Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in China and Hong Kong, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Author(s): Wong, R. Y., Cheung, C. M., & Xiao, B.
Title: Does gender matter in cyberbullying perpetration? An empirical investigation
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a highly prevalent online misbehavior that has recently received public attention due to its potentially devastating consequences. In response to the call to understand the mechanism leading to cyberbullying perpetration, this study draws on I3theory to understand the decisions of young adults to engage in cyberbullying. Furthermore, it examines the influence of gender on various determinants of cyberbullying perpetration. The results of an online survey involving 208 university students reveal that both cyberbullying victimization and perceived online disinhibition enhance the intention to perpetrate cyberbullying, whereas self-control is a critical buffer that represses the propensity to cyberbully others. Our findings also show that the factors influencing cyberbullying differ in strength for male and female students. We believe that these findings not only provide a theoretical explanation of cyberbullying perpetration but also offer valuable insights for combatting cyberbullying among university students.
Citation: Wong, R. Y., Cheung, C. M., & Xiao, B. (2018). Does gender matter in cyberbullying perpetration? An empirical investigation.Computers in Human Behavior,79, 247-257.
Author(s): Xin, M., Xing, J., Pengfei, W., Houru, L., Mengcheng, W., & Hong, Z.
Title: Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China
Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Abstract: To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents.
Citation: Xin, M., Xing, J., Pengfei, W., Houru, L., Mengcheng, W., & Hong, Z. (2018). Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China.Addictive Behaviors Reports,7, 14-18.
Author(s): Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Coping with cyberbullying victimization: An exploratory study of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong
Journal: International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
Abstract: Limited information is available on how victims cope with their cybervictimization experience. Therefore, using 432 cases of cyberbullying victimization (i.e., victims-only as passive victims and victim-bullies as aggressive victims) in a sample of Hong Kong school-age Chinese adolescents, this study examines the effects of different demographics (i.e., age and sex) and psychosocial characteristics (i.e., self-esteem, empathy, prosocial behavior, family attachment, perception of a harmonious school, sense of school belonging and commitment, and positive school experience and involvement) on different victim coping approaches (i.e., avoidant, aggressive, passive, and active). Findings indicate that older male adolescents who engage in prosocial behavior are likely to employ an active approach, while those who reported fewer positive school experiences and involvement are likely to use an avoidant coping style in coping with their victimization. Adolescents who perceived their school as a harmonious place but with fewer positive school experiences and involvement are likely to adopt a passive coping style, while those who retaliated against their bullying perpetrators are likely to be males and high in empathy level. Implications are offered to inform practices in aiding adolescents to cope with potential cyberbullying victimization effectively.
Citation: Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S. (2017). Coping with cyberbullying victimization: An exploratory study of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.
Author(s): Lai, C. S., Mohamad, M. M., Lee, M. F., Salleh, K. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Rosli, D. I., & Chang, W. V.
Title: Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Students in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions
Journal: Advanced Science Letters
Abstract: This research was conducted to gain an understanding of the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Malaysian higher learning institutions. Additionally, the present research also attempted to find out the common platforms where cyberbullying occurred and coping strategies used by cyber victims. A set of questionnaire was developed for the purpose of data collection. A total of 712 public and private college/university students participated in this research. The research findings revealed that 66% of the respondents reported having been cyberbullied; the prevalence rate for female was higher compared to male cyber users; Malays students yielded highest percentage of cyber victims compared to other ethnic groups. Current findings also indicated that Facebook and mobile phone social apps were the most common platforms where cyberbullying took place. The exploration of cyberbullying effects showed that most of the cyber victims became over sensitive towards their surrounding and developed emotional changes. Apart from that, the findings also indicated that the most common coping strategy was seeking assistance from friends and classmates. Pragmatic and effective steps have to be taken by higher leaning institutions in order to help students deal with problems in cyberbullying and more importantly to prevent cyberbullying from happening.
Citation: Lai, C. S., Mohamad, M. M., Lee, M. F., Salleh, K. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Rosli, D. I., & Chang, W. V. (2017). Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Students in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions.Advanced Science Letters,23(2), 781-784.
