Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Israel, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Hagit Sasson, Aviad Tur-Sinai, Keren Dvir & Yossi Harel-Fisch
Title: The Role of Parents and Peers in Cyberbullying Perpetration: Comparison among Arab and Jewish and Youth in Israel
Journal: Child Indicators Research
Abstract: In recent years, several studies have examined the effect of parents and friends on cyberbullying victims. Less is known about their combined effect on cyber perpetrators, especially among Jewish and Arab teens in Israel. We collected data from a representative sample of 350 Jewish and Arab adolescents (aged 15–16) and their parents. We repeated the interviews twice within a year. The survey included measurements of three parental practices: support, monitoring, and protectiveness, as reported by parents at the first time of data collection. We measured the adolescents’ engagement in sensation-seeking and cyberbullying as perpetrators and perceptions about peers’ involvement in these behaviors. Path-analysis models revealed that the perception of peers’ involvement in cyberbullying perpetration was positively linked with involvement in such behavior among Jewish and Arab teens. Contrary to our expectations, no parental practice had a direct effect on cyberbullying perpetration among teens in either ethnic group. The study presents important and unique findings. The results indicate that youngsters involved in cyberbullying are strongly influenced by their peers. The prevalence of this pattern in both the Jewish and the Arab populations indicates its universal nature. On a practical level, it may be suggested that bullying behaviors may be mitigated by taking measures in formal and informal education. Another aspect of the results is the decline in parental influence on adolescents’ cyberbullying behaviors, especially among Arab teens. This may be an indicator of cultural changes taking place in the Arab population in Israel alongside widening of the generation gap.
Authors: Benatov, J., Brunstein Klomek, A., and Chen-Gal, S.
Title: Bullying perpetration and victimization associations to suicide behavior: a longitudinal study
Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Abstract: Previous studies have reported a longitudinal association between cybervictimization and suicidal thoughts and behavior. However, the relationship between cyber-perpetration and prospective suicide risk remains unclear. The sample was composed of 2150 at-risk adolescents (mean age 15.42), enrolled in Vocational Education and Training high schools in Israel. Cyberbullying, traditional bullying, depression, hostility, serious suicidal ideations, and suicide attempts were assessed through self-report questionnaires at the beginning of the school year and one year later. All types of victimization and preparation were cross-sectionally associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Longitudinal associations were found between cyber-perpetration and suicidal ideation/attempts. Cyber-perpetrators were found to be over twice more likely to report serious suicidal ideation (OR = 2.04) or attempt suicide (OR = 2.64) in the subsequent year compared to noninvolved adolescents. These associations were significant even after adjusting for baseline depression, hostility, and traditional bullying. Traditional bullying perpetration was prospectively associated with suicide attempts. Traditional victimization was cross-sectionally associated with suicide ideation and attempts but not prospectively. Cybervictimization was prospectively associated with suicide ideation but not to suicide attempts. The findings demonstrate the prospective risk of involvement in bullying in regard to suicide ideation and behavior. Cyberbullying was found to be a somewhat differentiated phenomena from traditional bullying.
Authors: Aizenkot, D. and Kashy-Rosenbaum, G.
Title: The Effectiveness of Safe Surfing Intervention Program in Reducing WhatsApp Cyberbullying and Improving Classroom Climate and Student Sense of Class Belonging in Elementary School
Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence
Abstract: Schools have prioritized fighting cyberbullying by implementing intervention programs. Yet few interventions have been studied for their effectiveness in reducing cyberbullying and improving socio-emotional aspects in the classroom. This study reports the results of the Safe Surfing intervention program designed to reduce cyberbullying in WhatsApp classmate discourse. Data were collected in the 2017-2018 school year from 533 students in 25 fourth- to sixth-grade classes (50% females) in six elementary schools in Israel. Two of the schools served as the control group. Results indicated a significant decrease in WhatsApp cyberbullying victimization and a significant improvement of classroom climate and student sense of class belonging in the experiment group. This compared with a significant increase in cyberbullying and a significant decrease in classroom climate and student sense of belonging in the control group. Educational implications are discussed. The findings demonstrate the achievements of the anti-cyberbullying intervention program, alongside the threats of avoiding intervention.
