Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Korea, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Kim, J., Lee, Y., and Jennings, W. G.
Title: A Path from Traditional Bullying to Cyberbullying in South Korea: Examining the Roles of Self-Control and Deviant Peer Association in the Different Forms of Bullying
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: Despite a recent growth in studies on cyberbullying, extant knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying remain limited. The objective of the present study is to explore the dynamics of cyberbullying via traditional bullying, self-control, and delinquent peer association. Specifically, the following hypotheses guide the present study: (1) traditional bullying, low self-control, and delinquent peer association are predictive of cyberbullying, respectively, (2) the interaction between traditional bullying and low self-control has a significant impact on cyberbullying, and (3) the interaction between traditional bullying and delinquent peer association has a significant impact on cyberbullying. The present study relies on five waves of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (KYPS), a representative sample of South Korean adolescents. Data collection occurred annually and respondents were 14 years old at the first wave in 2003. KYPS is an almost gender-equal and racially/ethnically homogenous sample. Results of cross-lagged dynamic panel models show (1) significant effects of traditional bullying on cyberbullying with and without low self-control and delinquent peer affiliation, (2) the respective roles of self-control and delinquent peer association in the prediction of cyberbullying, and (3) an interaction effect between low self-control and traditional bullying on cyberbullying. These findings demonstrate the theoretical validity of self-control theory and social learning theory in online delinquent behavior as well as confirm their cross-cultural generalizability in a non-Western sample. The findings also highlight the importance of investing in early life-course prevention/intervention programs and policies to prevent and/or reduce the occurrence of bullying, regardless of whether it is being perpetrated face-to-face or online, and these programs and policies should also target components to improve self-control and reduce delinquent peer associations.
Authors: Lee, S., Song, H., and Park, J. H.
Title: Exploring Risk and Protective Factors for Cyberbullying and Their Interplay: Evidence from a Sample of South Korean College Students
Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Abstract: This study explored risk and protective factors for cyberbullying perpetration and examined whether they independently and interactively predicted cyberbullying perpetration. Based on key propositions of micro-level theories of crime and delinquency, we adopted two risk factors, cyberbullying victimization and association with cyberbullying peers, and two protective factors, morality and self-control. Using a sample of South Korean college students (N = 244; 112 women (45.9%), 132 men (54.1%); Mean (age) = 22), we found that the two risk factors were positively associated with cyberbullying perpetration, while only one of the two protective factors, which is morality, had a negative relationship with cyberbullying perpetration. In addition, the two protective factors partially buffered the effects of both risk factors on cyberbullying perpetration. The implications and limitations of these findings were also discussed.
Authors: PARK, M.S.-A., GOLDEN, K.J. VIZCAINO-VICKERS, S., JIDONG, D., and RAJ, S.
Title: Sociocultural values, attitudes and risk factors associated with adolescent cyberbullying in East Asia: a systematic review.
Journal: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace
Abstract: Cyberbullying amongst adolescents is a rapidly growing and alarming global phenomenon that can significantly harm their well-being. Studying cyberbullying in East Asia is especially important, where peer pressure based on collectivistic ideals and rigid cultural scripts for social interactions remain strong. Furthermore, the countries represented in this review are amongst the top globally for internet usage, suggesting that adolescents in East Asia are likely to be excessive users of social media communication and be more exposed to various forms of cyberbullying. This systematic review summarizes findings from peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on cyberbullying amongst adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 in East Asian countries (N = 21). SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant work published between 2008 and 2020. Search strategies involved using keywords related to cyberbullying, adolescents, East Asia, and the name of each country represented in the region (China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan). Key factors associated with cyberbullying specific to adolescents in this region are identified and discussed in this review, such as gender socialization patterns and literacy with digital media communication, emphasis on academic achievement and school factors, urban-rural digital divide, relationship with parents and teachers, and collectivistic values. The present review highlights the need to pay further attention to the sociocultural context in future cyberbullying research and calls for more context-specific cyberbullying prevention programs and awareness initiatives.
Authors: Choi, E., and Park, N.
Title: Can Online Education Programs Solve the Cyberbullying Problem? Educating South Korean Elementary Students in the COVID-19 Era
Journal: Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development
Abstract: Due to the COVID-19 lockdown, public education has been forced to hold classes online, which increases the time students are on the internet at home. While this situation has significantly reduced the incidence of physical violence between students, cyberbullying has increased sharply, even among younger students. This paper examines a program developed to educate elementary school students on how to best respond to cyberbullying—a social issue that hinders the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDGs). The program was applied to students, and the educational effects were tracked. First, we analyzed education programs in South Korea and the United States that teach students how to cope with cyberbullying, extracted characteristic parts, and developed the online education program in accordance with the current situation in South Korea. Next, we conducted an online education preference survey through an independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. As a result, regardless of gender and grade, most study subjects preferred online education. In addition, we conducted a paired sample t-test to determine the prevention and response effects of suggested online education programs. According to the test, the study subjects experienced less cyberbullying and victimization after participating in the online education program. Additional benefits were the students’ increased ability to defend against cyberbullying and a decreased need for defenders and assistants in warding off the cyberbullies.
