Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Finland, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Hamal, M
Title: Risk factors of cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents and its effects on their health
Background: The rapid advancement of technology and social networking has invited a new form of bullying called ‘cyberbullying’ among adolescents. Very little is known on whether cyberbullying and its risk factors are linked with poor self-reported health (SRH) and increased subjective health complaints (SHC) among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence and risk factors related with cyberbullying and its impact on health and well-being of Finnish adolescents.
Methods: Cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire survey on nationally representative samples of (12, 14, 16 and 18) years old Finns was conducted in 2015. Altogether 6698 respondents (boys 2870 and girls 3828), response rate 41%, replied the survey questions. Self-reported health, subjective health complaints (tension, feelings of irritation and headaches) and two questions on cyberbullying, were collected during the survey. Binary and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of cyberbullying and for the association of cyberbullying with health outcomes. Odd ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported as the measure of associations.
Results: The prevalence of cyberbullying (victims) and (bullies) were 12% and 8.2% respectively. Cyberbullying (victims and bullies) was highest in 14 and lowest in 18 years old adolescents in both genders. Statistically significant association between gender and cyberbullies was found with girls less likely to act as cyberbullies (OR=0.34, 95%, CI=0.16-0.70). Adolescents living in a family without their biological parents were more likely to become cyber victims (OR=1.82, 95%, CI= 1.16-2.84). Adolescents of 12 years were less likely to report poor health and subjective health complains (tension, irritation and headaches). Girls were 2 folds more likely to report poor health and 5 folds more likely to complain (tension, irritation and headaches) compared to boys. Adolescents not having biological parents and with low and medium educated parents were more likely to report poor health and subjective health complaints. Those adolescents who were bullied once/many times a week had higher odds of reporting poor health (OR=15.22, 95%, CI= 7.07- 32.77) and higher odds of complaining to have health symptoms (OR=13.8, 95%, CI= 7.23-26.37) compared to those who were not bullied at all. Likewise, adolescents who bullied other once/many times a week reported higher odds of having poor health (OR=1.88, 95%, CI=0.41-8.53) and higher odds to complain all three symptoms (OR=2.32, 95%, CI=0.75-7.15) than those who never bullied.
Conclusion: Family structure was significantly associated with cyber victims and gender was significantly associated with cyberbullies. Adolescent’s age, gender, family structure and parents’ education were found to be statistically significantly associated with self-reported health and subjective health complaints. As cyberbullying is clearly associated with poor health of adolescents, policy makers, teachers, parents, and adolescents need to have a proper understanding of the nature of cyberbullying, how to address it and how to prevent it.
Citation: Hamal, M. (2017). Risk factors of cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents and its effects on their health (Master’s thesis).
Authors: Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L
Title: Happiness and depression in the traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old.
Journal: Open Review of Educational Research
Abstract: This study investigated the overall happiness, school-related happiness, and depression of traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old Finnish students. Among the more than 700 participants, traditional bullying (26%) was more frequent than cyberbullying (18%). Receiving insulting text messages or being the subject of offensive comments on the Internet were the most common forms of cyberbullying. Often those who were cyberbullied were also victims of traditional bullying (the poly-victimized comprised 11% of all participants). We found no differences between genders in traditional bullying rates, but cyberbullying was more common among girls. Being victimized, in either form, was related to a decrease in all measures of psychological well-being, with the poly-victimized scoring the lowest. In particular, being victimized predicted depression, with the poly-victimized scoring the highest. The results indicate a clear need to intervene in early adolescents’ culture of communicating via electronic devices and especially to identify victims of bullying in both the real and cyber world.
Citation: Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L. (2016). Happiness and depression in the traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old. Open Review of Educational Research; 2016, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p35-51, 17p
Authors: Cross, D., Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Monks, H.
Title: Understanding and preventing cyberbullying: where have we been and where should we be going?
Journal: Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives
Abstract: This book contributes to an understanding of cyberbullying, its nature, harmful effects, and correlates of this behavior as it affects young people. Many previous publications on cyberbullying have focused on studies in North America. However, in this book we have presented findings from eleven countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, England, Finland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, South Korea, and the United States. By providing a range of cultural perspectives, this collection of research aims to contribute new knowledge about the cross-cultural issues relevant to cyberbullying, and the generality or specificity of findings. Beyond that, we hope to develop more effective strategies to prevent and reduce harm from cyberbullying. This chapter discusses some issues arising from the research presented in the twelve empirical studies in this book, and considers the implications of this and other relevant research for the design, development, and evaluation of cyberbullying interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserves.
Citation: Cross, D., Li, Q., Smith, P. K., & Monks, H. (2012). Understanding and preventing cyberbullying: where have we been and where should we be going?. Q. Li, D. Cross, & P. K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives.
Author(s): Elledge, L. C., Williford, A., Boulton, A. J., DePaolis, K. J., Little, T. D., & Salmivalli, C.
Title: Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: The influence of children’s provictim attitudes and teachers’ ability to intervene
Journal: Journal of youth and adolescence
Abstract: Electronic social communication has provided a new context for children to bully and harass their peers and it is clear that cyberbullying is a growing public health concern in the US and abroad. The present study examined individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying in a sample of 16, 634 students in grades 3–5 and 7–8. Data were obtained from a large cluster-randomized trial of the KiVa antibullying program that occurred in Finland between 2007 and 2009. Students completed measures at pre-intervention assessing provictim attitudes (defined as children’s beliefs that bullying is unacceptable, victims are acceptable, and defending victims is valued), perceptions of teachers’ ability to intervene in bullying, and cyberbullying behavior. Students with higher scores on provictim attitudes reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying. This relationship was true for individual provictim attitudes as well as the collective attitudes of students within classrooms. Teachers’ ability to intervene assessed at the classroom level was a unique, positive predictor of cyberbullying. Classrooms in which students collectively considered their teacher as capable of intervening to stop bullying had higher mean levels of cyberbullying frequency. Our findings suggest that cyberbullying and other indirect or covert forms of bullying may be more prevalent in classrooms where students collectively perceive their teacher’s ability to intervene in bullying as high. We found no evidence that individual or contextual effects were conditional on age or gender. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Citation: Elledge, L. C., Williford, A., Boulton, A. J., DePaolis, K. J., Little, T. D., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: The influence of children’s provictim attitudes and teachers’ ability to intervene. Journal of youth and adolescence, 42(5), 698-710.
Author(s): Lindfors, P. L., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Rimpelä, A. H.
Title: Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents–a population-based study.
Journal: BMC public health
Abstract: Background: Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends.
Citation: Lindfors, P. L., Kaltiala-Heino, R., & Rimpelä, A. H. (2012). Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents–a population-based study. BMC public health, 12(1), 1027.
Author(s): Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., … & Helenius, H.
Title: Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study.
Journal: Archives of general psychiatry
Abstract: Objective: To study cross-sectional associations between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among adolescents.
Citation: Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., … & Helenius, H. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(7), 720-728.