Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Italy, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Author(s): Longobardi, C., Prino, L. E., Fabris, M. A., & Settanni, M.
Title: School violence in two Mediterranean countries: Italy and Albania
Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
Abstract: School victimization includes every form of violent offense, including physical or psychological brutality,abandonmentor exploitation, andsexual abuseexperienced by students. Being tied to a specific cultural context, school victimization can present differences in terms of frequency and risk factors in various countries. The aim of this study is to describe this phenomenon, its incidence and prevalence, and the risk factors associated with it (i.e., gender and age) in Italy and Albania; two European nations geographically close but with significant differences in historical, cultural, and legislative traditions. A total of 596 participants – schoolchildren from grades 6–13, of whom 261 were Italian and 335 were Albanian – anonymously filled out the ICAST-CI questionnaire. The results show that school victimization affects both countries. Both in Italy and Albania, physical, and psychological abuse are the most common forms of victimization, while sexual abuse is the least frequent. Furthermore, in terms of demographics, the victims’ peers are the most-frequent perpetrators in every category of victimization. However, Albania presents significantly higher levels of physical victimization than Italy and a higher percentage of adult offenders. Gender and age are significant risk factors of school victimization, albeit with some differences concerning the types of abuse in both nations.
Citation: Longobardi, C., Prino, L. E., Fabris, M. A., & Settanni, M. (2017). School violence in two Mediterranean countries: Italy and Albania.Children and Youth Services Review,82, 254-261.
Author(s): Palermiti, A. L., Servidio, R., Bartolo, M. G., & Costabile, A.
Title: Cyberbullying and self-esteem: An Italian study
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: In this study, the cyberbullying risk related to self-esteem, social, and personal variables was investigated. Cyberbullying describes a pervasive form of aggressive behaviour aimed at offending victims who are unable to protect themselves. A considerable sample of Italian young people were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. The results of the current study showed that, although few subjects were affected by cyberbullying (perpetrators and victims), a relationship exists between lower levels of self-esteem and cyberbullying risks. The role of parental control represents a good opportunity for the subjects in preventing aggressive behaviour. In general, this study underlines the importance to design and realize specific didactical programs to prevent aggressive behaviour, and to increase parental awareness about cyberbullying risks.
Citation: Palermiti, A. L., Servidio, R., Bartolo, M. G., & Costabile, A. (2017). Cyberbullying and self-esteem: An Italian study.Computers in Human Behavior,69, 136-141.
Author(s): Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E.
Title: Evidence‐based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials.
Journal: Aggressive behavior
Abstract: The NoTrap! (Noncadiamointrappola!) program is a school-based intervention, which utilizes a peer-led approach to prevent and combat both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the third Edition of the program in accordance with the recent criteria for evidence-based interventions. Towards this aim, two quasi-experimental trials involving adolescents (age M = 14.91, SD = .98) attending their first year at different high schools were conducted. In Trial 1 (control group, n = 171; experimental group, n = 451), latent growth curve models for data from pre-, middle- and post-tests showed that intervention significantly predicted change over time in all the target variables (victimization, bullying, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying). Specifically, target variables were stable for the control group but decreased significantly over time for the experimental group. Long-term effects at the follow up 6 months later were also found. In Trial 2 (control group, n = 227; experimental group, n = 234), the moderating effect of gender was examined and there was a reported decrease in bullying and cyberbullying over time (pre- and post-test) in the experimental group but not the control group, and this decrease was similar for boys and girls.
Citation: Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2016). Evidence‐based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials. Aggressive behavior, 42(2), 194-206.
Author(s): O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T.
Title: Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile.
Abstract: The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to perform acts of harassment. While online bullying is often considered to be an extension of persistent offline behavior, according to EU Kids Online (2011), the most common form of bullying is in person, face-to-face. With the rise in use of mobile Internet technologies, this balance is changing. Increased levels of use and more time spent online accessed through a variety of devices has increased children’s exposure to a range of online risks, including cyberbullying. This article presents the findings of the Net Children Go Mobile project, a cross-national study of children aged 9–16 in seven European countries. The research builds on the work of EU Kids Online and supports the identification of new trends in children’s online experiences of risk and safety. The study finds that while overall levels of bullying have remained relatively static, levels of online bullying have increased, particularly among younger teens. The relationship between cyberbullying and the use of mobile Internet technologies is examined and factors contributing to increased levels of cyberbullying are highlighted.
Citation: O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T. (2015). Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile. Societies, 5(2), 384-398.