Authors: Kashy-Rosenbaum, G. and Aizenkot, D.
Title: Exposure to cyberbullying in WhatsApp classmates‘ groups and classroom climate as predictors of students‘ sense of belonging: A multi-level analysis of elementary, middle and high schools
Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
Abstract: Children and adolescents currently conduct a large part of their social life in the virtual space. In Israel this means the WhatsApp application which is the most popular social networking arena in the country. With the increased use of WhatsApp cyberbullying has also surged, referring to deliberate aggressive activity against individuals who share the same virtual social space. While cyberbullying takes place in the virtual social space, the bullying can easily expand over to the real social space, for example the classroom, negatively impacting classroom social climate and undermining students’ sense of belonging in class. This in turn may impair their mental well-being and further hinder their functioning. Using a multi-level approach, the present study aims to broaden the understanding of the connections between cyberbullying in WhatsApp classmate groups, classroom social climate (class-level factors) and students’ sense of belonging in class (individual-level factor), across age and gender. The study included 4517 students (52% girls) in 4th through 12th grade (ages 9 to 17), in 194 homeroom classes in 28 schools in Israel. Participants completed online questionnaires. Study findings show a negative relationship between exposure to cyberbullying in WhatsApp classmate groups and class social climate and to student’s sense of belonging in class. The educational implications are discussed.
Title: Cyberbullying Victimization in WhatsApp Classmate Groups among Israeli Elementary, Middle, and High School Students
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: In recent years children and adolescents lead their social lives in the virtual world no less than in the real one. Social networking sites such as WhatsApp play a major role as popular social communication platforms. More than 97% of Israeli youth use WhatsApp and are members of WhatsApp classmate groups. The growing use of WhatsApp is accompanied by increased frequency of cyberbullying, that is, intended and repeated aggressive online behavior aimed to inflict harm. Cyberbullying victimization has received a fair amount of attention due to its association with serious psychosocial, affective, behavioral, and academic problems. Although much has been written about cyberbullying on Facebook, literature about WhatsApp and cyberbullying is scarce. Based on a large-scale survey that examined the prevalence and expressions of cyberbullying the current cross-sectional study provides a detailed description of cyberbullying victimization in WhatsApp classmate groups across grade level and gender among Israeli school-age children and adolescents. The study included 4,477 elementary, middle, and high school students in Israel who completed questionnaires regarding cyberbullying victimization in their WhatsApp classmate groups. According to the study findings, approximately 30% of all survey participants report personal victimization from cyberbullying in their WhatsApp classmate groups, and almost double that report victimized aggression at least once in the recent past. Demographic variables such as school grade level and gender appear to moderate cyberbullying. Increased cyberbullying was found in elementary school compared with middle and high school, and more female compared with male students were victims of cyberbullying in WhatsApp classmate groups. The article outlines several areas of concern in cyberbullying research and discusses issues that future research might address. Education policy guidelines and implications for intervention are also discussed.
Author: Peled, Y.
Title: Cyberbullying and Its Influence on Academic, Social, and Emotional Development of Undergraduate Students
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of cyberbullying on the academic, social, and emotional development of undergraduate students. It’s objective is to provides additional data and understanding of the influence of cyberbullying on various variables affecting undergraduate students. The survey sample consisted of 638 Israeli undergraduate students. The data were collected using the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey, which evaluates the frequency and media used to perpetrate cyberbullying, and the College Adjustment Scales, which evaluate three aspects of development in college students. It was found that 57% of the students had experienced cyberbullying at least once or twice through different types of media. Three variables were found to have significant influences on the research variables: gender, religion and sexual preferences. Correlation analyses were conducted and confirmed significant relationships between cyberbullying, mainly through instant messaging, and the academic, social and emotional development of undergraduate students. Instant messaging (IM) was found to be the most common means of cyberbullying among the students.
