … & Richardson, C. (2015). Cyberbullying victimization prevalence and associations with internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents in six European countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 1-7.
Author(s): García‐Moya, I., Suominen, S., & Moreno, C.
Title: Bullying victimization prevalence and its effects on psychosomatic complaints: can sense of coherence make a difference?
Journal: Journal of school health
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 7580, mean age = 15.41) was selected as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Bullying victimization, physical and psychological symptoms, and SOC were measured, and comparisons were made between strong- and weak-SOC adolescents regarding their likelihood of being a victim of bullying and the negative effects of bullying victimization on their health. Results: Weak-SOC adolescents were significantly more likely to suffer from bullying victimization regardless of type (nonphysical vs physical and nonphysical) or means (traditional vs cyberbullying). In addition, bullying victimization showed significant increasing effects on weak-SOC adolescents’ physical and psychological symptoms whereas in strong-SOC adolescents it was not significantly associated with increases in physical complaints and its effects on psychological complaints seemed to be weaker. Conclusions: Weak-SOC adolescents seem to be at higher risk of becoming bullying victims and victimization experiences appear to have increased negative effects on them when compared to strong-SOC students.
Citation: García‐Moya, I., Suominen, S., & Moreno, C. (2014). Bullying victimization prevalence and its effects on psychosomatic complaints: can sense of coherence make a difference?. Journal of school health, 84(10), 646-653.
Author(s): García, B. C., de Ayala López, M. L., & Jiménez, A. G.
Title: The risks faced by adolescents on the Internet: minors as actors and victims of the dangers of the Internet.
Journal: Revista Latina de Comunicación Social
Abstract: The intensive use of the Internet among adolescents has increased concerns about the risks they face in the cyberspace. The objective of this study is to diagnose the risks faced by Spanish adolescents on the Internet, and to determine the influence of such variables as age, sex, and ownership of the school attended by minors.
Citation: García, B. C., de Ayala López, M. L., & Jiménez, A. G. (2014). The risks faced by adolescents on the Internet: minors as actors and victims of the dangers of the Internet. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, (69), 462.
Author(s): Casas, J. A., Del Rey, R., & Ortega-Ruiz, R.
Title: Bullying and cyberbullying: Convergent and divergent predictor variables.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: There is certain controversy on whether cyber-bullying is a category of bullying as it appears in a very different scenario away from the schools. The objective of this research has been to know if the variables that predict the involvement of youngsters in traditional bullying are also predictor of the appearance of cyber-bullying. Accordingly, we have looked for the similarities and the differences existing in the involvement on these phenomena. The sample is composed by secondary school pupils (n = 893, 45.9% girls; age x¯=13.80, SD = 1.47). The results show that there are multiple relations between the predictor variables of school bullying and the specific variables of virtual environments that predict cyber-bullying. It has been obtained a new model that explains both phenomena which could be a strong evidence to base future interventions to prevent and reduce these problems.
Citation: Casas, J. A., Del Rey, R., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2013). Bullying and cyberbullying: Convergent and divergent predictor variables. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 580-587.
Author(s): Miró-Llinares, F.
Title: La victimización por cibercriminalidad social. Un estudio a partir de la teoría de las actividades cotidianas en el ciberespacio
Journal: Revista Española de Investigación Criminológica
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine levels of social cybervictimization in relation to an analyzed sample as well as to provide a predictive model which ultimately allows establishing prevention strategies based on scientific evidences. The research starts from the reconceptualization of the Routine Activity Theory (1979), developed by Cohen and Felson, and establishes the hypothesis that the user and his daily activities in cyberspace are key elements in producing crime event. A sample of 500 people aged between 18 and 65 has been interviewed using the CATI system (Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing) in order to collect and analyze data. According to the data survey, the risk area of the user is defined by private goods and spheres he incorporates into cyberspace, the use of Internet and the lack of self-defense strategies.
Citation: Miró-Llinares, F. (2013). La victimización por cibercriminalidad social. Un estudio a partir de la teoría de las actividades cotidianas en el ciberespacio. Revista Española de Investigación Criminológica, 11(5), 1-35.