Author(s): Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A.
Title: A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: In recently published studies on cyberbullying, students are frequently categorized into distinct (cyber)bully and (cyber)victim clusters based on theoretical assumptions and arbitrary cut-off scores adapted from traditional bullying research. The present study identified involvement classes empirically using latent class analysis (LCA), to compare the classification of cyber- and traditional bullying and to compare LCA and the conventional approach. Participants were 6,260 students (M = 14.8 years, SD = 1.6; 49.1% male) from six European countries. LCA resulted in three classes for cyberbullying and four classes for traditional bullying. Cyber- and traditional bullying differed from each other, as did LCA and the conventional approach. Country, age, and gender differences were found. Implications for the field of traditional and cyberbullying research are discussed.
Citation: Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A. (2015). A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries. Journal of School Violence, 14(1), 47-65.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A.
Title: Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: During the last decade, cyberbullying has become an increasing concern which has been addressed by diverse theoretical and methodological approaches. As a result there is a debate about its nature and rigorously validated assessment instruments have not yet been validated. In this context, in the present study an instrument composed of 22 items representing the different types of behaviours and actions that define cyberbullying has been structurally validated and its cross-cultural robustness has been calculated for the two main dimensions: cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression. To this end, 5679 secondary school students from six European countries (Spain, Germany, Italy, Poland, United Kingdom, and Greece) were surveyed through this self-report questionnaire which was designed based on previously existing instruments and the most relevant conceptual elements. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and the global internal consistency was computed for the instrument and its two dimensions. Identical factor structures were found across all of the six subsamples. The results contribute to existing research by providing an instrument, the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, which has been structurally validated in a wide sample from six different countries and that is useful to evaluate psycho-educative interventions against cyberbullying.
Citation: Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A. (2015). Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 141-147.
Author(s): Baroncelli, A., & Ciucci, E.
Title: Unique effects of different components of trait emotional intelligence in traditional bullying and cyberbullying.
Journal: Journal of adolescence
Abstract: This study investigated whether different components of trait emotional intelligence (or trait emotional self-efficacy) were uniquely related to traditional bullying and cyberbullying in a sample of 529 preadolescents (mean age of 12 years and 7 months), while controlling for the other forms of bullying/victimization. Binary logistic regressions showed that the dimension of emotional intelligence concerning the regulation and use of emotions was negatively related both to traditional bullying and cyberbullying; however, this association did not emerge when traditional bullying was controlled for cyberbullying, whilst it still emerged when cyberbullying was controlled for traditional bullying and both forms of victimization. Differently, the dimensions concerning appraisal of own and others’ emotions were not deficient in children performing bullying and/or cyberbullying behaviors. Despite high co-occurrence between traditional and electronic bullying, our results suggested that these two forms are distinct phenomena, involving different personality traits. Implications for interventions are discussed.
Citation: Baroncelli, A., & Ciucci, E. (2014). Unique effects of different components of trait emotional intelligence in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of adolescence, 37(6), 807-815.
Author(s): Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., & Camodeca, M.
Title: Morality, values, traditional bullying, and cyberbullying in adolescence.
Journal: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390 adolescents aged 14–18, balanced for gender, attending different high schools. Traditional and cyberbullying were detected by means of two self-report measures, while the Portrait Values Questionnaire was used to assess 10 values in four dimensions according to the value system model by Schwartz (1992): self-trascendence, self-enhancement, openness to change, and conservation. Finally, immoral and disengaged behaviours were assessed by means of five items about behavioural and personal aspects salient for morality. Results showed that, irrespective of gender, self-enhancement and self-trascendence moderately predicted cyber and traditional bullying, respectively, while immoral and disengaged behaviours predicted both. Indirect effects showed that self-enhancement and openness to change predicted both forms of bullying through immoral behaviour. Results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between cyber and traditional bullying and with attention to the central role of morality in explaining bullying nature.
Citation: Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., & Camodeca, M. (2013). Morality, values, traditional bullying, and cyberbullying in adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 1-14.
Author(s): Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N.
Title: The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study.
Journal: Aggressive behavior
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N=1,964), Spain (N=1,671), and England (N=2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. Aggr. Behav. 38:342-356, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Citation: Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive behavior, 38(5), 342-356.
Author(s): Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E.