The main conclusions are that although cyberbullying existence has been proven, studies of cyberbullying among undergraduate students have not been fully developed. This particular population needs special attention in future research. The results of this study indicate that cyberbullying has an influence on the academic, social, and emotional development of undergraduate students. Additional Implications of the findings are discussed.
Authors: Peled, Y., Medvin, B. M., Pieterse, E. &, Domanski, L.
Title: Normative beliefs about cyberbullying: Comparisons of Israeli and U.S. youth
Abstract: We examined how normative beliefs about cyberbullying influenced the choice of electronic aggression in hypothetical peer-to-peer scenarios. Data was collected from 1097 Israeli and 1196 U.S. students in grades 5th-10th, who completed self-report surveys examining normative beliefs about cyberbullying, aggressive cyberstrategies, face-to-face verbal and relational aggression, and access to electronic devices. Israeli students had higher levels of all aggression measures than U.S. students, but access to electronic devices was similar across the two countries. Normative beliefs about cyberbullying were positively associated with verbal and relational aggression. In Israeli, normative beliefs in boys were higher than girls in 5th and 6th grade, similar in 7th and 8th grade, and then higher again in 9th and 10th grade. In the U.S., boys had higher normative beliefs about cyberbullying than girls, and older students had higher beliefs than younger students. Findings using logistic regression indicated that normative beliefs about cyberbullying were predictive of Cyber-aggression even when taking into account grade, country, gender, access to electronic devices, and face-to-face relational aggression. Cyber-aggressive strategies were more likely to be present at the highest level of normative beliefs. Ways to change student beliefs using a social cognitive perspective are discussed.
Authors: Heiman, T., Olenik-Shemesh, D., Frank, G.
Title: Patterns of coping with cyberbullying: emotional, behavioral, and strategic coping reactions among middle school students
Journal: Violence and victims
URL: DOI: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-16-00141
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine coping patterns among victims of cyberbullying in middle school. The study included 232 adolescents, of whom 20.7% reported having been the victim of cyberbullying. Findings show that the most common emotional reactions to cyberbullying among the cyber victims were anger, rage, and frustration. The most commonly found behavioral reactions to cyberbullying were informing a friend, counterattacking, and ignoring the cyber incident. Examining the types of coping strategies that were used, we found that the victims of cyberbullying reported a lower use of problem-focused coping strategies for stressful situations, compared to adolescents who were not cyber victims; in addition, cyber victims also reported a much greater use of emotionally focused coping strategies and avoidance-focused strategies, compared to adolescents who were not cyber victims.
Authors: Heiman, T., Olenik-Shemesh, D.
Title: Predictors of cyber-victimization of higher-education students with and without learning disabilities
Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
Abstract: Higher-education institutes today face an uphill battle in trying to restrain online misbehavior. This study examined the cyber-victimization experience of 1,052 higher education students with and without learning disabilities. All participants completed five online questionnaires regarding cyber-victimization, social support, self-perception, well-being, and body perception. Results revealed that compare to students without learning disabilities a higher proportion of students with learning disabilities reported cyber-victimization. Positive associations were found between students with learning disabilities and cyber-victimization, and negative correlations between students with learning disabilities, self-perception and well-being. Regression analysis indicated that for students with learning disabilities, predictors of cyber-victimization were low social support, low self-perception, and being female, whereas for students without learning disabilities, the predictors were low social support, low well-being, and low body perception.
Author: Peled, Y.