Author(s): Miró-Llinares, F.
Title: Criminal law, cyberbullying and other forms of (non-sexual) harassment in cyberspace
Journal: IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Política
Abstract: Social networks, in particular, and the Internet, in general, now represent a new ambit for personal development, a new life space where people spend hours of their day communicating with others and forming relationships, and where, thus, there are attacks on individuals and their honour, liberty, privacy or personal dignity. This article analyses the response of Spanish criminal law to the different forms of non-sexual harassment of minors in cyberspace. Following the description and conceptualization of phenomena such as cyberbullying or individual acts of online harassment, the article analyses the specific incorporation of different forms of harassment of minors, whether continuous or not, in the different types of the particular part of the law. There is no criminal precept that expressly regulates most of these acts (despite the basic type of crimes against moral integrity having been made the benchmark crime for the courts). The types of crime that can be applied to these harassing behaviours – generally among peers – which are starting to proliferate in cyberspace are varied (threat, coercion, slander, etc.), as can be seen in the wide range of jurisprudence.
Citation: Miró-Llinares, F. (2013). Derecho penal, cyberbullying y otras formas de acoso (no sexual) en el ciberespacio. IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Política, 16, 61-75.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Elipe, P., & Ortega-Ruiz, R.
Title: Bullying and cyberbullying: Overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence
Abstract: Several studies show certain co-occurrence of the traditional bullying and the cyberbullying. However, the results about relation and homogeneity among the roles of each of them are not unanimous. The present study intends to advance in the knowledge about the above-mentioned co-occurrence by exploring the dimensions of victimization and traditional aggression and cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression and by identifying its eventual directionality. A short-term longitudinal design was developed. The sample was formed by 274 adolescents, aging 12 to 18 years-old, belonging to 2 schools of Andalusia (South of Spain). In order to value the impact of bullying and cyberbullying the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) and the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ) were used. The results show important simultaneity among both phenomena and suggest that although in cyberbullying. cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression may be predicted because of previous involvement of the subject in traditional bullying, on the contrary it does not happen. In addition, previous victimization is a risk factor for traditional bullying and for cyberbullying. Results are discussed in relation to the process and socio-group dynamics arising from the bullying and cyberbullying phenomena, and in terms of their prevention.
Citation: Del Rey, R., Elipe, P., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: Overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence. Psicothema, 24(4), 608-613.
Author(s): Navarro, R., Serna, C., Martínez, V., & Ruiz-Oliva, R.
Title: The role of Internet use and parental mediation on cyberbullying victimization among Spanish children from rural public schools.
Journal: European journal of psychology of education
Abstract: Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10–12 years; n = 1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured being cyberbullied, Internet use and parental mediation strategies. Logistic regression analyses examined the association among cyberbullying victimization, online activities, intensity and purposes of online communication, and restricting, evaluating and co-using parental mediation. The results show that Internet use, specifically online communication, increases the likelihood of cyberbullying victimization. Conversely, monitoring software installed on the computer, joint creation of rules regarding the time spent online and personal information shared help lessen the likelihood of online victimization. The results are examined in the light of previous research, while implications for practice and future research are considered.
Citation: Navarro, R., Serna, C., Martínez, V., & Ruiz-Oliva, R. (2013). The role of Internet use and parental mediation on cyberbullying victimization among Spanish children from rural public schools. European journal of psychology of education, 28(3), 725-745.
Author(s): Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N.
Title: The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study.
Journal: Aggressive behavior
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. Aggr. Behav. 38:342-356, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Citation: Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive behavior, 38(5), 342-356.
Author(s): Genta, M.L., Smith, P.K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., Tippett, N., Mora-Merchán, J. and Calmaestra, J.
Title: Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain
Journal: Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives
Abstract: The last 10 years have seen the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among adolescents. Bullying too has been examined in relation to the growth in the use of ICT by adolescents and young people, opening up a line of research investigating “cyberbullying” behavior. In the study of cyberbullying among preadolescents and adolescents it is important to consider the relationship between young people and ICT, highlighting the amount of use of different digital media and the preference and choices made by young people in their free time (relating to Internet, mobile phones, television, etc.)
