Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Great Britain, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Macaulay, P. JR., Boulton, M. J, Betts, L. R.
Title: Comparing early adolescents’ positive bystander responses to cyberbullying and traditional bullying: the impact of severity and gender
Journal: Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
Abstract: Young people are frequently exposed to bullying events in the offline and online domain. Witnesses to these incidents act as bystanders and play a pivotal role in reducing or encouraging bullying behaviour. The present study examined 868 (47.2% female) 11–13-year-old early adolescent pupils’ bystander responses across a series of hypothetical vignettes based on traditional and cyberbullying events. The vignettes experimentally controlled for severity across mild, moderate and severe scenarios. The findings showed positive bystander responses (PBRs) were higher in cyberbullying than traditional bullying incidents. Bullying severity impacted on PBRs, in that PBRs increased across mild, moderate and severe incidents, consistent across traditional and cyberbullying. Females exhibited more PBRs across both types of bullying. Findings are discussed in relation to practical applications within the school. Strategies to encourage PBRs to all forms of bullying should be at the forefront of bullying intervention methods.
Citation: Macaulay, P. J. R., Boulton, M. J., & Betts, L. R. (2018). Comparing Early Adolescents’ Positive Bystander Responses to Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying: the Impact of Severity and Gender. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 4(3), 253–261. doi: 10.1007/s41347-018-0082-2
Authors: Betts, L. R., Metwally, S. H., Gardner, S. E.
Title: We Are Safe but You Are Not: Exploring Comparative Optimism and Cyber Bullying
Journal: Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
Abstract: Individuals tend to believe that when comparing themselves to others they are less vulnerable to potential risks. This is referred to as comparative optimism, whereby individuals believe that they are immune from negative experiences that can happen to others. The current study examined comparative optimism judgements for the likelihood of experiencing cyber bullying. Comparative optimism was examined in three age groups: older adolescents (n = 130, 57% female, Mage = 16.82, SDage = .38), emerging adults (n = 355, 92% female, Mage = 19.26, SDage = .27), and adults (n = 147, 66% female, Mage = 33.24, SDage = 9.77). All participants reported the likelihood that they, their friends, other students [forum users] younger than them, other students [forum users] their age, people older than them, and strangers would experience cyber bullying. Participants displayed an optimistic bias, reporting that they were less likely to experience cyber bullying than others. However, the relative risk of experiencing cyber bullying varied according to comparator group. Comparator groups that were socially close to the participants (e.g. friends) were generally rated as less likely to experience cyber bullying than socially distant comparator groups (e.g. strangers). Also, comparator groups that were younger than the participants were consistently judged to be most at risk of experiencing cyber bullying. Together, the findings have implications for the design of anti-cyber bullying interventions and campaigns to promote digital safety.
Citation: Betts, L. R., Metwally, S. H., & Gardner, S. E. (2018). We Are Safe but You Are Not: Exploring Comparative Optimism and Cyber Bullying. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 4(3), 227–233. doi: 10.1007/s41347-018-0070-6
Authors: Macaulay, P. JR., Betts, L. R., Stiller, J., Kellezi, B.
Title: “It’s so fluid, it’s developing all the time”: pre-service teachers’ perceptions and understanding of cyberbullying in the school environment
Journal: Educational Studies
Abstract: To gain an insight into how those entering the teaching profession regard cyberbullying, two focus groups were conducted with nine pre-service teachers (PSTs). Thematic analytical approach revealed three themes: (a) evolving nature of bullying, (b) involvement in cyberbullying and (c) management of cyberbullying. PSTs discussed how cyberbullying was evolving and becoming socially acceptable in the modern world. Participants addressed features of victimisation and perpetration associated with cyberbullying. PSTs reflected on the responsibility to address cyberbullying, discussing effective strategies to manage the issue. Participants considered the extent to which their initial teacher training course prepared prospective teachers to manage cyberbullying.
Citation: Peter J. R. Macaulay, Lucy R. Betts, James Stiller & Blerina Kellezi (2019) “It’s so fluid, it’s developing all the time”: pre-service teachers’ perceptions and understanding of cyberbullying in the school environment, Educational Studies, DOI: 10.1080/03055698.2019.1620693
Authors: Betts, L. R., Baguley, T. Gardner, S. E.
Title: Examining adults’ participant roles in cyberbullying
Journal: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Abstract: Adults’ participant roles in cyberbullying remain unclear. Two hundred and sixty-four (163 female and 87 male) 18- to 74-year-olds from 31 countries completed measures to assess their experiences of, and engagement in, 5 cyberbullying types for up to 9 media. Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups: rarely victim and bully (85%) and frequently victim and occasional bully. Sex and age predicted group membership: Females and older participants were more likely to belong to the rarely victim and bully group, whereas males and younger participants were more likely to belong to the frequently victim and occasional bully group. The findings have implications for anti-cyberbullying interventions and how behaviors are interpreted online.
Citation: Betts, L. R., Baguley, T., & Gardner, S. E. (2019). Examining adults’ participant roles in cyberbullying. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(11–12), 3362–3370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407518822774
Authors: Macaulay, P. JR., Betts, L. R., Stiller, J., Kellezi, B.
