Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Japan, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.



Authors: Tomohiko Ikeda, Daisuke Hori, Hiroaki Sasaki, Yu Komase, Shotaro Doki, Tsukasa Takahashi, Yuichi Oi, Yu Ikeda, Yo Arai, Kei Muroi, Mami Ishitsuka, Asako Matsuura, Wyi Go, Ichiyo Matsuzaki & Shinichiro Sasahara

Year: 2022

Title: Prevalence, characteristics, and psychological outcomes of workplace cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a cross-sectional online survey

Journal: BMC Public Health


Abstract: The rapid introduction of teleworking due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to concerns about increases in cyberbullying (CB) worldwide. However, little is known about workplace CB in non-Western countries. The first objective was to clarify the prevalence and characteristics regarding workplace CB victimization in Japan. The second objective was to demonstrate the psychological outcomes of CB victimization in combination with traditional bullying (TB). We conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey targeting regular employees in Japan (N = 1200) in January 2021. We investigated CB victimization using the Inventory of Cyberbullying Acts at Work and TB victimization by using the Short Negative Act Questionnaire. Possible explanatory factors for TB/CB victimization were sociodemographic variables, personality trait, chronic occupational stress, organizational climate, and gratitude at work. We also measured psychological distress, insomnia, and loneliness to assess adverse effects of workplace bullying. Two-step cluster analysis was used in determining the patterns combined with TB and CB victimization. Hierarchical binomial logistic regression analysis was used. In total, 8.0% of employees reported experiencing CB on a weekly basis. CB victimization was associated with younger age, managerial position, higher qualitative workload, and active information dissemination via the Internet, and frequency of teleworking. Three clusters based on TB and CB victimization patterns were identified: those who belong to the first cluster suffered neither from TB and CB (81.0%), the second cluster suffered only from TB (14.3%), and the third cluster suffered from both TB and CB (4.8%). The third cluster exhibited higher odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for psychological distress (OR = 12.63, 95% CI = 4.20–38.03), insomnia (OR = 6.26, 95% CI = 2.80–14.01), and loneliness (OR = 3.24, 95% CI = 1.74–6.04) compared to the first cluster. These findings firstly clarify the prevalence and correlated factors of CB victimization among employees in Japan. Further, we showed that psychological wellbeing can be impaired by the coexistence of TB and CB. Our research could be the first step to develop the effective countermeasures against workplace CB.




Year: 2021

Title: Sociocultural values, attitudes and risk factors associated with adolescent cyberbullying in East Asia: a systematic review.

Journal: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace


Abstract: Cyberbullying amongst adolescents is a rapidly growing and alarming global phenomenon that can significantly harm their well-being. Studying cyberbullying in East Asia is especially important, where peer pressure based on collectivistic ideals and rigid cultural scripts for social interactions remain strong. Furthermore, the countries represented in this review are amongst the top globally for internet usage, suggesting that adolescents in East Asia are likely to be excessive users of social media communication and be more exposed to various forms of cyberbullying. This systematic review summarizes findings from peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on cyberbullying amongst adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 in East Asian countries (N = 21). SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant work published between 2008 and 2020. Search strategies involved using keywords related to cyberbullying, adolescents, East Asia, and the name of each country represented in the region (China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan). Key factors associated with cyberbullying specific to adolescents in this region are identified and discussed in this review, such as gender socialization patterns and literacy with digital media communication, emphasis on academic achievement and school factors, urban-rural digital divide, relationship with parents and teachers, and collectivistic values. The present review highlights the need to pay further attention to the sociocultural context in future cyberbullying research and calls for more context-specific cyberbullying prevention programs and awareness initiatives.



Authors: Urano, Y., Takizawa, R., Ohka, M., Yamasaki, H., and Shimoyama, H.

Year: 2020

Title: Cyber bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: The differential moderating effects of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence

Journal: Journal of Adolescence


Abstract: Individuals who experience bullying victimization are at increased risk for future health and social problems. Despite this, studies show that not all bullying victims are in ill health, suggesting the importance of investigating protective factors that could counteract the adverse effects. The present study focused on investigating the moderating effects of emotional competence (EC) in the relationship between cyber-bullying victimization (CV) and mental health among adolescents. Responses from 6403 adolescents aged 12 to 18 (1925 male, 4478 female, Mage = 16.35, SD = 1.46) with no missing data were used for analysis. The cross-sectional data analyzed in the present study was a part of a large longitudinal online survey conducted by the University of Tokyo in Japan. Participants were recruited among adolescent users of a social networking service widely used in Japan for communication. Results of regression analysis showed significant direct effects of CV on psychological distress/self-esteem, confirming the adverse effects of victimization. Results also suggested that high intrapersonal EC weakened the relationship between CV and psychological distress, whereas high interpersonal EC strengthened the relationship. There were no significant interactions between CV and EC in predicting self-esteem. Intrapersonal and interpersonal EC may play differential moderating roles in the relationship between CV and psychological distress, the former by buffering the effect and the latter by exacerbating it. Interventions targeting abilities to handle one’s own emotions may help decrease distress among adolescents with CV experiences.



Authors: Michelle F. Wright, Zheng Huang, Sebastian Wachs, Ikuko Aoyama, Shanmukh Kamble, Shruti Soudi, Zheng Li, Li Lei & Chang Shu,

Year: 2020

Title: Associations between cyberbullying perpetration and the dark triad of personality traits: the moderating effect of country of origin and gender

Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development


Abstract: This study’s aim was to investigate the associations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, callous and unemotional traits, and cyberbullying perpetration among 1,637 adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, 48% girls overall) from China, India, and Japan. Adolescents completed questionnaires on the dark triad of personality traits, and cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying perpetration. Narcissism and callous and unemotional traits were related to cyberbullying perpetration for Chinese and Indian adolescents, as was Machiavellianism for Indian adolescents. Gender did not moderate these associations. Our findings suggest the need to monitor the dark triad of personality traits and for prevention programmes against cyberbullying to consider the cultural context.



Authors: Cross, D., Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Monks, H.

Year: 2012

Title: Understanding and preventing cyberbullying: where have we been and where should we be going?

Journal: Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives


Abstract: This book contributes to an understanding of cyberbullying, its nature, harmful effects, and correlates of this behavior as it affects young people. Many previous publications on cyberbullying have focused on studies in North America. However, in this book we have presented findings from eleven countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, England, Finland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, South Korea, and the United States. By providing a range of cultural perspectives, this collection of research aims to contribute new knowledge about the cross-cultural issues relevant to cyberbullying, and the generality or specificity of findings. Beyond that, we hope to develop more effective strategies to prevent and reduce harm from cyberbullying. This chapter discusses some issues arising from the research presented in the twelve empirical studies in this book, and considers the implications of this and other relevant research for the design, development, and evaluation of cyberbullying interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserves.



Author(s): Udris, R.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyberbullying among high school students in Japan: Development and validation of the Online Disinhibition Scale.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: Recent research has revealed some factors that contribute to cyberbullying, but the role of online disinhibition remains an area for further clarification. This study examined online disinhibition and cyberbullying behavior among Japanese adolescents. A sample of 887 high school students (mean age 16.31) were administered a survey about their cyberbullying experience. The questionnaire included the Online Disinhibition Scale (ODS), a new 11 item instrument developed to assess online disinhibition levels. In order to validate ODS, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted. EFA yielded two factors subsequently named “benign disinhibition” and “toxic disinhibition”. Results from CFA supported the two factor solution as an acceptable model fit. Logistic regression analyses showed that online disinhibition was significantly associated with cyberbullying.