Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in New Zealand, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.



Authors: Vismara, M., Girone, N., Conti, D., Nicolini, G., and Dell’Osso, B.

Year: 2022

Title: The current status of Cyberbullying research: a short review of the literature

Journal: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences


Abstract: The present review will provide an up-to-date discussion of the latest in Cyberbullying (CBB) research. First, the conceptualization will be addressed, focusing on existing definitions and assessment tools. Considering the Internet as the medium of CBB, the affinity with other problematic behaviors conducted online is noted and we debated whether to consider CBB as a mental condition. Data on prevalence and people at risk will be reported, picturing the distribution of this phenomenon, but also the limitations of current epidemiological studies. More solid data that investigated the consequences of CBB on the mental health of victims and perpetrators will be discussed. Last, prevention and treatment strategies will be suggested according to literature evidence. Despite the fact that the number of studies on CBB has surged in the last few years, numerous limitations still exist and these will be addressed in the ‘Conclusion’ section as future research priorities.



Authors: Houkamau, C., Satherley, N., Stronge, S., Wolfgramm, R., Dell, K., Mika, J., Newth, J., and Sibley, C.G.

Year: 2021

Title: Cyberbullying Toward Māori Is Rife in New Zealand: Incidences and Demographic Differences in Experiences of Cyberbullying Among Māori

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking


Abstract: Previous research on cyberbullying has focused almost entirely on examining its prevalence among dominant ethnic populations, leaving it unclear how common cyberbullying is among indigenous peoples. Our study draws on a large sample of Māori adults aged 18–83 years (n = 6,529) who completed the questionnaire-based Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study in 2017. We analyzed reports of cyberbullying according to demographic characteristics, namely gender, age, sexual orientation, and multiple ethnic affiliations. On average, 19.3 percent of participants reported ever experiencing cyberbullying, and 4.1 percent reported experiencing cyberbullying within the past month. Young adults (aged 18–25) experienced the most, and incidences progressively declined among older cohorts. Women and those identifying as a minority sexual orientation reported higher rates of cyberbullying than men and heterosexuals. Those identifying as Māori as one of their multiple ethnicities reported higher rates of cyberbullying than those who identified as Māori only. Together, these findings provide a detailed investigation of the prevalence of cyberbullying in a large national indigenous sample. Previous data show that cyberbullying is common among adolescents and adults in New Zealand; however, our data indicate an even higher prevalence among the Māori. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed in light of Māori mental health outcomes.



Authors: Lozano-Blasco, R., Cortés-Pascual, A., and Latorre-Martínez, M.P.

Year: 2020

Title: Being a cybervictim and a cyberbully – The duality of cyberbullying: A meta-analysis

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: Cyberbullying has been established as a serious problem that affects all countries. However, the phenomenon of duality in cyberbullying, whereby an individual assumes two completely opposite roles, i.e., being a cybervictim and a cyberbully at the same time, has not been sufficiently examined in depth. The study population of this meta-analysis of 22 studies (K = 27) comprised 47,836 adolescents whose mean age was 13.68 years. The effect size of the correlation between being both a cybervictim and a cyberbully was moderate-high (r = 0.428), and its significance was high (p<0.001). The moderator variables sex, age and culture were studied by meta-regression; only culture was found to be significant, explaining 66% of the variance (R2 = 66%). It was found in the data that Central European, Mediterranean culture, North American, South America and Asian culture in particular accounted for most of the moderator effect, while the other two variables were insignificant. The systematic review showed that the group of cyberbully-victims was chiefly formed by females with unstable family links (laissez-faire parental style, lack of communication and rules, offensive communication with parents). Lack of clear, appropriate rules and behavioural patterns in this family type reinforces problematic Internet use, which in turn increases the risk of individuals in this group becoming cybervictims. Longitudinal studies have revealed a series of grave problems and a relation between reporting being a cybervictim in the first survey waves and becoming a cyberbully in later waves. The cybervictim-bully population also proved to be more prone to suffer other psychological disorders (depression and anxiety) and emotional difficulties with peers.



Author(s): Fenaughty, J., & Harré, N.

Year: 2013

Title: Factors associated with distressing electronic harassment and cyberbullying.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: Electronic harassment and cyberbullying can take various forms and involve a range of perpetrators. This study utilised survey results from 1673 New Zealand students aged 12–19 years to explore electronic harassment on the internet and mobile phones and the distress associated with it. Overall, a third of participants reported electronic harassment in the prior year, with half (53.7%) rating it as distressing. Specific hypotheses and findings were that: mobile phone harassment would be more common and distressing than internet harassment, this was supported with 7% more participants reporting mobile phone harassment and 5.5% more reporting distress from it compared to internet harassment; females would report more harassment than males, this was supported for mobile phone harassment as females’ odds of harassment was approximately twice that of males (however the hypothesis did not hold for internet harassment); females would report more distress from harassment, this was supported for both internet and mobile phone harassment, with females’ odds of distress approximately twice as high as males; that some forms and perpetrators would be associated with more distress than others, again this was supported with the most distressing form of mobile phone harassment being direct verbal aggression and for harassment on the internet being rumour spreading. The study also found a preponderance of harassment from school peers. As predicted there were multiple interactions between the harassment forms and perpetrators and gender. These results highlight important differences in how harassment is delivered and experienced across the mobile phone and internet modalities. The findings point to the need to explicitly consider mobile phone harassment, as well as better ways to tailor interventions to address distressing harassment. Schools are well placed to address electronic harassment alongside other bullying interventions.