Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Singapore, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Ruiz, R. M. N. M.
Title: Curbing Cyberbullying Among Students: A Comparative Analysis of Existing Laws Among Selected Asian Countries
Journal: PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences
Abstract: Last 2013, the Philippines approved the Anti-Bullying law, which covered cyberbullying. However, a 2015 study revealed that 80% of filipino teenagers aged 13 to 16 are still experiencing cyberbullying (Takumi, 2016). This paper attempted to compare existing laws on cyberbullying among selected ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. It also aims to identify each country’s anti-cyberbullying measures that might fit other ASEAN countries’ needs. To achieve its purposes, it used a qualitative research with the following primary methods: discourse analysis of cyberbullying laws and alternative strategies addressing said concern; and literature review of online journals, online publications, and online news articles. The study revealed that the Philippines is the only ASEAN country with a cyberbullying law that addresses the students, while other countries have alternative strategies in addressing the issue. Further, it found that cyberbullying is experienced by individuals aged 6 to 30 through Facebook and Twitter. The study suggests that the government should require schools to develop specific and consistent policies that would address this concern; and a curriculum that promotes digital responsibility. Finally, parents are encouraged to educate their children on ethical values, particularly in the digital world.
Citation: Ruiz, R. M. N. M. (2018). Curbing Cyberbullying Among Students: A Comparative Analysis of Existing Laws Among Selected Asian Countries. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3).
Author(s): Holt, T. J., Fitzgerald, S., Bossler, A. M., Chee, G., & Ng, E.
Title: Assessing the risk factors of cyber and mobile phone bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of Singapore youth
Journal: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology
Abstract: This study utilized routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore. Key measures in all three categories — access to technology, online routine behaviors, and target suitability — were significant predictors of both forms of bullying victimization. In particular, females and victims of physical bullying were more likely to experience both forms of victimization. Access to technology and online routine behaviors predicted cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization differently. These findings demonstrate that routine activity theory is a viable framework to understand online bullying in non-Western nations, consistent with the existing literature on Western nations.
Citation: Holt, T. J., Fitzgerald, S., Bossler, A. M., Chee, G., & Ng, E. (2014). Assessing the risk factors of cyber and mobile phone bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of Singapore youth. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology,
Author(s): Ang, R. P., Huan, V. S., & Florell, D.
Title: Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.
Journal: Journal of interpersonal violence
Abstract: This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates—only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.
Citation: Ang, R. P., Huan, V. S., & Florell, D. (2013). Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(2):237-54
Author(s): Kwan, G. C. E., & Skoric, M. M.
Title: Facebook bullying: An extension of battles in school.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: This study examines the phenomenon of cyberbullying on Facebook and how it is related to school bullying among secondary school students in Singapore, aged 13–17. We also focus on generic use of Facebook and risky Facebook behaviors as the predictors of cyberbullying and victimization on Facebook. 1676 secondary students, from two secondary schools, participated in a pen and paper survey. The findings show that the intensity of Facebook use and engagement in risky Facebook behaviors were related to Facebook victimization and Facebook bullying, respectively. Moderately strong positive relationships between school bullying and Facebook bullying, as well as between school victimization and Facebook victimization, were also uncovered.
Citation: Kwan, G. C. E., & Skoric, M. M. (2013). Facebook bullying: An extension of battles in school. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 16-25.
Author(s): Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H.
Title: Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender.
Journal: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and gender on cyberbullying among adolescents. Participants were 396 adolescents from Singapore with age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Adolescents responded to a survey with scales measuring both affective and cognitive empathy, and cyberbullying behavior. A three-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used with cyberbullying scores as the dependent variable. Gender was dummy coded and both affective and cognitive empathy were centered using the sample mean prior to creating interaction terms and entering them into the regression equations. The testing, probing and interpretation of interaction effects followed established statistical procedures. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated a significant three-way interaction. At low affective empathy, both boys and girls who also had low cognitive empathy had higher scores on cyberbullying than those who had high cognitive empathy. This pattern of results was similarly found for boys at high affective empathy. However, for girls, high or low levels of cognitive empathy resulted in similar levels of cyberbullying. Implications of these findings include the need for empathy training and the importance of positive caregiver-child relationships in reducing cyberbullying behavior among adolescents.
Citation: Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 41(4), 387-397.
Author(s): Ang, R. P., Tan, K. A., & Mansor, A. T.
Title: Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.
Citation: Ang, R. P., Tan, K. A., & Mansor, A. T. (2010). Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(13), 2619–2634.