Citation: Genta, M. L., Smith, P. K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., … & Calmaestra, J. (2011). Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain. Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives, 15.
Author(s): Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E.
Title: Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviours and definition in three European countries.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: This study aims to examine students’ perception of the term used to label cyberbullying, the perception of different forms and behaviours (written, verbal, visual, exclusion and impersonation) and the perception of the criteria used for its definition (imbalance of power, intention, repetition, anonymity and publicity) in three different European countries: Italy, Spain and Germany. Seventy adolescents took part in nine focus groups, using the same interview guide across countries. Thematic analysis focused on three main themes related to: (1) the term used to label cyberbullying, (2) the different behaviours representing cyberbullying, (3) the three traditional criteria of intentionality, imbalance of power and repetition and the two new criteria of anonymity and publicity. Results showed that the best word to label cyberbullying is ‘cyber-mobbing’ (in Germany), ‘virtual’ or ‘cyber-bullying’ (in Italy), and ‘harassment’ or ‘harassment via Internet or mobile phone’ (in Spain). Impersonation cannot be considered wholly as cyberbullying behaviour. In order to define a cyberbullying act, adolescents need to know whether the action was done intentionally to harm the victim, the effect on the victim and the repetition of the action (this latter criterion evaluated simultaneously with the publicity). Information about the anonymity and publicity contributes to better understand the nature and the severity of the act, the potential effects on the victim and the intentionality.
Citation: Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E. (2010). Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviours and definition in three European countries. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 129-142.
Author(s): Jäger, T., Amado, J., Matos, A., & Pessoa, T.
Title: Analysis of Experts’ and Trainers’ Views on Cyberbullying.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: Partners from nine European countries developed a cyberbullying training manual for the benefit of trainers working with parents, school staff and young people.1 The development of the training manual built on a two-level qualitative research process that combined elements of the Delphi method and online focus groups. The two studies outlined in this article aimed to assess trainers’ and experts’ views on the problem of cyberbullying while also gathering insight in relation to their preferences in terms of a training manual. This article outlines the main outcomes of a content analysis of experts’ and trainers’ views. According to experts and trainers, the sources of cyberbullying were specifically related to new technical developments and new patterns of usage, a lack of media literacy and media education, and the lack of appropriate laws, control and reporting mechanisms. Approaches for tackling cyberbullying suggested by experts and trainers included the provision of enhanced information on ICT and e-safety, adequate rules, monitoring mechanisms and sanctions. Furthermore a range of approaches targeting children and young people, parents and other adults, schools as well as approaches run by authorities and IT providers were suggested. In terms of the elements and style of a training manual, experts and trainers emphasised that it should be practically oriented, and that elements like narratives, case examples or video clips would be vital for the implementation of training.
Citation: Jäger, T., Amado, J., Matos, A., & Pessoa, T. (2010). Analysis of Experts’ and Trainers’ Views on Cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 169-181.
Author(s): Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Calmaestra, J., & Vega, E.
Title: The emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying and cyberbullying: A study of Spanish adolescents.
Journal: Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology
Abstract: We examine the emotional impact caused to victims of bullying in its traditional form, both directly and indirectly, as well as bullying inflicted by use of new technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 1,671 adolescents and young people responded to a questionnaire which asked if they had been victims of various forms of bullying, as well as the emotions this caused. The results show that although traditional bullying affected significantly more young people than cyberbullying, the latter affected one in ten adolescents. Analysis of the emotions caused showed that traditional bullying produced a wide variety of impacts, with the victims being divided into five different emotional categories, while indirect bullying and cyberbullying presented a narrower variety of results with the victims being classifiable into just two groups: Those who said that they had not been emotionally affected and those who simultaneously suffered from a wide variety of negative emotions. The influence of age, gender, and severity on each emotional category is also analyzed.
Citation: Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Calmaestra, J., & Vega, E. (2009). The emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying and cyberbullying: A study of Spanish adolescents. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 197-204.