Title: Perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying: A systematic review of teachers in the education system
Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior
Abstract: The rise and availability of digital technologies for young people have presented additional challenges for teachers in the school environment. One such challenge is cyberbullying, an escalating concern, associated with wide-reaching negative consequences for those involved and the surrounding community. The present systematic review explored teachers’ perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying in the education system. Once the search strategy was applied across the six databases, 20 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies were reviewed and examined for common themes. Five themes were identified: (a) Cyberbullying characteristics and student involvement, (b) Cyberbullying training and guidance for teachers, (c) School commitment and strategies to manage cyberbullying, (d) The impact and extent of cyberbullying prevalence and consequences, and (e) Teachers’ confidence and concern towards cyberbullying. The themes are discussed in a narrative synthesis with reference to implications for teachers and for the continued development and review of anti-cyberbullying initiatives.
Citation: Macaulay, P. J., Betts, L. R., Stiller, J., & Kellezi, B. (2018). Perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying: A systematic review of teachers in the education system. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 43, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.08.004
Author(s): Betts, L. R., Spenser, K. A., & Gardner, S. E
Title: Adolescents’ involvement in cyber bullying and perceptions of school: The importance of perceived peer acceptance for female adolescents
Journal: Sex Roles
Abstract: Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, Mage = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women’s perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
Citation: Betts, L. R., Spenser, K. A., & Gardner, S. E. (2017). Adolescents’ involvement in cyber bullying and perceptions of school: The importance of perceived peer acceptance for female adolescents . Sex Roles, 77, 471-481.
Author(s): Betts, L. R.,& Spenser, K. A.
Title: “People think it’s a harmless joke”: Young people’s understanding of the impact of technology, digital vulnerability, and cyber bullying in the United Kingdom
Journal: Journal of Children and Media
Abstract: Young people’s technology use has increased exponentially over the last few years. To gain a deeper understanding of young peoples’ experiences of digital technology and cyberbullying, four focus groups were conducted with 29 11- to 15-year-olds recruited from two schools. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three themes: impact of technology, vulnerability and cyberbullying. Technology was seen as a facilitator and a mechanism for maintaining social interactions. However, participants reported experiencing a conflict between the need to be sociable and the desire to maintain privacy. Cyberbullying was regarded as the actions of an anonymous coward who sought to disrupt social networks and acts should be distinguished from banter.
Citation: Betts, L. R., & Spenser, K. A. (2017). “People think it’s a harmless joke”: Young people’s understanding of the impact of technology, digital vulnerability, and cyber bullying in the United Kingdom. Journal of Children and Media, 11, 20-35.
Author(s): Betts, L. R., Gkimitzoudis, T., Spenser, K. A., & Baguley, T
Title: Examining the roles young people fulfil in five types of cyber bullying
Journal: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Abstract: The roles that young people fulfill in face-to-face bullying have been well documented and there is some evidence that young people take on similar roles in cyber bullying. A person-centered analytical approach was adopted to identify the roles that young people fulfill across five different types of cyber bullying assessed for up to nine media. Four hundred and forty (281 females and 154 males) 16- to 19-year-olds completed measures to assess their involvement in various types of cyber bullying and across the various media. Cluster analysis identified four distinct groups: “not involved,” “rarely victim and bully,” “typically victim,” and “retaliator.” Two thirds of the sample reported some involvement in cyber bullying. Distinct patterns emerged for each group according to the type of cyber bullying. The lack of a clear bully group and the presence of the retaliator group strengthen the growing evidence base that young people may cyber bully others as a mechanism of retaliation when they are the victim of cyber bullying.
Citation: Betts, L. R., Gkimitzoudis, T., Spenser, K. A., & Baguley, T. (2017). Examining the roles young people fulfil in five types of cyber bullying. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 34, 1080 – 1098.
Author(s): Betts, L. R., & Spenser, K. A.
Title: Developing the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales
Journal: The Journal of Genetic Psychology
Abstract: The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11–15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.
Citation: Betts, L. R., & Spenser, K. A. (2017). Developing the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 178, 147-164.
Author(s): Bevilacqua, L., Shackleton, N., Hale, D., Allen, E., Bond, L., Christie, D., … & Miners, A.
Title: The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study
Journal: BMC Pediatrics
Abstract: Bullying and cyberbullying are common phenomena in schools. These negative behaviours can have a significant impact on the health and particularly mental health of those involved in such behaviours, both as victims and as bullies. This UK study aims to investigate student-level and school-level characteristics of those who become involved in bullying and cyberbullying behaviours as victims or perpetrators.
Citation: Bevilacqua, L., Shackleton, N., Hale, D., Allen, E., Bond, L., Christie, D., … & Miners, A. (2017). The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study.BMC pediatrics,17(1), 160.
Author(s): Przybylski, A. K., & Bowes, L.
Title: Cyberbullying and adolescent well-being in England: a population-based cross-sectional study
Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Abstract: Bullying is a major public health problem. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cyberbullying and traditional bullying among adolescents in England, and assess its relative effects on mental well-being.
