Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Singapore, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.

Authors: Ong, S. H., Tan, Y. R., Khong, J. Z. N., Elliot, J. M., Sourander, A., and Fung, D. S. S.

Year: 2021

Title: Psychosocial Difficulties and Help-Seeking Behaviors in Singapore Adolescents Involved in Cyberbullying

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking


Abstract: Bullying through online medium has afflicted many adolescents to cause severe mental health concerns, including self-harm and suicide. The aims of this study are to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying in Singapore adolescents, its associations with psychosocial difficulties, and how do the adolescents seek help after being cybervictimized. A representative sample of 3,319 school students aged between 12 and 17 years responded to a survey with scales measuring cyberbullying, psychosocial difficulties, and help-seeking behaviors. In the present study, 7.3 percent of adolescents reported being cybervictims only, 1.8 percent were cyberbullies only, and 4.8 percent were cyberbully-victims. Compared with the non-involved group, both cybervictim and cyberbully-victim groups were associated with more internalizing problems, but all the three cyberbullying-involved groups were associated with higher externalizing problems. Approximately half of the cybervictimized participants reported that they have sought help, with most of them (81.7 percent) choosing to tell their friends. Our findings are consistent with previous overseas studies showing increased associations of psychosocial difficulties among adolescents who are involved in cyberbullying. Public awareness of the consequences of unhealthy cyber-usage could be raised to aid in the early detection of cyberbullying among school children and adolescents. Moreover, cyberwellness programs should be considered as a component of larger anti-bullying programs in schools and in the community.

Authors: Lee, J., Cheung, H.S., Chee, C., and Chai, V.E.

Year: 2021

Title: The Moderating Roles of Empathy and Attachment on the Association Between Latent Class Typologies of Bullying Involvement and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Singapore

Journal: School Mental Health


Abstract: Bullying involvement tends to bring about greater mental health problems among school-aged youths, and research suggests that empathy and attachment may play crucial roles in mitigating these adverse consequences. However, little is known about how different types of bullying involvement continue to contribute to mental health in higher education. This study fills the knowledge gap by examining how empathy and attachment moderate the relationship between the patterns of bullying involvement and depressive and anxiety symptoms among Singaporean university students. A total of 835 students (aged 21–24) from a public university completed an online survey. Using latent class analysis, a four-class typology was uncovered, consisting of high/multiple bully–victims, cyberbully–victims, relational and verbal victims, and persons uninvolved in bullying involvement. Multiple regression analyses showed that high/multiple bully–victims, cyberbully–victims, and relational and verbal victims tended to experience elevated depressive or anxiety symptoms compared to those who were uninvolved. Two 2-way interactions involving empathy and attachment were found: Compared to the uninvolved, being high/multiple bully–victims and having low empathy were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, and being cyberbully–victims with poor peer attachment was linked to greater anxiety symptoms. These differences in anxiety between the uninvolved and high/multiple and cyberbully–victims were non-significant at medium and high levels of empathy and at high levels of peer attachment, respectively. In order to improve the mental health of school-aged youths, practitioners should employ not only specific bullying prevention–intervention programs but also empathy- and peer-based programs.

Authors: Ruiz, R. M. N. M.

Year: 2018

Title: Curbing Cyberbullying Among Students: A Comparative Analysis of Existing Laws Among Selected Asian Countries

Journal: PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences


Abstract: Last 2013, the Philippines approved the Anti-Bullying law, which covered cyberbullying. However, a 2015 study revealed that 80% of filipino teenagers aged 13 to 16 are still experiencing cyberbullying (Takumi, 2016). This paper attempted to compare existing laws on cyberbullying among selected ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. It also aims to identify each country’s anti-cyberbullying measures that might fit other ASEAN countries’ needs. To achieve its purposes, it used a qualitative research with the following primary methods: discourse analysis of cyberbullying laws and alternative strategies addressing said concern; and literature review of online journals, online publications, and online news articles. The study revealed that the Philippines is the only ASEAN country with a cyberbullying law that addresses the students, while other countries have alternative strategies in addressing the issue. Further, it found that cyberbullying is experienced by individuals aged 6 to 30 through Facebook and Twitter. The study suggests that the government should require schools to develop specific and consistent policies that would address this concern; and a curriculum that promotes digital responsibility. Finally, parents are encouraged to educate their children on ethical values, particularly in the digital world.

Author(s): Holt, T. J., Fitzgerald, S., Bossler, A. M., Chee, G., & Ng, E.

Year: 2014

Title: Assessing the risk factors of cyber and mobile phone bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of Singapore youth

Journal: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology


Abstract: This study utilized routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore. Key measures in all three categories — access to technology, online routine behaviors, and target suitability — were significant predictors of both forms of bullying victimization. In particular, females and victims of physical bullying were more likely to experience both forms of victimization. Access to technology and online routine behaviors predicted cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization differently. These findings demonstrate that routine activity theory is a viable framework to understand online bullying in non-Western nations, consistent with the existing literature on Western nations.

Author(s): Ang, R. P., Huan, V. S., & Florell, D.

Year: 2013

Title: Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

Journal: Journal of interpersonal violence


Abstract: This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates—only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

Author(s): Kwan, G. C. E., & Skoric, M. M.

Year: 2013

Title: Facebook bullying: An extension of battles in school.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: This study examines the phenomenon of cyberbullying on Facebook and how it is related to school bullying among secondary school students in Singapore, aged 13–17. We also focus on generic use of Facebook and risky Facebook behaviors as the predictors of cyberbullying and victimization on Facebook. 1676 secondary students, from two secondary schools, participated in a pen and paper survey. The findings show that the intensity of Facebook use and engagement in risky Facebook behaviors were related to Facebook victimization and Facebook bullying, respectively. Moderately strong positive relationships between school bullying and Facebook bullying, as well as between school victimization and Facebook victimization, were also uncovered.

Author(s): Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H.

Year: 2010

Title: Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender.

Journal: Child Psychiatry and Human Development


Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and gender on cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants were 396 adolescents from Singapore with age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents responded to a survey with scales measuring both affective and cognitive empathy, and cyberbullying behavior. A three-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used with cyberbullying scores as the dependent variable. Gender was dummy coded and both affective and cognitive empathy were centered using the sample mean prior to creating interaction terms and entering them into the regression equations. The testing, probing and interpretation of interaction effects followed established statistical procedures. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated a significant three-way interaction. At low affective empathy, both boys and girls who also had low cognitive empathy had higher scores on cyberbullying than those who had high cognitive empathy. This pattern of results was similarly found for boys at high affective empathy. However, for girls, high or low levels of cognitive empathy resulted in similar levels of cyberbullying. Implications of these findings include the need for empathy training and the importance of positive caregiver-child relationships in reducing cyberbullying behavior among adolescents.

Author(s): Ang, R. P., Tan, K. A., & Mansor, A. T.

Year: 2010

Title: Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence


Abstract: The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.