Title: Children’s attitudes to parental mediation in a traditional society
Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Abstract: Since the 1980s there have been many reports on parental mediation of children’s behavior, from TV watching to Internet surfing, but most of the data come from Western societies. Israeli Arab society is a traditional patriarchy, which is in a constant change. The use of handheld devices, mainly smartphones which enable Internet access, has become a status symbol, leading to challenges with parental control issues. This study examines the overlap between parents’ and children’s perceptions of parental mediation in the Arab population, specifically if parental education and the child’s age influence parental mediation. Data were collected from 1,871 Israeli Arab parents living in northern Israel and their children (N = 1,199) in grades 5–10 using an online parental mediation questionnaire. Parental mediation was perceived differently by parents and their children, although the perceptions of fathers and mothers were similar as were the perceptions of boys and girls. The perceptions of academic fathers and academic mothers also differed. The results also indicated that children’s perceptions of parental mediation are affected by age. The findings and their implications are discussed.
Author(s): Heiman, T., Olenik-Shemesh, D., & Liberman, G.
Title: Adolescent involvement in face-to-face and cyber victimization: can personal well-being mediate social-emotional behavior?
Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between perceived loneliness, self-efficacy, and subjective well-being as related to students’ experiences as victims of cyber and face-to-face bullying. Participants included 902 students from 18 different Israeli schools, aged 10–18 who completed self-report questionnaires. Results revealed that social loneliness fully affects the experience of cyberbullying through the mediation of well-being. Greater social loneliness decreases the perception of well-being and therefore the probability of cybervictimization increases. Furthermore, social efficacy increases personal well-being, which decreases the likelihood of experiencing cyberbullying. In addition, students experiencing social and emotional loneliness were more likely to be victims of cyber- and face-to-face bullying than students who were not lonely. Age was found to be an overall indicator for the probability of exposure to bullying and being a victim. The current findings suggested that boys who are more socially effective perceive their well-being higher than girls, and these higher perceptions lead them to a higher immunity to, or a lower experience of cyber bullying. This indirect effect is fully operated through the mediators. Boys experience greater social and emotional loneliness than girls, but perceive their well-being more highly than girls. Boys also experience more face-to-face victimization, but not more cybervictimization compared to girls.
Author(s): Sasson, H., & Mesch, G.
Title: The role of parental mediation and peer norms on the likelihood of cyberbullying
Journal: The Journal of Genetic Psychology
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a disturbing behavior associated with the use of communication technologies among adolescents. Many studies have been devoted to the activities of cyber victims as risk factors, while others have considered parental mediation a protective factor. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the joint contribution of parental mediation, peer norms and risky online activities to the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet. To fill this gap, we conducted a study among a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade adolescents. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Respondents reported their perceptions about their peers. attitudes toward these risky online behaviors. We also measured three types of parental mediation: active guidance, restrictive supervision and non-intervention. Binary logistic regression findings show that risky online behaviors and peer norms regarding these behaviors had a significant effect, suggesting that the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet is associated with both risky behavior online and the norms prevalent within the adolescents. peer group. Restrictive supervision had a significant effect, implying that parents who feel their children are being bullied online may increase their oversight. The results emphasize the critical role of peers and the declining influence of parents in adolescence.
Author(s): Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T., & Eden, S.
Title: Bystanders’ Behavior in Cyberbullying Episodes: Active and Passive Patterns in the Context of Personal–Socio-Emotional Factors
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: The present study explored bystanders’ behavior in cyberbullying (CB) episodes among children and youth, focusing on active and passive behavior patterns. The study examined prevalence and characteristics of bystanders’ behavior following CB episodes, and their active–passive intervention patterns in relation to personal (age, gender) and socio-emotional (self-efficacy, social support, sense of loneliness) factors. Of the 1,094 participants (ages 9-18), 497 (46.4%) reported they were bystanders to CB episodes. Of the bystanders, 55.4% were identified as having a passive pattern of behavior—they did not provide any help to cyber-victims, whereas 44.6% were identified as having an active pattern—helping the cyber-victim. In line with the “bystanders’ effect,” only 35.6% of the bystanders offered direct help to cyber-victims after witnessing CB. When studying the personal–socio-emotional differences between active and passive bystanders, it was found that the “active bystanders” are more often girls, older, have more social support from significant others, and have lower levels of emotional loneliness than bystanders in the passive group. Differences within the passive and active patterns were studied as well. A logistic regression revealed the unique contribution of each predictor to the probability of being an active bystander. It was found that gender and age predicted the probability of being an active bystander: Girls are more likely than boys, and older bystanders are more likely than younger ones, to choose an active pattern and provide help to cyber-victims. In addition, implications for CB prevention and intervention involvement programs to encourage bystanders to help cyber-victims are discussed.