Citation: Przybylski, A. K., & Bowes, L. (2017). Cyberbullying and adolescent well-being in England: a population-based cross-sectional study.The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health,1(1), 19-26.
Author(s): Kyriacou, C., Mylonakou‐Keke, I., & Stephens, P.
Title: Social pedagogy and bullying in schools: the views of university students in England, Greece and Norway
Journal: British Educational Research Journal
Abstract: This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to rate their strength of agreement with 30 statements concerning bullying in schools. Twelve of these statements specifically explored adopting a social pedagogic perspective. There was a general consensus among the respondents in all three countries that bullying is a major problem in schools and that schools are not tackling bullying adequately. The replies also indicate that many respondents reported views that align with a social pedagogic perspective. Differences between students within each country and between countries are in part a reflection of polarised views about how best to tackle bullying.
Citation: Kyriacou, C., Mylonakou‐Keke, I., & Stephens, P. (2016). Social pedagogy and bullying in schools: the views of university students in England, Greece and Norway.British Educational Research Journal,42(4), 631-645.
Author(s): Blank, G., & Lutz, C.
Title: Benefits and harms from Internet use: A differentiated analysis of Great Britain
Journal: New Media & Society
Abstract: Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of digital divides by investigating outcomes of Internet use. We extend this research to analyse positive and negative outcomes of Internet use in the United Kingdom. We apply structural equation modelling to data from a large Internet survey to compare the social structuration of Internet benefits with harms. We find that highly educated users benefit most from using the web. Elderly individuals benefit more than younger ones. Next to demographic characteristics, technology attitudes are the strongest predictors of online benefits. The harms from using the Internet are structured differently, with educated users and those with high levels of privacy concerns being most susceptible to harm. This runs counter to intuitions based on prior digital divide research, where those at the margins should be most at risk. While previous research on digital inequality has only looked at benefits, the inclusion of harms draws a more differentiated picture.
Citation: Blank, G., & Lutz, C. (2016). Benefits and harms from Internet use: A differentiated analysis of Great Britain.New Media & Society, 1461444816667135.
Author(s): Kyriacou, C., & Zuin, A.
Title: Cyberbullying of teachers by students on YouTube: challenging the image of teacher authority in the digital age
Journal: Research Papers in Education
Abstract: There has been a rapid increase in the cyberbullying of teachers in schools by their students. One aspect of this phenomenon is the posting of visual recordings of teachers and teacher–student interaction on easily accessible websites such as YouTube. Whilst research on the cyberbullying of students by other students has received a great deal of attention, research on the cyberbullying of teachers by students is still in its infancy. This paper addresses key issues that have emerged by examining such recordings which have been posted on YouTube. This paper focuses on one illustrative example from each of three national settings, which feature teachers in Brazil, Portugal and England. The analysis of these three recordings indicates that we need to develop a new conceptual framework in order to understand the cyberbullying of teachers by students. There appears to have been a radical shift in the way students can challenge teacher authority through the use of digital media. Combatting this phenomenon needs to be seen in the context of developing an anti-cyberbullying policy for the whole school. We conclude that teachers, head teachers, students, parents and welfare professionals need to work together to consider how best to deal with the cyberbullying of teachers by students, within the context of developing a positive school community ethos, the adoption of an anti-cyberbullying policy for the whole school, and addressing cyberbullying through the personal and social education curriculum.
Citation: Kyriacou, C., & Zuin, A. (2016). Cyberbullying of teachers by students on YouTube: challenging the image of teacher authority in the digital age.Research Papers in Education,31(3), 255-273.
Author(s): West, D.
Title: An investigation into the prevalence of cyberbullying among students aged 16–19 in post-compulsory education.
Journal: Research in Post-Compulsory Education
Abstract: Young people in society are able to use information and communication technology with ease and exploit the opportunities and benefits of social interaction that has become ingrained in their daily routines. However, as the use of technology has risen, so too has its misuse to harm others. The phenomena of bullying and, more recently, cyberbullying, continue to be of interest to scholars, practitioners and policy makers. To date, the vast majority of research into bullying and cyberbullying has been contained to compulsory education contexts, leaving a dearth of literature in post-compulsory education. The present study explores cyberbullying in the context of post-16 education in England and reports prevalence levels of perpetration and victimisation. The data presented are part of a larger research project that considers other aspects of cyberbullying such as reasons for cyberbullying, groups disproportionately involved in cyberbullying and the impact that cyberbullying has on feelings, learning and social integration. The results of some of these areas are outlined briefly and do not feature as the focus of this article due to word limits. Previous research on cyberbullying is considered, including a brief outline of key concepts such as the definition and criteria of bullying and cyberbullying. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from 5690 students from 41 colleges. The results show that 7.9% of those aged 16-19 who study in colleges in England reported being victims of cyberbullying and 1.9% admitted cyberbullying others.
Citation: West, D. (2015). An investigation into the prevalence of cyberbullying among students aged 16–19 in post-compulsory education. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 20(1), 96-112.
