Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Greece, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Touloupis, T. and Athanasiades, C.
Title: Evaluation of a cyberbullying prevention program in elementary schools: The role of self-esteem enhancement
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Abstract: Although elementary schools are considered a fertile ground for promoting positive behaviors among students (such as safe online practices), to date, almost no study has examined the effectiveness of a cyberbullying prevention program among elementary school students of typical and non-typical development. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of such a school-based European funded preventive program (TABBY, Threat Assessment of Bullying Behavior in Youth) among sixth graders with and without special educational needs (SEN). The study also examined the predictive role of self-esteem in students’ cyberbullying involvement. Overall, 240 students from randomly selected Greek schools completed a self-report questionnaire, which included a scale on cyberbullying and self-esteem. Following an experimental longitudinal research design, the intervention was applied to the experimental (N = 120) but not to the control group of students (N = 120). Each group consisted of both students with (N = 60) and without SEN (N = 60). The evaluation was based on the completion of the self-report questionnaire before (1st phase), immediately after (2nd phase), and 6 months after the intervention was completed (3rd phase) by trained general and special education teachers. According to the findings, students’ cyberbullying engagement (as bullies/victims) decreased significantly in the second and third phase, and especially for those with SEN. Additionally, self-esteem negatively predicted students’ involvement in cyberbullying (as bullies/victims) in all three phases. The findings partially support the appropriateness of interventions within the elementary school context in order to enhance self-esteem and promote a safe online culture among students of typical as well as atypical development.
Authors: Touloupis, T.
Title: Facebook Use and Cyberbullying by Students with Learning Disabilities: The Role of Self-Esteem and Loneliness
Journal: Psychological Reports
Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the perceived intensity of Facebook use and the involvement in cyberbullying among elementary school students with learning disabilities, who attend General Education classrooms. Furthermore, the role of students’ self-esteem and sense of loneliness in the manifestation of the above behaviors was examined. A self-report questionnaire, which included a scale on perceived intensity of Facebook use, cyberbullying, self-esteem, and sense of loneliness was completed by 211 sixth grade students (119 boys, 92 girls) from randomly selected schools located in economically diverse districts of Thessaloniki (Greece). Students had been diagnosed with learning disabilities in the past. According to the results, students and mainly girls seemed to make intense Facebook use and experience cyberbullying (as victims/bullies). Additionally, students’ self-esteem and sense of loneliness predicted indirectly (negatively and positively, respectively) their involvement in cyberbullying, through the mediating role of their perceived intensity of Facebook use. The findings imply the need to implement school prevention actions aimed at strengthening psycho-emotional state of students with learning disabilities and promoting a prudent use of social media. These initiatives may prevent students with learning disabilities from future engagement in cyberbullying incidents.
Authors: Touloupis, T. and Athanasiades, C.
Title: Cyberbullying and empathy among elementary school students: Do special educational needs make a difference?
Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Abstract: The present study investigates involvement in cyberbullying and empathy skills, as well as the relationship between the two among general education sixth grade elementary school students with and without special educational needs (SEN). Specifically, 120 students with SEN (Autistic Spectrum Disorder-ASD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-ADHD, learning disabilities) and 120 students without SEN from 29 randomly selected schools of the second biggest city in Greece completed a self-report questionnaire, which included a short version of the “Cyberbullying Questionnaire” (Smith et al., An investigation into cyber bullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyber bullying. A report to the Anti-Bullying Alliance. Unit for School and Family Studies, 2006) and the “Basic Empathy Scale”—BES (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006, J Adolesc, 29:589, 2006). The results showed that, regardless of gender, involvement in cyberbullying (as victims/bullies) concerned primarily students with SEN, mainly those with ASD and ADHD. Accordingly, students with SEN and mostly those with ASD expressed lower affective and cognitive empathy compared to the rest of the students. Finally, for all the participating students both affective and cognitive empathy negatively predicted engagement in cyberbullying (as victims/bullies). Implications for preventive actions in elementary education, and especially for children with SEN, are discussed in detail.