Author(s): Heiman, T., & Olenik-Shemesh, D.
Title: Cyberbullying Involvement of Adolescents with Low Vision Compared to Typical Adolescents, as Related to Perceived Social Support
Journal: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
Abstract: This study examined adolescents with low vision (LV) compared to students without disabilities regarding their cyberbullying experiences, as related to perceived social support. Sample consisted of 407 students (61 with LV) who completed self-reported questionnaires. Findings revealed that students with LV are using the computer and the Internet as much as the typical students, but students with LV had less frequent Internet interactions with friends. Students with LV reported being more involved in cyberbullying as cybervictims, cyberperpetrators, cyberwitnesses, knowing someone and telling their online experience to another, and having lower social support compared to students without disabilities. Students with LV are more willing to report and to share their online experiences with another person. The findings add to our knowledge about students’ experiences of cyberbullying and suggest implementing effective coping strategies programs to raise the awareness of cyberbullying risky behavior.
Author(s): Lapidot-Lefler, N.
Title: Cyberbullying in a multicultural society: The case of Israel
Journal: Center for Global Curriculum Studies Symposium
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in cyberbullying (bystanders, victims, bullies) between Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel. The study included 901 junior high and high school students (501 Jewish-Israelis and 400 Arab-Israelis). Precipitating Youths completed a self-report questionnaire on cyberbullying that included two-sections: personal data and cyberbullying. The questionnaire was distributed according to age groups via Facebook. Findings revealed that Jewish adolescents reported being cybervictims and cyberbystanders more than Arab adolescents, yet contrary to expectation, Arab adolescents reported being cyberbullies more than Jewish adolescents. Among Jewish adolescents, girls and boys were equally likely to be bullies and there were no significant gender differences while among Arab adolescents, girls reported higher bullying than boys. Moreover, the cultural difference was significant among girls, revealing that Jewish girls were higher than Arab girls on bystanding and victimization, while Arab girls were higher than Jewish girls on bullying in cyberspace. The cultural difference was not significant among boys. The findings will be discussed in a cultural context in a multicultural society
Author(s): Zerach, G.
Title: Pathological narcissism, cyberbullying victimization and offending among homosexual and heterosexual participants in online dating websites.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Homosexual individuals are exposed to high levels of victimization. However, no studies have examined personality risk factors for cyberbullying victimization and offending among this population. This study investigated the relationships between pathological narcissism and cyberbullying victimization and offending among homosexual and heterosexual participants in online dating websites. Participants included 347 Israeli adults who completed a series of self-reported questionnaires. Our results show that homosexual men and women reported higher levels of cyberbullying victimization relative to heterosexual women. The groups did not differ in cyberbullying offending. Furthermore, homosexual men reported higher levels of pathological narcissism grandiosity relative to homosexual women. Pathological narcissism vulnerability and grandiosity were positively related to cyberbullying victimization, but not to offending, as well as to cyberbullying dating victimization and offending. Importantly, the group (homosexual male vs. other groups) moderated the association between pathological narcissism vulnerability and cyberbullying victimization. These findings highlight the differential associations between the two facets of pathological narcissism and cyberbullying victimization and offending among homosexual men and women, and lend empirical support to the high risk for cyberbullying victimization of homosexual men with pathological narcissistic vulnerability traits who are actively participating in the online dating sphere.
Author(s): Lapidot-Lefler, N., & Dolev-Cohen, M.
Title: Comparing cyberbullying and school bullying among school students: prevalence, gender, and grade level differences.