Author(s): Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A.
Title: A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: In recently published studies on cyberbullying, students are frequently categorized into distinct (cyber)bully and (cyber)victim clusters based on theoretical assumptions and arbitrary cut-off scores adapted from traditional bullying research. The present study identified involvement classes empirically using latent class analysis (LCA), to compare the classification of cyber- and traditional bullying and to compare LCA and the conventional approach. Participants were 6,260 students (M = 14.8 years, SD = 1.6; 49.1% male) from six European countries. LCA resulted in three classes for cyberbullying and four classes for traditional bullying. Cyber- and traditional bullying differed from each other, as did LCA and the conventional approach. Country, age, and gender differences were found. Implications for the field of traditional and cyberbullying research are discussed.
Citation: Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Göbel, K., Scheithauer, H., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Tsorbatzoudis, H., … & Casas, J. A. (2015). A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries. Journal of School Violence, 14(1), 47-65.
Author(s): O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T.
Title: Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile.
Abstract: The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to perform acts of harassment. While online bullying is often considered to be an extension of persistent offline behavior, according to EU Kids Online (2011), the most common form of bullying is in person, face-to-face. With the rise in use of mobile Internet technologies, this balance is changing. Increased levels of use and more time spent online accessed through a variety of devices has increased children’s exposure to a range of online risks, including cyberbullying. This article presents the findings of the Net Children Go Mobile project, a cross-national study of children aged 9–16 in seven European countries. The research builds on the work of EU Kids Online and supports the identification of new trends in children’s online experiences of risk and safety. The study finds that while overall levels of bullying have remained relatively static, levels of online bullying have increased, particularly among younger teens. The relationship between cyberbullying and the use of mobile Internet technologies is examined and factors contributing to increased levels of cyberbullying are highlighted.
Citation: O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T. (2015). Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile. Societies, 5(2), 384-398.
Author(s): Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A.
Title: Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: During the last decade, cyberbullying has become an increasing concern which has been addressed by diverse theoretical and methodological approaches. As a result there is a debate about its nature and rigorously validated assessment instruments have not yet been validated. In this context, in the present study an instrument composed of 22 items representing the different types of behaviours and actions that define cyberbullying has been structurally validated and its cross-cultural robustness has been calculated for the two main dimensions: cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression. To this end, 5679 secondary school students from six European countries (Spain, Germany, Italy, Poland, United Kingdom, and Greece) were surveyed through this self-report questionnaire which was designed based on previously existing instruments and the most relevant conceptual elements. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted and the global internal consistency was computed for the instrument and its two dimensions. Identical factor structures were found across all of the six subsamples. The results contribute to existing research by providing an instrument, the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, which has been structurally validated in a wide sample from six different countries and that is useful to evaluate psycho-educative interventions against cyberbullying.
Citation: Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., Ortega-Ruiz, R., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Smith, P., … & Guarini, A. (2015). Structural validation and cross-cultural robustness of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 141-147.
Author(s): Brewer, G., & Kerslake, J.
Title: Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness.
Journal: Computers in human behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a unique phenomenon, distinguished from traditional bullying by the speed at which information is distributed, permanence of material and availability of victims. There is however a paucity of research in this area, and few studies have examined the factors contributing to cyberbullying behaviour. The present study investigated the influence of self-esteem, empathy and loneliness on cyberbullying victimisation and perpetration. British adolescents (N=90) aged 16–18years were recruited from Further Education colleges. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory (RCBI, Topcu & Erdur-Baker, 2010), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Ferguson, 1978), Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ, Spreng, McKinnon, Mar, & Levine, 2009) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) online. Standard multiple regressions revealed that together, loneliness, empathy and self-esteem predicted levels of cyberbullying victimisation and perpetration. Self-esteem was a significant individual predictor of cyberbullying victimisation and perpetration, such that those with low self-esteem were most likely to report experience of cyberbullying. Empathy was a significant individual predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, such that as empathy decreases, likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration increases. These findings indicate that self-esteem and empathy oriented interventions may successfully address cyberbullying behaviour.
Citation: Brewer, G., & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness. Computers in human behavior, 48, 255-260.
Author(s): Fletcher, A., Fitzgerald-Yau, N., Jones, R., Allen, E., Viner, R. M., & Bonell, C.
Title: Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.
Journal: Journal of adolescence
Abstract: Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socio-economic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal.
Citation: Fletcher, A., Fitzgerald-Yau, N., Jones, R., Allen, E., Viner, R. M., & Bonell, C. (2014). Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes. Journal of adolescence, 37(8), 1393-1398.
Author(s): Gallagher, S., & Dunsmuir, S.
Title: Threats Among the “Always-On” Generation: Cyberbully Identification in a Secondary School in the United Kingdom.