Authors: Theodoros N. Sergentanis, Sofia D. Bampalitsa, Paraskevi Theofilou, Eleni Panagouli, Elpis Vlachopapadopoulou, Stefanos Michalacos, Alexandros Gryparis, Loretta Thomaidis, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Maria Tsolia, Flora Bacopoulou, and Artemis Tsitsika
Title: Cyberbullying and Obesity in Adolescents: Prevalence and Associations in Seven European Countries of the EU NET ADB Survey
Journal: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity and Weight Management
Abstract: Background: overweight and obese individuals may often face aggressive messages or comments on the internet. This study attempts to evaluate the association between cyberbullying victimization and overweight/obesity in adolescents participating in the European Network for Addictive Behavior (EU NET ADB) survey. Methods: a school-based cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 14–17.9 years was conducted (n = 8785) within the EU NET ADB survey, including data from seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Romania, Poland, Spain). Complex samples and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: overall, overweight adolescents were more likely to have been cyberbullied compared to their normal weight peers (adjusted OR (Odds ratio) = 1.20, CI (confidence intervals): 1.01–1.42); this association was pronounced in Germany (adjusted OR = 1.58, CI: 1.11–2.25). In Iceland, obese adolescents reported cyberbullying victimization more frequently compared to their normal weight peers (adjusted OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.00–8.19). No significant associations with cyberbullying victimization were identified either for obese or overweight adolescents in Greece, Spain, Romania, Poland, and the Netherlands. Conclusions: this study reveals an overall association between cyberbullying victimization and overweight on the basis of a sizable, representative sample of adolescent population from seven European countries. Country-specific differences might reflect differential behavioral perceptions, but also normalization aspects.
Authors: Kokkinos, C. M., Baltizidis, E., Zynogala, D.
Title: Prevalence and personality correlates of Facebook bullying among university undergraduates
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of cyber-bullying through Facebook in a sample of 226 Greek university undergraduates, and to explore whether big five personality characteristics, narcissism, as well as attitudes toward Facebook, technological knowledge and skills were predictive of such behavior. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the above constructs. Results indicated that almost one third of the sample reported Facebook bullying engagement at least once during the past month, with male students reporting more frequent involvement than females. Bullying through Facebook was predicted by low Agreeableness and more time spent on Facebook only for males, whereas for females none of the studied variables predicted engagement in Facebook bullying. Findings are discussed in terms of prevention and intervention strategies.
Author(s): Antoniadou, & Kokkinos, C. M.
Title: Empathy in traditional and cyber bullying/victimization involvement from early to middle adolescence: A cross sectional study
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of affective and cognitive empathy with traditional and cyber bullying/victimization experiences among Greek participants who attended the fifth and sixth grade of elementary school (n=126), junior high school (n=140), and senior high school (n=157). Overall, results indicated negative correlations of empathy (especially affective) with traditional and cyber bullying/victimization. Negative correlations were particularly observed among elementary school participants, while affective empathy was found to be negatively related to bullying involvement, especially among girls. Overall, empathy (especially affective) may not be sufficiently developed among elementary school students, thus precluding them from understanding and caring about others’ emotional state. The negative correlation of empathy and cyber-bullying among junior high school participants might be related to the characteristics of computer mediated communication. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Author(s): Tsimtsiou, Z., Haidich, A. B., Drontsos, A., Dantsi, F., Sekeri, Z., Drosos, E., … & Arvanitidou, M.
Title: Pathological Internet use, cyberbullying and mobile phone use in adolescence: a school-based study in Greece
Journal: International journal of adolescent medicine and health
Abstract: This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and cyberbullying and examined profiles of adolescents with increased risk to develop pathological behaviors.
Author(s): Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, & Markos, A.
Title: Possible common correlates between bullying and cyber-bullying among adolescents
Abstract: The present study investigates possible individual characteristics associated with traditional and cyber-bullying/victimization among 146 Greek junior high school students and their contribution in the prediction of the phenomena. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire, measuring online disinhibition, personality traits, social skills, and relations, as well as Internet use. Results indicated that although some students participated with the same role in traditional and cyber-bullying/victimization and shared common characteristics, most of them participated in either one or both phenomena with opposite roles. In terms of predictive factors, cyber-bullying was predicted by being a male, online disinhibition, online activity and psychopathic traits, while traditional bullying was predicted by being a male, online disinhibition and sensation seeking. Cyber-victimization was predicted by online disinhibition, assertion, and few peer relations, while traditional victimization by Internet skills and impulsive-irresponsible traits. Findings are discussed in terms of common and differentiated prevention and intervention practices.
Author(s): Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., Asdre, A., & Voulgaridou, K.