Author(s): LEI, Z. C., & Yong, C. H. E. N.
Title: The Path of Anti-School Bullying under Rule of Law in China
Journal: DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science
Abstract: Anti-school bullying is a worldwide problem with great harm. The data of NSRC shows that school bullying occurs frequently in China. School bullying has serious social harmfulness, not only will it lead to high probability of deviant behaviors, but also influence the sufferers’ mental health. There are many causes that lead to high occurrence of school bullying, the most significant one of which is the lack of systemic and mature laws and regulations in China. In order to prevent and control school bullying effectively, the legal system should be perfected. Concretely speaking, at least the following five aspects should paid enough attention to: Setting reasonable purpose and principles for the laws and regulations, making a clear legal definition of school bullying, establishing the school bullying prevention committee, reasonably defining the boundary of obligations and responsibilities among different parties, and perfecting legal remedy system against school bullying.
Citation: LEI, Z. C., & Yong, C. H. E. N. (2017). The Path of Anti-School Bullying under Rule of Law in China.DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, (emse).
Author(s): Han, Z., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H.
Title: School bullying in urban China: prevalence and correlation with school climate
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health
Abstract: School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention.
Citation: Han, Z., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H. (2017). School bullying in urban China: prevalence and correlation with school climate.International journal of environmental research and public health,14(10), 1116.
Author(s): Leung, A. N. M., Wong, N., & Farver, J. M.
Title: Cyberbullying in Hong Kong Chinese students: Life satisfaction, and the moderating role of friendship qualities on cyberbullying victimization and perpetration
Journal: Personality and Individual Differences
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a serious concern among Internet users worldwide. Few studies have examined the variables that may moderate cyberbullying behavior, especially among the Chinese population. This study examined cyberbullying with 312 Hong Kong Chinese college students (Mage=19.64). The goal was to understand the relative impact of cyberbullying experiences as measured by life satisfaction and to examine how friendship quality may moderate this relation differentially for males and females. The results showed that 58% of the participants reported cyberbullying others and of those 68% also reported being cyber-victimized. Cyberbullying victimization and cyberbullying perpetration were both negatively correlated with life satisfaction. Male students perpetrated more cyberbullying than female students. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration were positively related for both males and females. Friendship closeness and security only moderated the relation between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration for female students. Interestingly, the two components of friendship quality moderated the relation in opposite directions. Specifically, friendship closeness buffered the relation between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration while friendship security enhanced the relation. These findings indicate that gender and subscales of friendship quality should be included when investigating the effect of friendship on cyberbullying behavior, cyberbullying involvement and life satisfaction.
Citation: Leung, A. N. M., Wong, N., & Farver, J. M. (2017). Cyberbullying in Hong Kong Chinese students: Life satisfaction, and the moderating role of friendship qualities on cyberbullying victimization and perpetration.Personality and Individual Differences.
Author(s): Lyu, W., & Zhang, J.
Title: The Influence of Childhood Psychological Maltreatment on Mainland China College Students’ Cyberbullying: The Mediating Effect of Moral Disengagement and the Moderating Effect of Moral Identity
Journal: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
Abstract: This study aims to explore the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment, Mainland China college students’ cyberbullying, moral disengagement, and moral identity by surveying 200 college students via the Childhood Psychological Maltreatment Scale, the Cyberbullying Questionnaire, the Moral Disengagement Questionnaire, and the Moral Identity Questionnaire. The relationships are summarised from four viewpoints: firstly, childhood psychological maltreatment is significantly positive correlated with college students’ cyberbullying and moral disengagement; secondly, childhood psychological maltreatment has a significant direct effect on their cyberbullying; thirdly, childhood psychological maltreatment has a significant indirect effect on their cyberbullying through moral disengagement; and fourthly, moral identity plays a significant role in the influences of moral disengagement on college students’ cyberbullying. These relationships indicate that moral disengagement partially mediates the influences of childhood psychological maltreatment on college students’ cyberbullying and that moral identity significantly moderates the influences of moral disengagement on college students’ cyberbullying.