Journal: International Journal of School & Educational Psychology
Abstract: The current study adds to the growing research into the modern phenomenon of cyberbullying, which can threaten the psychological, psychosocial, and physical health of children and young people. The relationship between traditional bullying and cyberbullying was examined by means of self and peer report measures. The sample consisted of 239 adolescents aged between 11 and 16 years, attending a secondary school in the UK. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding their involvement and their peers’ perceived involvement in both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Correlational analysis showed a moderate/strong correspondence between peer nominations of young people identified as traditional bullies and cyberbullies. A strong relationship was found between self-report of cyberbullying and self-report of cyber-victimization, suggesting that victims of cyberbullying are also likely to be perpetrators. This parallels research into traditional bullying and indicates a transfer of the traditional bully/victim category into the cyberworld. Age and gender differences were analyzed using MANOVA. Younger participants were rated by peers as being more involved in traditional bullying than older participants, yet no age differences were found in involvement in cyberbullying. With regard to gender, peer nomination indicated that males were more likely to be engaged in traditional bullying and cyberbullying than females. Agreement between individuals and peers regarding who was involved in both bullying and victimization (traditional and cyber) was weak/moderate. This suggests that cautions should operate and sole reliance on student self-report measures in the identification of cyberbullies should be avoided.
Citation: Gallagher, S., & Dunsmuir, S. (2014). Threats Among the “Always-On” Generation: Cyberbully Identification in a Secondary School in the United Kingdom. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 2(1), 1-10.
Author(s): Livingstone, S., & Smith, P. K.
Title: Annual research review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age.
Journal: Journal of child psychology and psychiatry
Abstract: Aims and scope: The usage of mobile phones and the internet by young people has increased rapidly in the past decade, approaching saturation by middle childhood in developed countries. Besides many benefits, online content, contact or conduct can be associated with risk of harm; most research has examined whether aggressive or sexual harms result from this. We examine the nature and prevalence of such risks, and evaluate the evidence regarding the factors that increase or protect against harm resulting from such risks, so as to inform the academic and practitioner knowledge base. We also identify the conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in this relatively new body of research, and highlight the pressing research gaps. Methods: Given the pace of change in the market for communication technologies, we review research published since 2008. Following a thorough bibliographic search of literature from the key disciplines (psychology, sociology, education, media studies and computing sciences), the review concentrates on recent, high quality empirical studies, contextualizing these within an overview of the field.
Citation: Livingstone, S., & Smith, P. K. (2014). Annual research review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 55(6), 635-654.
Author(s): Völlink, T., Bolman, C. A., Dehue, F., & Jacobs, N. C.
Title: Coping with cyberbullying: Differences between victims, bully‐victims and children not involved in bullying
Journal: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between the use of coping strategies to deal with daily stressors in general (n = 325) and the use of coping strategies to deal with cyberbullying in particular (n = 88) among children aged 11 and 12 years. Additionally, it investigated the impact of coping strategies on depression and health in victims of cyberbullying ( n=88). The results showed that victims differed signiﬁcantly from bully-victims (i.e. victims that also bully) and from children not involved in cyberbullying, in that they use certain emotion-focused coping strategies for daily stressors in general more than others. Additionally, this study investigated among victims of cyberbullying the relation between coping strategies in daily life, cyberspeciﬁc coping, depressive feelings and health complaints. Coping through emotional expression, avoidance and de-pressive coping in daily life will lead to more cyberspeciﬁc depressive coping when confronted with cyberbullying. This in turn will lead to more depressive feelings and/or health complaints for victims of cyberbullying. These results stress the importance of teaching children how to standup for themselves and employ effective coping strategies to deal with stress in daily life in general and to deal with cyberbullying in particular.
Citation: Völlink, T., Bolman, C. A., Dehue, F., & Jacobs, N. C. (2013). Coping with cyberbullying: Differences between victims, bully‐victims and children not involved in bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23(1), 7-24.
Author(s): Pedersen, S.
Title: UK young adults’ safety awareness online–is it a ‘girl thing’?
Journal: Journal of youth studies
Abstract: This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults’ perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera “Being Victor”. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British young adults was mostly aware of the risks they might encounter online and made thoughtful judgements on what they posted. However, male respondents were less safety aware than female respondents, which may be related to both societal norms for male adolescents and online safety campaigns that have been more targeted at girls. Despite previous researchers finding that girls were more likely to suffer cyberbullying and to be cyberbullies themselves, more male respondents reported both being bullied and bullying behaviour online. Over half of respondents had been subjected to some sort of cyberbullying or online harassment, but 40% admitted to behaving in this manner themselves. However, “frape” or “Facebook rape” was considered by respondents as a reciprocal rather than bullying phenomenon. It is suggested that a focus on girls’ online safety may have resulted in the message that boys’ behaviour online does not need safeguards.
Citation: Pedersen, S. (2013). UK young adults’ safety awareness online–is it a ‘girl thing’?. Journal of youth studies, 16(3), 404-419.
Author(s): O’Brien, N., & Moules, T.