Title: Parenting and Internet behavior predictors of cyber-bullying and cyber-victimization among preadolescents
Journal: Deviant Behavior
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between cyber-bullying (CB), cyber-victimization (CV), parenting styles, children’s Internet use and skills, on-line disinhibition, and five perceived specific Internet parenting practices in a sample of 220 Greek elementary students. Bully-victims scored higher in on-line disinhibition, while children of democratic parents in safe Internet use, Internet skills, and parenting communication about Internet use. CB and CV correlated negatively with Internet content parenting practices and autonomy, and positively with on-line disinhibition. CB negatively correlated with behavioral control. Psychological autonomy, warm involvement and on-line disinhibition significantly predicted CB, while psychological autonomy, CV. Prevention and intervention recommendations are provided.
Author(s): Athanasiades, C., Baldry, A. C., Kamariotis, T., Kostouli, M., & Psalti, A.
Title: The “net” of the internet: Risk factors for cyberbullying among secondary-school students in Greece
Journal: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Abstract: Cyberbullying is one of the most common threats an adolescent might face online with serious negative consequences at the social, emotional and educational level. Despite the intense study of the phenomenon over the past decade, most researchers ask for new directions in research that will focus on risk and protective factors. This study attempted to investigate the predictive effect of internet use, parental mediation, school-bullying and victimisation, gender and empathy on cyberbullying and cybervictimisation in two measurements, 4months apart. Data collection was conducted using a self-report questionnaire. Four hundred and forty secondary school students, aged 12–14, participated in the study. The students were randomly selected from six public schools located in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki in Greece. Results showed that involvement in traditional bullying as a victim or as a perpetrator is the factor with the highest predictability for cyberbullying and cybervictimisation, which also remains stable across time. This finding points to the urgent need for designing and implementing programmes against all forms of bullying both offline and on line.
Author(s): Kyriacou, C., Mylonakou‐Keke, I., & Stephens, P.
Title: Social pedagogy and bullying in schools: the views of university students in England, Greece and Norway
Journal: British Educational Research Journal
Abstract: This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to rate their strength of agreement with 30 statements concerning bullying in schools. Twelve of these statements specifically explored adopting a social pedagogic perspective. There was a general consensus among the respondents in all three countries that bullying is a major problem in schools and that schools are not tackling bullying adequately. The replies also indicate that many respondents reported views that align with a social pedagogic perspective. Differences between students within each country and between countries are in part a reflection of polarised views about how best to tackle bullying.
Author(s): Barkoukis, V., Lazuras, L., Ourda, D., & Tsorbatzoudis, H.
Title: Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school‐based intervention
Journal: Aggressive Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Lazuras, L., Casas, J. A., Barkoukis, V., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Tsorbatzoudis, H.
Title: Does empathy predict (cyber) bullying perpetration, and how do age, gender and nationality affect this relationship?
Journal: Learning and Individual Differences
Abstract: The present study set out to investigate which role empathy plays in traditional bullying and cyberbullying in a sample of adolescents from Greece and Spain. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess invariance of the relationship between empathy and (cyber) bullying across gender, age and nationality.
Author(s): Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A.
Title: A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: In recently published studies on cyberbullying, students are frequently categorized into distinct (cyber)bully and (cyber)victim clusters based on theoretical assumptions and arbitrary cut-off scores adapted from traditional bullying research. The present study identified involvement classes empirically using latent class analysis (LCA), to compare the classification of cyber- and traditional bullying and to compare LCA and the conventional approach. Participants were 6,260 students (M = 14.8 years, SD = 1.6; 49.1% male) from six European countries. LCA resulted in three classes for cyberbullying and four classes for traditional bullying. Cyber- and traditional bullying differed from each other, as did LCA and the conventional approach. Country, age, and gender differences were found. Implications for the field of traditional and cyberbullying research are discussed.
Author(s): Antoniadou, N., & Kokkinos, C. M.
Title: A review of research on cyber-bullying in Greece
Journal: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Abstract: Cyber-bullying is a recently emerging type of violence, which has gained significant media and research attention. Although research across Europe and the USA has been extensive, in Greece it is sparse and at an elementary level. This paper aimed at reviewing existing research literature on cyber-bullying experiences with Greek subjects. The bibliographical research carried out for this purpose yielded studies conducted between 2005 and 2012. Findings illustrate that to date, most evidence regarding cyber-bullying in Greece is drawn from European-level research projects which mainly provide statistics regarding the prevalence of the phenomenon, but give little information regarding its correlates, while most of the few national studies are conducted with small, non-nationwide samples or have not been published in scholarly papers. In conclusion, cyber-bullying research seems to be at a premature level in Greece, but it is a global issue that sooner or later should be systematically addressed.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A.