Citation: Lyu, W., & Zhang, J. (2017). The Influence of Childhood Psychological Maltreatment on Mainland China College Students’ Cyberbullying: The Mediating Effect of Moral Disengagement and the Moderating Effect of Moral Identity.Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education,13(11), 7581-7590.
Author(s): Rao, J., Wang, H., Pang, M., Yang, J., Zhang, J., Ye, Y., … & Dong, X.
Title: Cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation among junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China
Journal: Injury prevention
Abstract: Cyberbullying research in China is in early stage. This study describes the cyberbullying experiences of junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China, and to examine the risk factors associated with cyberbullying perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims among students. We also investigated the frequency of cyberbullying and coping strategies of student victims.
Citation: Rao, J., Wang, H., Pang, M., Yang, J., Zhang, J., Ye, Y., … & Dong, X. (2017). Cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation among junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China.Injury prevention, injuryprev-2016.
Author(s): Chan, H. C., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Traditional School Bullying and Cyberbullying Perpetration: Examining the Psychosocial Characteristics of Hong Kong Male and Female Adolescents
Journal: Youth & Society
Abstract: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying are growing concerns worldwide. Research has been devoted to understanding the etiology of bullying behaviors. Using a large sample of secondary school adolescents in Hong Kong (N= 1,893), this study explores gender differences in mean levels of traditional school bullying (i.e., physical and verbal forms of bullying, and extortion and exclusion) and cyberbullying (i.e., overt and relational aggression) behaviors, and psychosocial characteristics (i.e., self-efficacy, empathy, prosocial behavior, family bonding, perception of a harmonious school, sense of belonging in school, and positive school experiences and involvement). The differential role of psychosocial characteristics in types of bullying perpetration is also examined. Findings indicate that the perpetration of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying behaviors are positively correlated, and male adolescents reported higher levels of bullying perpetration than female adolescents. Multivariate findings reveal that, to some extent, male and female adolescents shared a similar set of psychosocial risk factors of bullying perpetration, especially in the perpetration of traditional school bullying. The findings of this study may have important implications for practice in regard to minimizing, if not entirely preventing, through the joint efforts of the family, school, and social service systems, the propensity of adolescents to engage in the perpetration of bullying behaviors.
Citation: Chan, H. C., & Wong, D. S. (2016). Traditional School Bullying and Cyberbullying Perpetration: Examining the Psychosocial Characteristics of Hong Kong Male and Female Adolescents.Youth & Society, 0044118X16658053.
Author(s): Sun, S., Fan, X., & Du, J.
Title: Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences
Journal: International Journal of Internet Science
Abstract: A total of 39 articles, which reported cyberbullying behaviors from both male and female respondents, were meta-analyzed to examine if gender difference existed in cyberbullying perpetration. From these 39 empirical studies, a total of 100 effect sizes were collected, each representing a reported gender difference in certain types of cyberbullying behaviors. Random-effects meta-regression models were used in data analysis. Despite some inconsistencies across the individual empirical studies, a statistically significant gender difference emerged, indicating that more males were involved in cyberbullying perpetration behaviors than females. Moderator analysis showed that the gender difference was not consistent across the levels of several study features (e.g., modality of cyberbullying, regions of samples). It was also revealed that some methodological issues (e.g., measurement of cyberbullying behaviors, self-report rather than behavioral data) remain obvious challenges for researchers in this area. Caution is warranted, because those studies that were rated as having poor study quality showed a larger than average effect size for gender difference in cyberbullying behaviors. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Citation: Sun, S., Fan, X., & Du, J. (2016). Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences.International Journal of Internet Science,11(1).
Author(s): Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies: Prevalence and a review of the whole-school intervention approach.
Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior
Abstract: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying have been a growing concern globally. In this review, we first review the prevalence of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in selected major Chinese societies, namely the Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Empirical findings on the characteristics of bullying perpetrators, victims, and the offense circumstances are described. As an intervention strategy, we then comprehensively review the whole-school intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. Its origin, key components, and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents are discussed. We conclude the review with potential implications for the application of this intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies.