Author: Yoo, C.
Title: What are the characteristics of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among South Korean students and how do their experiences change?
Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
Abstract: Increasing use of online network has a positive impact on the psychosocial development of adolescents, but at the same time has a negative impact such as cyberbullying. Yet, research on the characteristics of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in adolescence is limited, despite its potential importance to provide adequate implications for adolescent protection. We aimed to clarify latent classes characterized by cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, and to examine what factors predict the latent classes of the cyberbullying trajectories. The study included 3656 students (13–18 years) who had information about cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. The data was taken from the Seoul Education Longitudinal Study. Latent class growth analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to identify patterns of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Cyberbullying victimization patterns were identified: high risk increasing (n = 144, 3.9 %), transient (n = 219, 6.0 %), and low risk group (n = 3293, 90.1 %). Cyberbullying perpetration pattern were identified: mid risk maintaining (n = 115, 3.1 %), low risk (n = 3474, 95.0 %), and transient group (n = 67, 1.8 %). Regression results indicate that female students, students with high self-esteem, and more support from parents and friends experience less cyberbullying. Perpetration experience increases the risk of cyberbullying victimization, whereas victimization experience increases the risk of cyberbullying perpetration. Adolescents experience distinct patterns of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration based on the individual and social support factors. This study provides important implications that characteristics of subgroups should be considered for interventions in cyberbullying.
Authors: Song, H., Lee, Y., and Kim, J.
Title: Gender Differences in the Link Between Cyberbullying and Parental Supervision Trajectories
Journal: Crime and Delinquency
Abstract: This study aims to explore joint trajectories of parental supervision and cyberbullying for boys and girls, respectively. Drawing on a longitudinal sample of South Korean youth, we employ a latent group-based trajectory modeling approach to examine overlapping patterns of parental supervision and cyberbullying trajectories, and gender differences in the bivariate overlap. We found that boys with higher levels of parental supervision were more likely to be in the Noninvolved cyberbullying group, whereas girls with the highest level of parental supervision tended to engage in cyberbullying at an early age but soon desisted from it after the initial involvement. Results suggest that effects of parental supervision on cyberbullying may vary across gender.
Authors: Cross, D., Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Monks, H.
Title: Understanding and preventing cyberbullying: where have we been and where should we be going?
Journal: Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives
Abstract: This book contributes to an understanding of cyberbullying, its nature, harmful effects, and correlates of this behavior as it affects young people. Many previous publications on cyberbullying have focused on studies in North America. However, in this book we have presented findings from eleven countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, England, Finland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, South Korea, and the United States. By providing a range of cultural perspectives, this collection of research aims to contribute new knowledge about the cross-cultural issues relevant to cyberbullying, and the generality or specificity of findings. Beyond that, we hope to develop more effective strategies to prevent and reduce harm from cyberbullying. This chapter discusses some issues arising from the research presented in the twelve empirical studies in this book, and considers the implications of this and other relevant research for the design, development, and evaluation of cyberbullying interventions.
Author(s): Song, J., & Oh, I.
Title: Factors influencing bystanders’ behavioral reactions in cyberbullying situations
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiential, psychological, and situational factors influencing behavioral reactions of bystanders witnessing cyberbullying. It also investigated whether the ‘bystander effect’ is valid in cyberbullying situations. In addition, a moderation effect of the presence of other bystanders was examined between various influencing factors and bystander’s defending tendency. A total of 1058 middle and high school students in metropolitan areas participated in the study, and the experiences of 331 students who have witnessed cyberbullying were analyzed. First, four types of bystanders were found: outsiders were the majority (n=201, 60.7%), followed by defenders (n=101, 30.5%), reinforcers (n=18, 5.4%), and assistants (n=11, 3.3%). Second, bystanders demonstrated more defending behaviors in the absence of other bystanders, thereby validating the ‘bystander effect’ in cyberbullying situations. Third, low moral disengagement, low anti-social conformity, high perceived control of the situation and bad relationship with bullies were identified as significant predictors of a bystander’s defending tendency. Finally, the presence of other bystanders moderated the effect between moral disengagement and the bystander’s defending tendency in relation to bullies. The implications of these results for the effective prevention and intervention of cyberbullying are discussed.
