Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Malaysia, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.

Authors: Krishanu Maity; Shaubhik Bhattacharya; Sriparna Saha; Manjeevan Seera

Year: 2023


Title: A Deep Learning Framework for the Detection of Malay Hate Speech

Journal: IEEE Access

Abstract: Although social media can efficiently disseminate information, they also facilitate the dissemination of online abuse, harassment, and hate speech. In 2019, United Nations Secretary-General introduced the United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech in response to the alarming global trend of rising hate speech. It is crucial to prevent hate speech because it can have severe negative effects on both individuals and society. While much research has been conducted on detecting online hate speech in English, little research has been conducted in other languages, such as Malay. In this paper, we present the first benchmark dataset HateM for detecting hate speech in Malay, comprised of over 4,892 annotated tweets. We created a two-channel deep learning model, XLCaps, to effectively manage noisy Malay language posts. One channel’s input is the XLNet language model followed by the capsule network, while the other channel’s input is the FastText embedding with Bi-GRU. Our proposed model surpasses the baseline models in terms of overall accuracy and F1 measurement, which are 80.69% and 80.41%, respectively. This work contributes to the prevention of hate speech in Malay and can serve as a basis for future study in this area. The approach to effectively managing noisy Malay posts can be also applied to other languages. The code and dataset are available at

Authors: Siti Aisyah Mohd Fadhli, Jasy Liew Suet Yan, Ahmad Shahril Ab Halim, Asrenee Ab Razak, and Azriani Ab Rahman

Year: 2022

Title: Finding the Link between Cyberbullying and Suicidal Behaviour among Adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia

Journal: Healthcare


Abstract: Social media engagement has contributed to the rise of cyberbullying, which has recently triggered tragic suicides among adolescents. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, suicidal behaviour, and their association among adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. The study was conducted among 1290 secondary school adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old in Peninsular Malaysia using a self-administered and anonymous online questionnaire. Our findings reveal that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetrator is 13.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The prevalence of suicidal behaviour among adolescents is 17.1%, in which 11.9% had suicidal thoughts, 10.2% had a suicide plan, and 8.4% had made a suicide attempt. Multiple logistic regression shows that adolescents experiencing cyberbullying victimization is a significant risk factor (p < 0.001) for suicidal behaviour after adjusting for other confounders. An alarming number of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia found to be involved in cyberbullying and its significant association with suicidal behaviour warrant the need to strengthen current interventions. Since the study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, our findings make an important contribution in reporting current trends in cyberbullying and suicide among adolescents, especially when they are becoming ever-more present in cyberspaces.

Authors: Mohd Saman, Z., Siti-Azrin, A.H., Othman, A., and Cheng Keuh, Y.

Year: 2021

Title: The Validity and Reliability of the Malay Version of the Cyberbullying Scale among Secondary School Adolescents in Malaysia

Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health


Abstract: The effect of cyberbullying among adolescents in Malaysia is not much studied. The Cyberbullying Scale (CBS) has been validated to be used among English speaking adolescents to measure cyberbullying but not in Malay language. Therefore, its validity should be established before use in the Malaysian context. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the CBS (CBS-M) among secondary school students. The study was cross-sectional and involved a self-administered questionnaire with 16 items from CBS-M, and 21 items from the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Participants were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method. The validity of the CBS-M was tested in two phases, namely, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Spearman’s correlation was used to examine the strength of the relationship between the CBS and subscales from DASS-21 to further support the validity of CBS-M. A total of 401 respondents from Muar, Johor, participated. The mean age was 14.6 years (SD = 1.25). EFA results indicated a one-factor model of CBS-M with a total variance extracted of 33.9%. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s alpha reached 0.87. The model was then tested using CFA. The initial model did not fit the data well. Thus, several model re-specifications were conducted on the initial model. The final measurement model of CBS-M fit the data well with acceptable fit indices (CFI = 0.946, TLI = 0.932, SRMR = 0.055, RMSEA = 0.049). The composite reliability for CBS-M was satisfactory with a value of 0.832. The CBS-M questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for measuring cyberbullying among young adolescents in Malaysia.