Title: Not sticks and stones but tweets and texts: findings from a national cyberbullying project
Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
Abstract: This paper presents key findings from a project commissioned by a group of young people to explore issues related to cyberbullying with 12-18-year olds. In particular, the paper focuses on those findings related to impact and support needs. The project collected data through a web-based Survey Monkey questionnaire and focus groups. A total of 473 young people aged 11-19?years in England responded to the questionnaire and 17 young people aged 10-18 took part in the focus groups: 19.7% (“n”?=?87) admitted that they had been cyberbullied, just under half the young people in this study knew someone who had been cyberbullied and a similar proportion of girls and boys admitted having cyberbullied others. Most of the young people thought cyberbullying was as harmful as traditional face to face bullying. But while a few thought it could be more serious, others thought it less serious or even non-existent. Over a quarter of those who had been cyberbullied stayed away from school and over a third stopped socialising outside school. However, just over half the total sample said they did not worry about cyberbullying. The finding that 78% of those that sought support did so by talking to their parents contrasts starkly with previous research. Further research is needed to explore what makes some young people more resilient than others to cyberbullying; the role of the school and parents in dealing with cyberbullying.
Citation: O’Brien, N., & Moules, T. (2013). Not sticks and stones but tweets and texts: findings from a national cyberbullying project. Pastoral care in education, 31(1), 53-65.
Author(s): Smith, P. K., Kupferberg, A., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Samara, M., Bosley, S., & Osborn, R.
Title: A content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: A follow-up after six years.
Journal: Educational Psychology in Practice
Abstract: An analysis was undertaken of 217 English school anti-bullying policies, from 169 primary schools and 48 secondary schools, using a 34-item scoring scheme. Findings were compared with an analysis of 142 schools six years earlier. Overall schools in the current analysis had about 49% of the items in their policies, a modest increase over the previous study. Most included a definition of bullying and statements about improving school climate but many schools did not mention other important aspects, and there was low coverage of cyberbullying, homophobic bullying, bullying based on disabilities, or faith; teacher-pupil bullying; responsibilities beyond those of teaching staff; following up of incidents; and specific preventative measures such as playground work, peer support, inclusiveness issues, and bullying to and from school. Several improvements in policies, significant for 20 out of 34 criteria were noted. Findings are discussed in terms of national policy, and ways to support schools in maximising the potential of their policies for reducing bullying.
Citation: Smith, P. K., Kupferberg, A., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Samara, M., Bosley, S., & Osborn, R. (2012). A content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: A follow-up after six years. Educational Psychology in Practice, 28(1), 47-70.
Author(s): Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N.
Title: The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study.
Journal: Aggressive behavior
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N=1,964), Spain (N=1,671), and England (N=2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. Aggr. Behav. 38:342-356, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Citation: Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora‐Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … & Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive behavior, 38(5), 342-356.
Author(s): Paul, S., Smith, P. K., & Blumberg, H. H.
Title: Revisiting cyberbullying in schools using the quality circle approach.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: An earlier study reported the use of Quality Circles (QC) in a UK school in the context of understanding and reducing bullying and cyberbullying. Here, we report further work in the same school setting. The QC approach allows explorative analysis of problems in school settings, whereby students embark on a problem-solving exercise over a period of time. The process involves identifying key issues and prioritizing concerns, analysing problems and generating solutions, through participation in a series of workshops. The purpose of this research was to explore further the use of QCs as an effective means of gathering information on bullying and cyberbullying in school, and how these might have changed over one academic year; as well as to examine the use of QCs in empowering pupils and in producing pupil-led solutions. This study validated the use of QCs as an engaging process for pupils (N=30) which encourages a range of suggested solutions to problems. The information gained from the QCs supported a transitory notion of bullying behaviour, whereby forms of bullying and cyberbullying continue to alter over time, thus prevention programmes must adapt to the changeable nature of this behaviour to remain effective.
Citation: Paul, S., Smith, P. K., & Blumberg, H. H. (2012). Revisiting cyberbullying in schools using the quality circle approach. School Psychology International, 33(5), 492-504.
Author(s): Paul, S., Smith, P. K., & Blumberg, H. H.
Title: Comparing student perceptions of coping strategies and school interventions in managing bullying and cyberbullying incidents.
Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
Abstract: A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were compared. Ratings for cyberbullying were moderately lower than for traditional bullying but both had similar ranked order of reported value. The highest coping item ratings were for Seeking Help & Advice, followed by Independent Approach and Evading Problems; the lowest item ratings were for Externalising Problems and Internalising Problems. The highest intervention item ratings were for School Sanctions and Disciplinary Action, followed by Informal Approach and Support Approach, with the lowest item ratings for Curricular Approach. Students reported the most helpful approach in coping with traditional bullying and cyberbullying was the support of family members, primarily parents. Students considered the most helpful intervention for both traditional bullying and cyberbullying was permanent suspension from school. Implications for future practice in education settings are discussed with reference to whole-school anti-bullying measures.
Citation: Paul, S., Smith, P. K., & Blumberg, H. H. (2012). Comparing student perceptions of coping strategies and school interventions in managing bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Pastoral Care in Education, 30(2), 127-146.
Author(s): Monks, C. P., Robinson, S., & Worlidge, P.