Journal: Social psychology of education
Abstract: Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents’ social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents’ social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for children, educators, and policy makers. The present study examined cyberbullying and school bullying among 465 junior-high and high-school students (136 boys and 329 girls) in Israel, through an online survey. Findings revealed that the phenomenon of cyberbullying is less prevalent than school bullying. In the majority of cases in cyberspace, the identity of the cyber bully was known to the victim and the audience. According to the findings, in cyberspace, boys tended to bully more often than did girls; no correlation was found between gender and victim or gender and audience. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of online communication theory.
Author(s): Tarablus, T., Heiman, T., & Olenik-Shemesh, D.
Title: Cyber bullying among teenagers in Israel: An examination of cyber bullying, traditional bullying, and socioemotional functioning.
Journal: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
Abstract: In this study, the relationships between cyber bullying and involvement in traditional bullying, with reference to social support and gender differences, was examined. Social support plays an important role in empowering victims of cyber bullying and has a significant influence on children and teenagers’ well-being. A sample made up of 458 Israeli junior high students (242 female, 216 male) in the age range of 11 to 13 completed 4 questionnaires. Results indicated that there is an overlap between involvement in cyber bullying and involvement in traditional bullying. The findings indicate that girls were more likely to be cyber victims than boys and that boys were more likely to be cyber bullies than girls. Examination of the relationships between gender and social support variables such as friends, family, and others, shows that girls who were cyber victims reported having more support in all 3 types than cyber bullied boys. These findings can serve as a basis for prevention and intervention programs to cope with cyber bullying.
Author(s): Heiman, T., Olenik-Shemesh, D., & Eden, S.
Title: Cyberbullying involvement among students with ADHD: relation to loneliness, self-efficacy and social support.
Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Abstract: Cyberbullying is defined as an intentional online act via electronic media, to harm, embarrass and/or humiliate another person. As adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a higher risk in being involved in bullying behaviour as perpetrators or victims, the main purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of their cyber experience and its impact on loneliness, perceived self-efficacy and social support. The study population included 140 adolescent students with ADHD taking part in general classes and 332 students without disabilities, all of whom completed four self-report questionnaires (cyberbullying, perceived feelings of loneliness, self-efficacy and social support). The findings show no significant differences between students with or without ADHD regarding the time spent on the net and their perceived usage expertise. Most participants with ADHD were familiar with the internet and spent a similar amount of time surfing as the adolescents without ADHD. Results revealed significant differences between the student groups (ADHD/Non-ADHD) and some of the social-emotional measures: students with ADHD who were cybervictims and students with ADHD who were cyberwitnesses reported on greater feelings of emotional loneliness and a lower belief in their social self-efficacy than the non-ADHD students. Furthermore, ADHD student cyberwitnesses also reported on feelings of greater social loneliness. Findings revealed that girls were significantly more often cybervictims than boys. However, boys reported on significantly more involvement as cyberperpetrators than girls.
Author(s): Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T., & Rabin, E.
Title: Virtual Anti-Bullying Village Project for Coping with Bullying and Cyberbullying within a 3d Virtual Learning Environment: Evaluation Research.
Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the implementation of a unique educational project — The Virtual Anti-Bullying Village for Kids and Teens that was designed and operated by the European Commission. A 3D virtual environment as an innovative, international project for adolescents, focused on knowledge acquisition and new ways of coping with bullying and cyberbullying. Sixty seventh graders (Israeli adolescents) completed five questionnaires before and after the project to assess its impacts regarding cyberbullying and socio-emotional variables. They evaluated the project as important, enjoyable, and increasing their knowledge about cyberbullying, but expressed a need for more practical tools for coping. At the end of the project, the control group reported more cyberbullying experiences, as well as a decrease in social support, whereas the research group reported no changes in cyberbullying experiences and in socio-emotional aspects.
Author(s): Bouhnik, D., & Mor, D.
Title: Gender differences in the moral judgment and behavior of Israeli adolescents in the internet environment.