Authors: F. B. Shaikh, M. Rehman, A. Amin, A. Shamim and M. A. Hashmani

Year: 2021

Title: Cyberbullying Behaviour: A Study of Undergraduate University Students

Journal: IEEE Access


Abstract: Higher education requires access to Information and communication technologies (ICT’s). This exposure and access to ICT, coupled with the excessive usage of social media, has augmented the problem of cyberbullying among university students. Previous studies have investigated cyberbullying among school students while overlooking university students, who are actually more engaged in cyberbullying perpetration. In view of the gravity of the situation and its impact on the wellbeing of the university students, this study aims to understand the role of personal and psychological factors dragging Malaysian undergraduate students of public and private universities towards cyberbullying behaviour. In order to develop the framework, the study has utilized the ‘Theory of planned behavior’ and ‘Social Cognitive Theory’. The study is based on a quantitative research approach and employs a self-administered survey to collect data. The data has been analyzed through the Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) technique using SmartPLS. The results reveal that individual factors including cyberbullying awareness and personality traits are not associated with Malaysian undergraduate students’ cyberbullying behaviour. However, psychological factors, including self-esteem, internalizing behavior, and anti-social behavior, play an instrumental role in developing Malaysian undergraduate students’ cyberbullying attitude. The study also confirms that subjective norms assert a powerful positive impact on cyberbullying attitude of Malaysian undergraduates. Lastly, the study aims to contribute to the research on cyberbullying behavior by offering a conceptual validated model that predicts Malaysian university students’ cyberbullying behavior. This study also found that social media usage plays moderating role between cyberbullying intention and cyberbullying behavior. Parents, universities, and governments will benefit from this study by understanding factors to be considered when making a policy to reduce cyberbullying among university students.

Authors: Akmar Hayati Ahmad Ghazali, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Siti Zobidah Omar,

Haslinda Abdullah, Aminah Ahmad, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril

Year: 2020

Title: Predictors of Cyberbullying among Malaysian Youth

Journal: Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development


Abstract: Cyberbullying has emerged of late as a serious issue, especially among the most active internet users in Malaysia – youths. As the number of related studies is still lacking, the present study aims to determine the predictors of cyberbullying among youths in Malaysia. The study is quantitative in nature and in total had involved 400 youths aged between 18 to 40 years old. The findings suggest that predictors such as age, loneliness, self-esteem, and empathy yielded significant relationship with cyberbullying, while males were predominantly reported to perpetrate cyberbullying than females. Several recommendations were highlighted and hopefully, it can assist any concerned parties in developing concrete strategies to reduce cyberbullying cases among youths in Malaysia further.

Authors: Viknaraj Sivabalan, T., Ahmad Zaki, R., and Wan Yuen, C.

Year: 2020


Journal: Journal of Health & Translational Medicine


Abstract: Cyberbullying is a growing public health menace although research into the topic is very much lacking in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying among Malaysian adolescents and its association to gender, internet use pattern and offline bullying. This study adopts a cross-sectional methodology among Malaysian adolescents’ (N=882, 13 to 14 years old) through both the dimensions of victimization and perpetration using the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ). The result shows that if the period of the cyberbullying experience is confined to the past one month, the prevalence cyber-victimization and cyber-perpetration are 31.6% and 20.9% respectively. The prevalence however increased by more than 2-fold when it was extended to the past 3-months experience (73.7% and 64.2% respectively). Online harassment seems to dominate the prevalence of various types of cyberbullying in both cyber-victimization and cyber-perpetration dimensions (60.4% and 55.4% respectively). Both offline victims (AOR 2.40, p<0.001) and perpetrators (AOR 2.21, p<0.001), daily internet users (AOR 1.81, p<0.05), electronic gadget owners (AOR 2.44, p<0.05), social media (AOR 2.70, p<0.05) and instant messaging app users (AOR 2.37, p<0.05) have higher probability of becoming a cyber-victim. Offline perpetrators (AOR 3.05, p<0.001), daily internet users (AOR 1.81, p<0.05), social media (AOR 2.88, p<0.05) and instant messaging app users (AOR 3.00, p<0.05) have a higher probability of cyber-perpetration. There seems to be no association of age of first internet use and usage of real identity online to cyberbullying. Relevant agencies must raise the alarm on the burden of cyberbullying among school going adolescent. Cyber-parenting must be emphasized as an important component of cyber education. Behavioural intervention and communication skills must integrate with online social media experiences and primarily adopted in cyberbullying prevention.