Title: The emergence of cyberbullying: A survey of primary school pupils’ perceptions and experiences.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: There is little research that has examined cyberbullying among children under the age of 11years. The current study explored the nature and extent of the phenomenon among primary school children aged 7- to 11-years-old (N = 220; 116 boys and 104 girls) and investigated their perceptions of the distress caused to victims, how victims would feel, and their recommendations to victims for coping strategies. Participants completed a modified version of Ortega, Calmaestra, and Mora-Merchán’s (2007) and Smith et al.’s (2008a) bullying and cyberbullying questionnaire. The results indicated that cyberbullying is used and experienced by some children in this age group, with some age and gender differences in these experiences. Cyberbullying is generally viewed negatively and children are aware that it may have a negative impact on the emotions of victims. There is some overlap between involvement in cyberbullying and traditional bullying; with children most likely to take the same role (i.e., traditional bully and cyberbully or traditional victim and cybervictim) across the two settings. The most commonly endorsed coping strategy for victims was to tell someone, which is in line with government guidance to schools. The findings are discussed in relation to research with secondary school pupils as well as addressing potential implications for interventions with this age group.
Citation: Monks, C. P., Robinson, S., & Worlidge, P. (2012). The emergence of cyberbullying: A survey of primary school pupils’ perceptions and experiences. School Psychology International, 33(5), 477-491.
Author(s): Kofoed, J., & Ringrose, J.
Title: Travelling and sticky affects: Exploring teens and sexualized cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian lens
Journal: Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education
Abstract: In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler’s (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people’s affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and how they are mediated by technology (such as texting or in/through social networking sites). Drawing on findings from two different studies looking at teens’ uses of and experiences with social networking sites, Arto in Denmark, and Bebo in the UK, we use this approach to think about how affects flow, are distributed, and become fixed in assemblages. We map how affects are manoeuvred and potentially disrupted by young people, suggesting that in the incidences discussed affects travel as well as stick in points of fixation. We argue that we need to grasp both affective flow and fixity in order to gain knowledge of how subjectification of the gendered/classed/racialised/sexualised body emerges. A Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian frame helps us to map some of these affective complexities that shape sexualized cyberbully events; and to recognize technologically mediated lines of flight when subjectifications are at least temporarily disrupted and new terms of recognition and intelligibility staked out.
Citation: Kofoed, J., & Ringrose, J. (2012). Travelling and sticky affects: Exploring teens and sexualized cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian lens. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 33(1), 5-20.
Author(s): Grigg, D. W.
Title: Definitional constructs of cyber-bullying and cyber-aggression from a triangulatory overview: a preliminary study into elements of cyber-bullying.
Journal: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the acts that constitute cyber-bullying and to see how from a lay concept these acts are classified. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered using two groups of participants (two Australian participants and three British participants may posit different cultural views). The first set of data was generated through cyber-bullying element extraction from cyber-bullying literature and interviews were conducted with five college students (three from the United Kingdom and two from Australia). The second set was generated through open ended demonstration of internet negative acts such as sending unwanted messages, rude images, threats and malicious messages in a scenario classification questionnaire. This involved the recruitment of 114 first year undergraduate psychology students in the United Kingdom. The scenario questionnaire measured participants’ categorisation of internet negative acts from a lay perspective. Participants’ perceptions of cyber-bullying were examined through grounded theory and thematic narratives to see how these findings differ from literature in the cyber-bullying arena. Findings – Emerging theory indicates the need to treat cyber-bullying as a standalone entity without the confounding role that the more traditional concept of bullying plays in cyber bullying definitions. Additionally, internet negative acts, irrespective of their terminological classifications, were perceived as immoral and anti-social. Suggestions were made to aid practitioners’ to implement interventions against cyber-bullying. Research limitations/implications – Participant numbers at stage one were limited. Thus, it is suggested future replication(s) of this study employ(s) a larger number of participants so as to ascertain the generalisability of findings. It is also suggested that potential future studies should employ quantitative analyses to further triangulate the findings of the current study. Originality/value – The strength of the present study lies in its rich qualitative triangulation, as well as its focus on exploring elements that constitute cyber-bullying from a lay perspective.
Citation: Grigg, D. W. (2012). Definitional constructs of cyber-bullying and cyber-aggression from a triangulatory overview: a preliminary study into elements of cyber-bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 4(4), 202-215.
Author(s): Ackers, M. J.
Title: Cyberbullying: Through the eyes of children and young people.
Journal: Educational Psychology in Practice
Abstract: The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made between gender and age, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the area of cyberbullying and its many elements. Conclusions acknowledge that bullying has entered a “digital era” and professionals and adults require the knowledge and skills to help young people to further understand the issues involved and to protect themselves in this area.
Citation: Ackers, M. J. (2012). Cyberbullying: Through the eyes of children and young people. Educational Psychology in Practice, 28(2), 141-157.
Author(s): Genta, M.L., Smith, P.K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., Tippett, N., Mora-Merchán, J. and Calmaestra, J.
Title: Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain
Journal: Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives
Abstract: The last 10 years have seen the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among adolescents. Bullying too has been examined in relation to the growth in the use of ICT by adolescents and young people, opening up a line of research investigating “cyberbullying” behavior. In the study of cyberbullying among preadolescents and adolescents it is important to consider the relationship between young people and ICT, highlighting the amount of use of different digital media and the preference and choices made by young people in their free time (relating to Internet, mobile phones, television, etc.)