Title: Online and offline peer led models against bullying and cyberbullying
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to describe and evaluate an ongoing peer-led model against bullying and cyberbullying carried out with Italian adolescents. The evaluation of the project was made through an experimental design consisting of a pre-test and a post-test. Participants in the study were 375 adolescents (20.3% males), enrolled in 9th to 13th grades. The experimental group involved 231 students with 42 peer educators, and the control group involved 144 students. Results showed a significant decrease in the experimental group as compared to the control group for all the variables except for cyberbullying. Besides, in the experimental group we found a significant increase in adaptive coping strategies like problem solving and a significant decrease in maladaptive coping strategies like avoidance: these changes mediate the changes in the behavioural variables. In particular, the decrease in avoidance predicts the decrease in victimization and cybervictimization for peer educators and for the other students in the experimental classes whereas the increase in problem solving predicts the decrease in cyberbullying only in the peer educators group. Results are discussed following recent reviews on evidence based efficacy of peer led models.
Citation: Palladino, B. E., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2012). Online and offline peer led models against bullying and cyberbullying. Psicothema, 24(4), 634-639.
Author(s): Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., & Palladino, B. E.
Title: Empowering students against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of an Italian peer-led model.
Journal: International Journal of Conflict and Violence
Abstract: An investigation of whether and to what extent a peer-led model is able to counteract mechanisms underlying bullying in peer groups, seeking clarification of divergence in reported results on the efficacy of peer-led models. Two studies were carried out in Italy within a project tackling bullying and cyberbullying in secondary schools. In the first study (n= 386), concerning the first phase of the project, a significant decrease was found only for cyberbullying, most of all for male peer educators. For the second study (n= 375) the model was improved and significant effects were found for several participating groups (peer educators and the experimental classes), who exhibited a decrease in bullying, victimization, and cybervictimization. Results suggest that peer educators can act as agents of change in the broader context.
Citation: Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., & Palladino, B. E. (2012). Empowering students against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of an Italian peer-led model. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6(2), 313-320.
Author(s): Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Melotti, G., Galli, S., & Genta, M. L.
Title: Predictors of victimisation across direct bullying, indirect bullying and cyberbullying.
Journal: Emotional and behavioural difficulties
Abstract: Cyberbullying may sometimes be an extension of traditional bullying. However, some particular features of cyberbullying suggest that it may have a distinct causal pathway, due to the social context of a virtual environment within which peer social processes occur. Moreover, boys and girls may perceive and respond differentially to their social context, which may heighten the risk for victimisation. This study aimed to describe how the perceived relational context (school, peers and family) may influence the probability of becoming a victim, in both offline and virtual contexts, among boys and girls. A questionnaire, measuring school climate; global, family and peer self-esteem; loneliness in relationship with parents and peers; and victimisation in traditional direct, traditional indirect and cyberbullying, was completed by 2326 Italian adolescents (mean age 13.9 years). For traditional victimisation, significant predictors were loneliness in relations with peers and a negative perception of school climate, in both males and females, while younger age (for direct victimisation) and lower global self-esteem (for indirect victimisation) were predictors for males only. For cybervictimisation, involvement as either a direct or an indirect victim was a very strong predictor for both males and females, but with an element of distinction compared to traditional victimisation, as lower self-esteem in family relationships was a predictor of cybervictimisation for males, while parent loneliness was a predictor for females. Implications for understanding the continuity/discontinuity between traditional bullying and cyberbullying, and for the development of intervention strategies, taking into account some differences by gender, are discussed.
Citation: Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Melotti, G., Galli, S., & Genta, M. L. (2012). Predictors of victimisation across direct bullying, indirect bullying and cyberbullying. Emotional and behavioural difficulties, 17(3-4), 375-388.
Author(s): Prati, G.
Title: Development and psychometric properties of the homophobic bullying scale.
Journal: Educational and Psychological Measurement
Abstract: The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students’ bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and cyberbullying. Five scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies (toward supposed gay men and lesbians), victims, and witnesses (toward supposed gay men and lesbians). A sample of 863 students enrolled in Grades 9 to 13 in 10 Italian public high schools were involved in this study. The coefficients of internal consistency were greater than .80 for all the scales. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analysis. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by comparatively low correlations with homophobic attitudes and the Homophobic Content Agent Target scale. Results showed the existence of homophobic bullying in various forms other than the use of homophobic epithets. Future research should examine the experience of bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia in schools. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Citation: Prati, G. (2012). Development and psychometric properties of the homophobic bullying scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(4), 649-664.
Author(s): Renati, R., Berrone, C., & Zanetti, M. A.
Title: Morally disengaged and unempathic: Do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study.
Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Abstract: In recent years, the phenomenon of cyberbullying has been gaining scholars’ growing interest under various aspects, including its overlap with face-to-face bullying. Nevertheless, its relationships with cognitive and affective empathy, proactive and reactive aggression, and moral disengagement, constructs that proved to be crucial in distinguishing aggressive subjects from their targets and nonaggressive peers in traditional bullying, still represent, to some extent, an unexplored domain. The main purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and the mentioned constructs among Italian adolescents. 819 high-school students (mean age 16.08) were administered a battery of standardized tools, along with Cyberties, a new instrument created to assess the prevalence of (and the type of involvement in) different forms of electronic assaults. Analyses of variance were conducted to compare four roles (“pure” bullies, “pure” victims, bully victims, and noninvolved subjects). Participants who identified themselves as cyberbullies or cyberbully victims showed significantly higher levels of overall moral disengagement and of both types of aggression. Cyberbullies also displayed a lack of affective empathy. Our findings are in line with the ones in extant literature about correlates of traditional and electronic forms of bullying. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.
Citation: Renati, R., Berrone, C., & Zanetti, M. A. (2012). Morally disengaged and unempathic: Do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(8), 391-398.
Author(s): Genta, M.L., Smith, P.K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., Tippett, N., Mora-Merchán, J. and Calmaestra, J.
Title: Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain
Journal: Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives
Abstract: The last 10 years have seen the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among adolescents. Bullying too has been examined in relation to the growth in the use of ICT by adolescents and young people, opening up a line of research investigating “cyberbullying” behavior. In the study of cyberbullying among preadolescents and adolescents it is important to consider the relationship between young people and ICT, highlighting the amount of use of different digital media and the preference and choices made by young people in their free time (relating to Internet, mobile phones, television, etc.)
Citation: Genta, M. L., Smith, P. K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., … & Calmaestra, J. (2011). Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain. Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives, 15.
Author(s): Vieno, A., Gini, G., & Santinello, M.
Title: Different forms of bullying and their association to smoking and drinking behavior in Italian adolescents.
Journal: Journal of School Health
Abstract: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle and secondary school students (49.9% girls) randomly selected. The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist forms of bullying. For each form, 3 categories were created and compared with students “not involved in bullying”: bully, victim, and bully-victim. Logistic regressions were applied to test the connections among the 3 forms of involvement in different types of bullying and smoking and drinking. Prevalence of having been bullied or having bullied others at school at least once in the last 2 months was 11.6% for physical, 52% for verbal, 47.9% for relational, 18.5% for sexual, 19.4% for cyber, and 9.4% for racist bullying. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be involved in physical bullying; moreover, boys were more involved as bullies in verbal, sexual, cyber, and racist bullying. In contrast, girls were more likely to be victims of verbal, relational, sexual, and cyber bullying than were boys. Logistic regressions showed the connection between the different forms of involvement in bullying and smoking and drinking. Our results indicate that all forms of bullying behavior are associated with legal substance use. Implication for prevention program was discussed
Citation: Vieno, A., Gini, G., & Santinello, M. (2011). Different forms of bullying and their association to smoking and drinking behavior in Italian adolescents. Journal of School Health, 81(7), 393-399.
Author(s): Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E.
Title: Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviours and definition in three European countries.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: This study aims to examine students’ perception of the term used to label cyberbullying, the perception of different forms and behaviours (written, verbal, visual, exclusion and impersonation) and the perception of the criteria used for its definition (imbalance of power, intention, repetition, anonymity and publicity) in three different European countries: Italy, Spain and Germany. Seventy adolescents took part in nine focus groups, using the same interview guide across countries. Thematic analysis focused on three main themes related to: (1) the term used to label cyberbullying, (2) the different behaviours representing cyberbullying, (3) the three traditional criteria of intentionality, imbalance of power and repetition and the two new criteria of anonymity and publicity. Results showed that the best word to label cyberbullying is ‘cyber-mobbing’ (in Germany), ‘virtual’ or ‘cyber-bullying’ (in Italy), and ‘harassment’ or ‘harassment via Internet or mobile phone’ (in Spain). Impersonation cannot be considered wholly as cyberbullying behaviour. In order to define a cyberbullying act, adolescents need to know whether the action was done intentionally to harm the victim, the effect on the victim and the repetition of the action (this latter criterion evaluated simultaneously with the publicity). Information about the anonymity and publicity contributes to better understand the nature and the severity of the act, the potential effects on the victim and the intentionality.
Citation: Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E. (2010). Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviours and definition in three European countries. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 129-142.