Authors: Rajamanickam, R., Ramli, F. S., Na’aim, M. S. M., Hassan, M. S., & Hashim, H.

Year: 2019

Title: Defining Bullying among Students from Criminal Law Perspective: Comparison between Malaysia and the Philippines

Journal: Universal Journal of Educational Research


Abstract: School bullying is not new, but it has been a long and constant problem. Bullying issues are often reported in the mass media and have garnered attention not only in Malaysia but also abroad. Today, bullying can no longer considered as a trivial social problem that can be taken lightly. Failure to address this issue will have bad consequences for students in particular. Various ways have been introduced to tackle this issue and one of them is through the enforcement of law. This study will focus on the bullying within the legal framework in Malaysia, especially in the context of its definition. Studies showed that while in Malaysia, there are alarming statistics about bullying, but little attention has been paid to the absence of any specific law dealing with bullying in Malaysia. To date, no statutory definition of bullying has been provided. This paper thus provides an overview of Malaysia’s legal framework of bullying compared with the Philippines law on bullying. Despite a number of definitions of bullying provided by the scholars, the paper concludes that to date, there are no specific law on bullying and its statutory definition in Malaysia. Such absence may not fully safeguard the interests of bullying victims comprehensively. The findings would give more clarity to the theoretical framework of bullying in Malaysia thus showing the commitment of the government towards preventing the rampancy of this issue through legal enforcement

Authors: Ruiz, R. M. N. M.

Year: 2018

Title: Curbing Cyberbullying Among Students: A Comparative Analysis of Existing Laws Among Selected Asian Countries

Journal: PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences


Abstract: Last 2013, the Philippines approved the Anti-Bullying law, which covered cyberbullying. However, a 2015 study revealed that 80% of filipino teenagers aged 13 to 16 are still experiencing cyberbullying (Takumi, 2016). This paper attempted to compare existing laws on cyberbullying among selected ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. It also aims to identify each country’s anti-cyberbullying measures that might fit other ASEAN countries’ needs. To achieve its purposes, it used a qualitative research with the following primary methods: discourse analysis of cyberbullying laws and alternative strategies addressing said concern; and literature review of online journals, online publications, and online news articles. The study revealed that the Philippines is the only ASEAN country with a cyberbullying law that addresses the students, while other countries have alternative strategies in addressing the issue. Further, it found that cyberbullying is experienced by individuals aged 6 to 30 through Facebook and Twitter. The study suggests that the government should require schools to develop specific and consistent policies that would address this concern; and a curriculum that promotes digital responsibility. Finally, parents are encouraged to educate their children on ethical values, particularly in the digital world.

Author(s): Balakrishnan, V.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying among young adults in Malaysia: The roles of gender, age and Internet frequency.

Journal: Computers in human behavior


Abstract: This study investigated the extent of young adults’ (N = 393; 17–30 years old) experience of cyberbullying, from the perspectives of cyberbullies and cyber-victims using an online questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence rate shows cyberbullying is still present after the schooling years. No significant gender differences were noted, however females outnumbered males as cyberbullies and cyber-victims. Overall no significant differences were noted for age, but younger participants were found to engage more in cyberbullying activities (i.e. victims and perpetrators) than the older participants. Significant differences were noted for Internet frequency with those spending 2–5 h online daily reported being more victimized and engage in cyberbullying than those who spend less than an hour daily. Internet frequency was also found to significantly predict cyber-victimization and cyberbullying, indicating that as the time spent on Internet increases, so does the chances to be bullied and to bully someone. Finally, a positive significant association was observed between cyber-victims and cyberbullies indicating that there is a tendency for cyber-victims to become cyberbullies, and vice versa. Overall it can be concluded that cyberbullying incidences are still taking place, even though they are not as rampant as observed among the younger users.

Author(s): Ang, R. P., Tan, K. A., & Mansor, A. T.

Year: 2010

Title: Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence


Abstract: The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of normds and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.