Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Finland, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.



Authors: Jesús Henares-Montiel, Vivian Benítez-Hidalgo, Isabel Ruiz-Pérez, Guadalupe Pastor-Moreno, and Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco

Year: 2022

Title: Cyberbullying and Associated Factors in Member Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies with Representative Population Samples

Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health


Abstract: The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the current state of empirical research and establish an up-to-date estimate of the prevalence of cyberbullying through the gathering of self-reported experiences from representative population samples from EU countries. Bibliographic searches were conducted on main electronic databases for studies until November 2021. We considered observational studies that provided data on cyberbullying prevalence and/or associated factors. Seven studies with data from 25 countries were included. Rates ranged between 2.8–31.5% for cybervictimization, between 3.0–30.6% for cyberperpetration, and between 13.0–53.1% for cyberbystanding. The rate of cybervictimization perpetration was 4%. Meta-analysis-pooled prevalence showed rates of 9.62% and 11.91% for cybervictimization and cyberperpetration, respectively. Given the large variation in the rates seen between the different examined studies, in addition to the increase over recent years in the prevalence rates of the different examined dimensions of cyberbullying, it would be useful to deepen research into the causes of these differences and the factors associated with each of the dimensions. This should be performed through populational surveys which enable the collection of a greater quantity of more consistent information with a view to designing prevention and intervention CB programs that are targeted and adapted towards the characteristics of the target population.



Authors: Atte Oksanen Reetta Oksa Nina Savela Eerik Mantere, Iina Savolainen Markus Kaakinen

Year: 2021

Title: COVID-19 crisis and digital stressors at work: A longitudinal study on the Finnish working population

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: The global crisis caused by the outbreak of a novel coronavirus and the associated disease (COVID-19) has changed working conditions due to social-distancing policies. Many workers started to use new technologies at work, including social media applications. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the potential stress effects of social media communication (SMC) at work. Based on our integrative theoretical model, we expected that SMC at work would burden some workers, but those who were accustomed to SMC at work would be better off when the crisis started. We collected a nationally representative sample of Finnish workers before (N = 1308) and during (N = 1081) the COVID-19 crisis. Outcome measures included technostress and work exhaustion. Multilevel linear mixed-effects regression models investigated formal and informal SMC at work. Covariates included cyberbullying at work, social media usage, personality, occupational status, and sociodemographic factors. Results showed that formal SMC increased and predicted higher technostress. However, technostress and work exhaustion decreased among workers already accustomed to using SMC at work before the crisis. The results indicate a disparity in workers’ resilience during remote work and highlight a need for organizational level support.



Author: Gazdek, H.

Year: 2021

Title: The anti-cyberbullying programs in Finnish lower secondary schools : teacher perspectives

Journal: University of Jyväskylä


Abstract: The development of technology, methods of communication and the entertainment industry has contributed to an increased amount of time students are spending online. This has also been followed by the emergence of cyberbullying, which has entered schools and has become a serious issue that challenges students, parents and educators alike. Nowadays, schools have to incorporate anti-cyberbullying strategies to ensure a safe learning environment. This study examined the implementation of anti-cyberbullying programs in Finnish lower secondary schools and their potential improvements through the perspectives of educators. Two research questions were in the focus of this study: “How do educators assess the implementation of the current anti-cyberbullying program in their schools” and “How would educators improve the efficiency of the anti-cyberbullying program in their schools?”. The views of the educators were studied through a qualitative approach by using semi-structured interviews. Seven educators from seven different Finnish lower secondary schools shared their experiences with the cyberbullying cases they had encountered. The findings indicated there are several areas within the programs that still have room for improvement, mostly in the area of educating the indirect participants of cyberbullying, i.e., the teachers and parents. Furthermore, the results showed that more attention should be paid to bystanders of bullying. It can be concluded that certain changes need to be made to more efficiently prevent cyberbullying. The facilitation of proper education for teachers, clear school policies about anti-bullying measures and better support for educators to create safer school environments are the first steps to be taken to more efficiently oppose cyberbullying.