Journal: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Abstract: This study explored differences between genders regarding adolescents’ behavioral characteristics and moral judgment in the Internet environment. A questionnaire was administered to 1,048 students in the 7th to 11th grades in six different schools, one class in each grade. The questionnaire included personal data, characteristics of Internet interaction patterns, moral dilemmas in daily life, and moral dilemmas in the virtual environment. No significant differences were found between the genders regarding the age usage of the Internet began, Internet experience, and average daily hours of Internet use. We found that boys prefer, more than girls, to surf at school and in Internet cafes. Girls tend to use the Internet more for doing homework and blogs than boys, whereas boys tend to play Internet games more than girls. Gender differences were found regarding immoral behavior. Boys were involved more frequently than girls in behaviors such as cyberbullying, plagiarism, impersonation, and downloading music and movies illegally from the Internet. A correlation was found between gender and moral judgment. Although both boys and girls made relatively little “humane judgment” in the Internet environment, girls tended to make “humane judgment” more frequently than boys. In the Internet environment, boys tended to make “absence of judgment” evaluations more than girls. Girls tended, relatively more, toward “normative judgment” that reflects adherence to peer-group conventions with minimal reflexivity.
Author(s): Eden, S., Heiman, T., & Olenik‐Shemesh, D.
Title: Teachers’ perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying.
Journal: British journal of educational technology
Abstract: Schools and teachers nowadays face new difficulties and challenges as a result of the fast growth of cyberbullying. The aim of the study is to examine the perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying, as well as the needs, of a professionally diverse group of teachers. Three-hundred and twenty-eight teachers (88.4% female, 11.6% male) from different types of schools and professional foci were randomly selected and completed a cyberbullying questionnaire regarding their perceptions of cyberbullying and about their personal experiences in relation to cyberbullying. They also provided background information. Findings indicate that teachers noted that cyberbullying is a problem in their school, suggesting that urgent attention be paid to three aspects: policy making, enhancing awareness of the school team and coping strategies for parents. About half the teachers reported that students complain of harassment through the mobile phone and Internet, and some teachers were themselves cyberbullied. It was found that the teachers’ gender, education level and the age of the students they taught affected their level of concern about cyberbullying, and therefore how credible they found the school’s commitment to act on it. Female teachers expressed more concern than male teachers, as did teachers of younger children. Special education teachers were more concerned than mainstream teachers and were more likely to believe that the cyberbullying must be confronted. The results contribute to our understanding of the teachers’ perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying, which could serve as a basis for developing policy guidelines in schools as well as establishing programs for school teachers to cope with cyberbullying.
Author(s): Heiman, T., & Olenik-Shemesh, D.
Title: Cyberbullying experience and gender differences among adolescents in different educational settings
Journal: Journal of learning disabilities
Abstract: Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Findings indicate that although no significant differences emerged in the amount of surfing hours and students’ expertise in the use of the Internet, students attending special education classes are more likely to be cybervictims and cyberperpetrators; girls are more likely to be cybervictims, whereas boys are more likely to be cyberperpetrators. These results contribute to our understanding of students’ involvement in cyberbullying and can serve as a basis for developing preventive programs as well as intervention programs for students and for educational school teams.
Author(s): Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T., & Eden, S.
Title: Cyberbullying victimisation in adolescence: Relationships with loneliness and depressive mood.
Journal: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
Abstract: Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and two socio-emotional variables: loneliness and depressive mood. The sample consisted of 242 Israeli adolescents, aged 13–16 years, who completed questionnaires regarding Internet use, cyberbullying, traditional bullying, loneliness and depressive mood. In total, 16.5% of the participants reported being cybervictims and 32.5% reported knowing someone who was cybervictimised. The results revealed a relationship between cybervictimisation and loneliness (social, emotional and general) as well as depressive mood. A logistic hierarchical regression found that loneliness, gender and depressive mood each explained some variance in cybervictimisation in adolescents. As an anchor for comparison, and in order to shed light on the findings, results are presented in comparison to traditional bullying. The results make a contribution to national and international cyberbullying research and broaden the knowledge about potential risk factors for cybervictimisation.