Citation: Genta, M. L., Smith, P. K., Ortega, R., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Thompson, F., … & Calmaestra, J. (2011). Comparative aspects of cyberbullying in Italy, England, and Spain. Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives, 15.
Author(s): Marczak, M., & Coyne, I.
Title: Cyberbullying at School: Good Practice and Legal Aspects in the United Kingdom.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: Cyberbullying at school has emerged as a new, electronic form of bullying and harassment and is recognised as a growing problem all over the world. The ability to use cyberspace to bully others means that harassment, rumours and intimidation can reach a much wider audience. Although research has not as yet explored fully the consequences of either cyber-victimisation or cyberbullying, it would appear that they may be detrimental to the health of young people, suggesting the need for policies and interventions, which some European countries (e.g., Germany, Luxemburg, Belgium and the United Kingdom) have attempted to undertake. Currently, however, only the United States has implemented specific laws that treat cyberbullying as a criminal offence per se. After briefly considering the literature on cyberbullying this article will focus on the legal, regulatory and good practice frameworks for controlling cyberbullying in UK educational contexts.
Citation: Marczak, M., & Coyne, I. (2010). Cyberbullying at School: Good Practice and Legal Aspects in the United Kingdom. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 182-193.
Author(s): Cowie, H., & Colliety, P.
Title: Cyberbullying: sanctions or sensitivity?
Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
Abstract: This paper explores the phenomenon of cyberbullying. The argument here is that, although there is a case for sanctions, schools also have a critical role to play in preventing and reducing cyberbullying through a process of awareness-raising, the education of the emotions and active participation of children and young people themselves.
Citation: Cowie, H., & Colliety, P. (2010). Cyberbullying: sanctions or sensitivity?. Pastoral Care in Education, 28(4), 261-268.
Author(s): Grigg, D. W.
Title: Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: This study examined definitions and concepts of cyberbullying. It identified words, terms and definitions used for negative acts on the internet and mobile phones across different age groups in the United Kingdom. Young people and adults’ (N = 32; age = 8–54) constructs and perceptions of negative online behaviours were also reported. Focus groups and individual interviews were employed using qualitative triangulation: Thematic Analysis and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The study examined current definitions and concepts of cyberbullying and how these differ in its findings; and considered different ways to foster positive online behaviour for the context of practitioners. The concept of cyber-aggression is used to describe a wide range of behaviours other than cyberbullying. The findings indicate that there is a need to include a broader definition in line with the current trend of a range of behaviours that are common with internet and mobile phone usage.
Citation: Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 143-156.
Author(s): Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N.
Title: Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils
Journal: Journal of child psychology and psychiatry
Abstract: Background: Cyberbullying describes bullying using mobile phones and the internet. Most previous studies have focused on the prevalence of text message and email bullying.
Citation: Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 49(4), 376-385.
Author(s): Smith, P. K., Smith, C., Osborn, R., & Samara, M.
Title: A content analysis of school anti‐bullying policies: progress and limitations.
Journal: Educational Psychology in Practice
Abstract: Schools in England are legally required to have an anti‐bullying policy, but the little research so far suggests that they may lack coverage in important areas. An analysis of 142 school anti‐bullying policies, from 115 primary schools and 27 secondary schools in one county was undertaken. A 31‐item scoring scheme was devised to assess policy. Overall, schools had about 40% of the items in their policies. Most included improving school climate, a definition of bullying including reference to physical, verbal and relational forms, and a statement regarding contact with parents when bullying incidents occurred. But many schools did not mention other important aspects, and there was low coverage of responsibilities beyond those of teaching staff; following up of incidents; management and use of records; and specific preventative measures such as playground work and peer support. There was infrequent mention of homophobic bullying, and of cyberbullying. There was little difference between policies from primary and secondary schools. Findings are discussed in terms of national policy, and ways to support schools in maximising the potential of their policies for reducing bullying.
Citation: Smith, P. K., Smith, C., Osborn, R., & Samara, M. (2008). A content analysis of school anti‐bullying policies: progress and limitations. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24(1), 1-12.
Author(s): Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., & Tippett, N.
Title: An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying.
Journal: Research Brief No. RBX03-06. London: DfES
Citation: Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., & Tippett, N. (2006). An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying. Research Brief No. RBX03-06. London: DfES.
Author(s): Gillespie, A. A.
Title: Cyber‐bullying and Harassment of Teenagers: The Legal Response
Journal: Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can be used to bully and harass children on-line. Cyber-bullying and harassment can be deeply traumatic to the victim and can cause psychological harm. This article assesses possible legal solutions to this problem. The emphasis is on the criminal law, the more normal solution to the infliction of harm and distress to an individual. However, the article also examines whether the civil law provides assistance in this sphere.
Citation: Gillespie, A. A. (2006). Cyber‐bullying and Harassment of Teenagers: The Legal Response. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 28(2), 123-136.