Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Pakistan, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others. 



Authors: Iqbal, S., and Jami, H.

Year: 2022

Title: Exploring Definition of Cyberbullying and its Forms From the Perspective of Adolescents Living in Pakistan

Journal: Psychological Studies


Abstract: There exists a great disparity in the literature on the definition of cyberbullying. This research aimed to explore the definition and forms of cyberbullying from adolescents’ perspectives. Six focus groups (N = 36) were conducted with participants aged 16–21 years (M = 17.6, SD = 1.8). The focus group guide was used to gain an understanding of adolescents’ perceptions and experiences of cyberbullying. The thematic analysis revealed that, contrary to the literature, participants do not apply traditional bullying definition (intention, repetition, and power imbalance) to cyberbullying. They argue about the relevance of traditional bullying criteria in certain contexts. For example, they stressed upon the perception of the victim, if the victim perceives something emotionally damaging, then intention, repetition and power imbalance become completely irrelevant. Memes and cybermobs were also found to be novel forms of cyberbullying. The current research extends the literature by adding adolescents’ perceived definitions and novel forms of cyberbullying.



Authors: Saleem, S., Khan, N.F., and Zafar, S.

Year: 2021

Title: Prevalence of cyberbullying victimization among Pakistani Youth

Journal: Technology in Society


Abstract: Cyberbullying has seen an exponential increase in the education sector in recent years. With most of the literature originating from the developed and/or western countries, there is a dearth of reported studies in different social-cultural settings of the developing countries. In this context, the present study measures cyberbullying victimization amongst university students in Pakistan. The targeted population was six universities in the Sindh province. The data was collected using Cyberbullying Scale, employing the multistage stratified sampling technique. The study was carried out on a sample of 273 students in the age bracket of 18–25 years to ascertain cyberbullying differences in terms of demographics, digital divide, and socioeconomic variables. The results show that cyberbullying is prevalent in the country. Substantial differences were found with respect to languages, access to the Internet, and socioeconomic status with small effect sizes. However, no significant difference was found with respect to gender, age, and the area they belong to (urban or rural). The results of the study imply that there is a need for support centers in academic settings to deal with the cyberbullying situation. These centers should develop and implement anti-bullying interventions. They should also increase student awarness of preventive measures and coping strategies.



Authors: Jami, H., Masood, S., Ashraf, F., Kanwal, H., Iqbal, S. and Bibi, R.

Year: 2021

Title: Conceptualizing Cyberbullying Victimization Prevention Among Pakistani Youth

Journal: [couldn’t find]


Abstract: Globally, where increased exposure to information and communication technology (ICT) has improved youth’s efficacy in using technology and internet, it is also posing unique challenges and threat to mental health of youth in context of cyberbullying victimization. Out of 207.0 million population in Pakistan, 64% of is below 30 years (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 2017; UNDP, 2017). Mobile users are 183.20 million; 46.4% is broadband penetration; while internet subscribers are 100.67 million (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, 2021). COVID-19 pandemic has increased internet exposure manifold for school-going and university students. Being avid user of internet, Pakistani youth needs immediate attention for guided and appropriate use of technology and internet to capitalise upon their internet efficacy and enjoy latest technological advancements without fear of being victimised in cyberspace. This symposium is based on four independent studies that provide insight about underlying dynamics of cyberbullying victimization among youth. These helped in conceptualising a prevention program to curb cybervictimization among Pakistani youth, which is in the process of implementation. A few findings of these studies are shared and discussed in cultural context. Findings reveal that online risky behaviours, personality traits like being callous and unemotional, lacking in empathy, and moral disengagement are behind risky and unethical practices in cyberspace that pave way to cyberbullying victimization. Internet efficacy for ethical use of internet; awareness of law related to electronic/cybercrimes; whom and how to report experiences related to cyberbullying victimization; and role of parents have been highlighted that are incorporated in prevention program later.



Authors: Muhammad, Y., Akhter, M. mumtaz., & Lala,

Year: 2019

Title: Exploring Online Peer Harassment Experiences of Female University Students: A Qualitative Study

Journal: Journal of Educational Research


Abstract: In the recent decade, there has been an increase in the use of the internet in Pakistan, and increasingly more female students are using it to communicate with others. However, female students are also facing disproportional harassment via the internet. This study aimed to explore female university students’ experiences related to online harassment victimization, bystander behavior, and perpetration. This study was conducted in a private university in Pakistan, and a basic qualitative study research design was used. Semi-structured- interviews were conducted with 14 graduate and postgraduate students to gather the meaning these participants gave or extracted from the online peer harassment experiences. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. All data related to fourteen participants were coded. Clustering similar codes helped in identifying sub-categories from data. Several assertions were developed by comparing and contrasting various categories and sub-categories. Analysis of the data revealed that all the participants had been victims of online harassment. Moreover, all participants had witnessed online harassment as a bystander. However, they did not interfere considering others’ matters, especially when the person causing the problem was unknown to them for fear of harassment. Interestingly, some of them had also been a perpetrator of online harassment. This study has helped in developing an understanding of the prevalence of cyber-bullying and online harassment among female university students using a small sample. The knowledge produced can help us in developing a digital citizenship curriculum, which is a tool to prepare students for using the technology in a positive and informative way so that female university students’ online experiences can be made better.



Authors: Batool, S., Yousaf, R., & Batool, F.

Year: 2017

Title: Bullying in Social Media: An Effect Study of Cyber Bullying on the Youth

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Criminology


Abstract: This research study seeks to investigate bullying in social media and its effects on youth to extract the factors that have influence on their state of mind, academic performance. The survey research under the umbrella of Online Disinhibition Effect approach revealed that the youngsters, both girls and boys, in Pakistan get involved as well as becomes a target via cyber bullying. Moreover, the study concluded that cyber bullying affects the psyche of youth that result in negative consequences on academic performance, emotional disturbance and gaps in relationship. The results showed that there is also a significant gender difference and girls are more likely to be sufferers and more affected via cyberbullying as compared to boys.