Authors: Atte Oksanen, Reetta Oksa, Nina Savela, Markus Kaakinen, Noora Ellonen

Year: 2020

Title: Cyberbullying victimization at work: Social media identity bubble approach

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior


Abstract: Cyberbullying at work takes many forms, from aggressive and threatening behavior to social ostracism. It can also have adverse consequences on general well-being that might be even more severe for people whose identities are centrally based on social media ties. We examined this type of identity-driven social media use via the concept of social media identity bubbles. We first analyzed the risk and protective factors associated with cyberbullying victimization at work and then investigated its impacts on well-being. We expected that workers strongly involved in social media identity bubbles would be in the worst position when faced with cyberbullying. Data include a sample of workers from five Finnish expert organizations (N = 563) and a representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1817). We investigated cyberbullying at work with 10 questions adapted from the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire. Other measures included scales for private and professional social media usage, social media identity bubbles (six-item Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale), well-being at work, sociodemographic factors, and job-related information. Prevalence of monthly cyberbullying victimization at work was 13% in expert organizations and 17% in the Finnish working population. Victims were young, active users of professional social media and they were strongly involved in social media identity bubbles. Victims who were in social media identity bubbles reported higher psychological distress, exhaustion, and technostress than other victims. Cyberbullying at work is a prevalent phenomenon and has negative outcomes on well-being at work. Negative consequences are more severe among those with highly identity-driven social media use.



Authors: Elina Tiiri, Terhi Luntamo, Kaisa Mishina, Lauri Sillanmäki, Anat Brunstein Klomek, Andre Sourander

Year: 2020

Title: Did Bullying Victimization Decrease After Nationwide School-Based Antibullying Program? A Time-Trend Study

Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry


Abstract: We assessed changes in traditional and cyberbullying victimization, and their associations with mental health, before and after the introduction of a nationwide antibullying program in Finnish schools in 2009. This time-trend assessment comprised two methodologically identical cross-sectional survey studies, with 2,061 adolescents in 2008 (response rate 90.2%) and 1,936 in 2014 (91.8%). Their mean age was 14.4 years. They completed questionnaires about traditional and cyberbullying, mental health, and perceptions of school safety. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs are presented with 2008 as the reference year. From 2008 to 2014, traditional victimization decreased from 28.9% to 19.1% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.7) among boys and from 23.2% to 17.4% (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6–0.9) among girls. Cyberbullying victimization remained fairly stable at 3.3% and 3.0% (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.4–1.2) for boys and at 2.7% and 4.1% (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9–2.4) for girls. Combined traditional and cyberbullying victimization decreased from 6.1% to 3.9% (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8) among boys and from 7.5% to 6.7% (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6–1.2) among girls. Those experiencing both traditional and cyberbullying reported the highest mental health problems. Perceived school safety improved among boys, but not among girls. Both boys and girls reported greater efforts by teachers and fellow students to stop bullying. Combined traditional and cyberbullying victimization was an indicator of comorbid mental health problems. Interventions that target both types of bullying, and that are integrated with mental health promotion, are needed.



Authors: Manisha Hamal, Subas Neupane, and Arja Hannele Rimpela

Year: 2019

Title: Risk factors of cyberbullying and its association with perceived health among Finnish adolescents

Journal: Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies


Abstract: This study focused on the prevalence of cyberbullying dimensions (victims, bullies, seriousness of cyberbullying encountered) and its association with perceived health of Finnish adolescents. A representative data sample of 12, 14, 16 and 18-year-old Finns from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey (AHLS) of the year 2015 were used. Participants responded to the survey via internet or paper questionnaire (n = 6698). Three dimensions of cyberbullyin,perceived health and health complaints (tension, irritation and headaches) were measured. Binary logistic regression was used to study the association of age and gender with cyberbullying and the association of perceived health with cyberbullying. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association of health complaints with cyberbullying. Odds ratio (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported as the measure of association. Among the respondents, 12% were cyber victims, 8.2% cyberbullies and 4.4% encountered serious cyberbullying. Multivariable models, adjusted for family structure, father’s and mother’s education, indicated that girls were less likely to become cyberbullies (OR = 0.48, 95%, C.I. = 0.39–0.59), more likely to encounter serious cyberbullying (OR = 2.06, 95% C.I. = 1.47–2.87) and become cyber victims (OR = 1.27, 95%, C.I. = 1.04–1.56) compared to boys. Adolescents of age 12–14 years were more likely to become cyberbullies (OR = 1.22, 95%, C.I. = 1.00–1.48) and cyber victims (OR = 1.51, 95%, C.I. = 1.23–1.84) compared to 16–18 years. Moreover, poor perceived health and health complaints were associated with higher likelihood among girls, cyberbullies and cyber victims whereas, lesser likelihood among adolescents of 12–14 years compared to their respective reference groups. Cyberbullying exists among Finnish adolescents. Age and gender were associated with cyberbullying activities and cyberbullying activities were associated with poor-perceived health and health complaints.