Author(s): Lee, J. M., Hong, J. S., Yoon, J., Peguero, A. A., & Seok, H. J.
Title: Correlates of Adolescent Cyberbullying in South Korea in Multiple Contexts: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Research and School Practice
Journal: Deviant Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying is rapidly increasing in South Korea. The present article reviews research on factors associated with cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in South Korea. Study findings suggest a number of factors within individual, family, peer, and school levels. Relations with parents, parental verbal abuse, and a lack of attachment are related to perpetration. Delinquent peer association is positively associated with perpetration and victimization, and students’ school satisfaction is negatively associated with this victimization. Adolescents’ use of social networking sites and social media and lack of rules in cyberspace are found to increase perpetration and victimization. Research and practice implications are discussed.
Author(s): Lee, J. Y., Kwon, Y., Yang, S., Park, S., Kim, E. M., & Na, E. Y.
Title: Differences in Friendship Networks and Experiences of Cyberbullying among Korean and Australian Adolescents
Journal: The Journal of genetic psychology
Abstract: Cyberbullying is one of the negative consequences of online social interaction. The digital environment enables adolescents to engage in online social interaction beyond the traditional physical boundaries of families, neighborhoods, and schools. The authors examined connections to friendship networks in both online and offline settings are related to their experiences as victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyberbullying. A comparative face-to-face survey of adolescents (12–15-year-olds) was conducted in Korea (n= 520) and Australia (n= 401). The results reveal that online networks are partially related to cyberbullying in both countries, showing the size of social network sites was significantly correlated with experience cyberbullying among adolescents in both countries. However there were cultural differences in the impact of friendship networks on cyberbullying. The size of the online and offline networks has a stronger impact on the cyberbullying experiences in Korea than it does in Australia. In particular, the number of friends in cliques was positively related to both bullying and victimization in Korea.
Author(s): Lee, C., & Shin, N.
Title: Prevalence of cyberbullying and predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among Korean adolescents
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying and factors in cyberbullying perpetration with a national sample of 4000 adolescents selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. The respondents were 2166 boys (54.1%) and 1834 girls (45.9%) in 7th–12th grades at 24 middle and 24 high schools across South Korea. Statistical analyses of the survey data are summarized as follows. First, 34% of the respondent students were involved in cyberbullying as bullies (6.3%), victims (14.6%), or both bullies and victims (13.1%). Boys had a higher percentage of cyberbullying perpetration than girls. Second, variables for time spent on chat services and Social Network Services (SNS), the experience of being cyberbullied, and offline bullying perpetration tended to increase the probability of students being perpetrators of cyberbullying. However, the cognitive empathy variable contributed to decreased cyberbullying perpetration behaviors. Third, the variables of parental attachment and satisfaction with school life had little impact on perpetration of cyberbullying. These results were discussed to improve the understanding of the characteristics of cyberbullying among Korean adolescents and the youth population in general, while providing educators and researchers information on cyberbullying with practical consideration to its prevention.
Author(s): Kim, J., Song, H., & Jennings, W. G.
Title: A Distinct Form of Deviance or a Variation of Bullying? Examining the Developmental Pathways and Motives of Cyberbullying Compared With Traditional Bullying in South Korea
Journal: Crime & Delinquency
Abstract: Cyberbullying has been subject to a debate about whether it is a subtype of traditional bullying or a distinct deviant behavior from traditional bullying. Applying a longitudinal South Korean youth sample and latent group-based trajectory modeling, the current study examines (a) an overlap of developmental trajectories between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, and (b) effects of predictors on developmental trajectory groups for both cyberbullying and traditional bullying. It is concluded that cyberbullying is close to a variation of bullying rather than a distinct deviant behavior and reported an overlap of developmental trajectories between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, and strong associations between both forms of bullying and peer-related predictors. Policy implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Author(s): You, S., & Lim, S. A.
Title: Longitudinal predictors of cyberbullying perpetration: Evidence from Korean middle school students
Journal: Personality and Individual Differences
Abstract: Cyberbullying perpetration is a recent phenomenon that has become an increasingly serious social problem in Korea. This study examined the long-term effects of individual and psychological factors on cyberbullying perpetration from a sample of 3449 middle school students. Logistic regression analyses were employed in order to understand how various factors influence youth cyberbullying perpetration experiences. The findings indicated that longer use of the Internet, more previous bullying and victim experiences, a higher aggression level, and lack of self-control are associated with more cyberbullying perpetration. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Author(s): Jung, Y. E., Leventhal, B., Kim, Y. S., Park, T. W., Lee, S. H., Lee, M., … & Park, J. I.
Title: Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth
Journal: Yonsei medical journal
Abstract: To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.