Title: Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: During the last decade, cyberbullying has become an increasing concern which has been addressed by diverse theoretical and methodological approaches. As a result there is a debate about its nature and rigorously validated assessment instruments have not yet been validated. In this context, in the present study an instrument composed of 22 items representing the different types of behaviours and actions that define cyberbullying has been structurally validated and its cross-cultural robustness has been calculated for the two main dimensions: cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression. To this end, 5679 secondary school students from six European countries (Spain, Germany, Italy, Poland, United Kingdom, and Greece) were surveyed through this self-report questionnaire which was designed based on previously existing instruments and the most relevant conceptual elements. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and the global internal consistency was computed for the instrument and its two dimensions. Identical factor structures were found across all of the six subsamples. The results contribute to existing research by providing an instrument, the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, which has been structurally validated in a wide sample from six different countries and that is useful to evaluate psycho-educative interventions against cyberbullying.
Author(s): Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Wójcik, S., Makaruk, K., Tzavela, E., Tzavara, C., … & Richardson, C.
Title: Cyberbullying victimization prevalence and associations with internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents in six European countries.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying victimization is an important adolescent health issue. The cross-national study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cyber victimization and associated internalizing, externalizing and academic problems among adolescents in six European countries. A cross-sectional school-based study of 14–17year-old adolescents (N=10,930; F/M: 5719/5211; mean age 15.8±0.7years) was conducted in Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, Iceland and Greece. In total, 21.4% of adolescents reported cyber victimization in the past 12months. Reports were more frequent among girls than boys (23.9% vs. 18.5%), and among the older adolescents compared to the younger ones (24.2% vs. 19.7%). The prevalence was highest in Romania and Greece (37.3% and 26.8%) and lowest in Spain and Iceland (13.3% and 13.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that cyber victimization was more frequent among adolescents using the internet and social networking sites for two or more hours daily. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing, internalizing and academic problems were associated with cyber victimization. Overall, cyber victimization was found to be a problem of substantial extent, concerning more than one in five of the studied European adolescents. Action against cyber victimization is crucial while policy planning should be aimed at the prevention of the phenomenon.
Author(s): Floros, G. D., Siomos, K. E., Fisoun, V., Dafouli, E., & Geroukalis, D.
Title: Adolescent online cyberbullying in Greece: The impact of parental online security practices, bonding, and online impulsiveness.
Journal: Journal of school health
Abstract: The introduction of new technological media worldwide has had a number of unfortunate side effects for some adolescents, including cases of bullying others through the new media (cyberbullying) and over-involvement to the point of addiction. We examine the epidemiology of cyberbullying in a Greek setting, compare it with earlier data, determine the impact of any related psychosocial factors, and propose measures to combat the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent high-school student population of the island of Kos examined the relationship between their experiences of Internet cyberbullying and respective parental characteristics, including aspects of psychological bonding and online security measures. The sample consisted of 2017 students (51.8% boys, 48.2% girls). Comparisons are made with results obtained from an earlier survey in the same setting, 2 years earlier. There was a significant rise in reported experiences of Internet cyberbullying over the 2-year period. Security practices exercised by parents had a protective role with regards to whether a child had been cyberbullied, yet failed to prevent the perpetration of online victimization. A regression model indicated that impulsive use of the Internet and related online activities were predictive of whether an adolescent victimized others online. Cyberbullying frequency with regards to both victims and victimizers was high and associated with online impulsiveness, pointing to the possible existence of some commonalities. Further research is necessary to ascertain common underlying psychological factors and neurobiology.
Author(s): Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., Dalara, E., Koufogazou, A., & Papatziki, A.
Title: Cyber-bullying, personality and coping among pre-adolescents
Journal: Journal of school health
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality (Five Factor Model), coping and cyber-bullying/victimization experiences among 300 Greek pre-adolescent students attending the upper two primary school grades. Boys reported more frequent involvement in cyber-bullying incidents, while there were no significant gender differences in terms of cyber-victimization. In terms of participant roles, non-involved students scored higher in Conscientiousness, and cyber-bully/victims in Emotional Instability. The latter also tended to use maladaptive coping strategies more frequently, while cyber-bullies reported using more “aggression” and “resignation” to cope with interpersonal conflicts. Multiple regression analyses indicated that low conscientious boys who use passive avoidance and aggression were more likely to cyber-bully, while those who use aggression, passive avoidance and situation control to cope with interpersonal stressors were cyber-victimized. Implications of the findings are discussed.