Author: Hamal, M

Year: 2017

Title: Risk factors of cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents and its effects on their health

Journal: N/A


Abstract: Background: The rapid advancement of technology and social networking has invited a new form of bullying called ‘cyberbullying’ among adolescents. Very little is known on whether cyberbullying and its risk factors are linked with poor self-reported health (SRH) and increased subjective health complaints (SHC) among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence and risk factors related with cyberbullying and its impact on health and well-being of Finnish adolescents.



Authors: Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L

Year: 2016

Title: Happiness and depression in the traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old.

Journal: Open Review of Educational Research


Abstract: This study investigated the overall happiness, school-related happiness, and depression of traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old Finnish students. Among the more than 700 participants, traditional bullying (26%) was more frequent than cyberbullying (18%). Receiving insulting text messages or being the subject of offensive comments on the Internet were the most common forms of cyberbullying. Often those who were cyberbullied were also victims of traditional bullying (the poly-victimized comprised 11% of all participants). We found no differences between genders in traditional bullying rates, but cyberbullying was more common among girls. Being victimized, in either form, was related to a decrease in all measures of psychological well-being, with the poly-victimized scoring the lowest. In particular, being victimized predicted depression, with the poly-victimized scoring the highest. The results indicate a clear need to intervene in early adolescents’ culture of communicating via electronic devices and especially to identify victims of bullying in both the real and cyber world.



Authors: Cross, D., Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Monks, H.

Year: 2012

Title: Understanding and preventing cyberbullying: where have we been and where should we be going?

Journal: Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives


Abstract: This book contributes to an understanding of cyberbullying, its nature, harmful effects, and correlates of this behavior as it affects young people. Many previous publications on cyberbullying have focused on studies in North America. However, in this book we have presented findings from eleven countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, England, Finland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, South Korea, and the United States. By providing a range of cultural perspectives, this collection of research aims to contribute new knowledge about the cross-cultural issues relevant to cyberbullying, and the generality or specificity of findings. Beyond that, we hope to develop more effective strategies to prevent and reduce harm from cyberbullying. This chapter discusses some issues arising from the research presented in the twelve empirical studies in this book, and considers the implications of this and other relevant research for the design, development, and evaluation of cyberbullying interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserves.



Author(s): Elledge, L. C., Williford, A., Boulton, A. J., DePaolis, K. J., Little, T. D., & Salmivalli, C.

Year: 2013

Title: Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: The influence of children’s provictim attitudes and teachers’ ability to intervene

Journal: Journal of youth and adolescence


Abstract: Electronic social communication has provided a new context for children to bully and harass their peers and it is clear that cyberbullying is a growing public health concern in the US and abroad. The present study examined individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying in a sample of 16, 634 students in grades 3–5 and 7–8. Data were obtained from a large cluster-randomized trial of the KiVa antibullying program that occurred in Finland between 2007 and 2009. Students completed measures at pre-intervention assessing provictim attitudes (defined as children’s beliefs that bullying is unacceptable, victims are acceptable, and defending victims is valued), perceptions of teachers’ ability to intervene in bullying, and cyberbullying behavior. Students with higher scores on provictim attitudes reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying. This relationship was true for individual provictim attitudes as well as the collective attitudes of students within classrooms. Teachers’ ability to intervene assessed at the classroom level was a unique, positive predictor of cyberbullying. Classrooms in which students collectively considered their teacher as capable of intervening to stop bullying had higher mean levels of cyberbullying frequency. Our findings suggest that cyberbullying and other indirect or covert forms of bullying may be more prevalent in classrooms where students collectively perceive their teacher’s ability to intervene in bullying as high. We found no evidence that individual or contextual effects were conditional on age or gender. Implications for research and practice are discussed.



Author(s): Lindfors, P. L., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Rimpelä, A. H.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents–a population-based study.

Journal: BMC public health


Abstract: Background: Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends.

Citation: Lindfors, P. L., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Rimpelä, A. H. (2012). Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents–a population-based study. BMC public health, 12(1), 1027.



Author(s): Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., … & Helenius, H.

Year: 2010

Title: Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study.

Journal: Archives of general psychiatry


Abstract: Objective: To study cross-sectional associations between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among adolescents.