Citation: Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S. (2015). Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies: Prevalence and a review of the whole-school intervention approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 98-108.
Author(s): Ong, R.
Title: Cyber-bullying and young people: How Hong Kong keeps the new playground safe
Journal: Computer Law & Security Review
Abstract: The number of people using digital communication technologies and participating in networked public spheres (Twitter and Facebook) has escalated in recent years. While this digital revolution has brought immense benefits to the global society, its ability for anonymous communication, and its ability to generate, manipulate and disseminate digital information which can be accessed instantaneously and continuously has also led to an abuse of these technologies causing irreparable harm to another person’s reputation and creates a record that causes serious psychological and emotional trauma. Protecting citizens from these forms of abuse is a priority of most governments. This paper provides an overview of the traditional tort remedies and a summary of the statutory schemes in Hong Kong.
Citation: Ong, R. (2015). Cyber-bullying and young people: How Hong Kong keeps the new playground safe. Computer Law & Security Review, 31(5), 668-678.
Author(s): Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C.
Title: Game on? Online friendship, cyberbullying, and psychosocial adjustment in Hong Kong Chinese children.
Journal: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
Abstract: Across 626 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders, children’s experiences of victimization and bullying in online and real life contexts were compared. Children reported their best friendships at school and online when playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). With demographic variables, computer gaming habits, school victimization and real life friendship measures statistically controlled, online victimization uniquely and negatively explained variance in friendship satisfaction, while online friendship positively and significantly explained additional variance in children’s social competence, friendship satisfaction, self esteem, and life satisfaction. This research demonstrates theoretical and practical importance of investigating social experiences (both negative, i.e., being cyber-bullied, and positive, i.e., building up online friendship) for early adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Citation: Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C. (2013). Game on? Online friendship, cyberbullying, and psychosocial
Author(s): Lam, L. T., & Li, Y.
Title: The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: This study investigates the psychometric properties of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) designed to assess Cyber Bullying among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 484 adolescents aged between 11–16years randomly recruited from high schools within a region. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied to investigate the factorial structure of these scales. Reliability was examined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients by sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among these scales and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children as well as the Zung’s Anxiety Scales. A single-factor model for the E-VS and a 2-factor model for the E-BS were resulted from the EFA with large factor loadings and about 47% and 56% of variance explained respectively. Cronhach’s alpha values provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.55 to 0.96. Correlations between the E-VS and Depression as well as Anxiety scales showed positive and significant relationships, however, the E-BS was only related to Depression. Psychometric evidence has shown that both E-VS and E-BS are valid instruments for measuring Cyber bullying behaviour and victimisation. Further studies are required on the test–retest reliability, discriminate validity, responsiveness, as well as normative information for standardisation.
Citation: Lam, L. T., & Li, Y. (2013). The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 3-7.
Author(s): Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M.
Title: Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China. Findings revealed that cyberbullying among high school students in the heartland of central China is relatively common with 34.84% (N = 501) of participants reported having bullied someone and 56.88% (N = 818) reported having been bullied by online. Significant gender differences were found, suggesting that boys are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying both as perpetrators and victims. Students with lower academic achievement were more likely to be perpetrators online than were students with better academic achievement. Students who spend more time on online, have access to the internet in their bedrooms, have themselves experienced traditional bullying as victims, and are frequently involved in instant-messaging and other forms of online entertainment are more likely to experience cyberbullying. Increased parent and teacher supervision reduced students’ involvement in cyberbullying. Implications for intervention are explored.
Citation: Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M. (2013). Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students. School Psychology International,
Author(s): Bhat, C. S., Chang, S. H., & Linscott, J. A.
Title: Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue.
Journal: New Horizons in Education
Abstract: Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications technology is an issue that youth are encountering in Asia and in other parts of the world. Students who are cyberbullied experience several detrimental psychosocial effects that detract from their ability be successful in school. In some instances, youth suicide has been linked to cyberbullying. Goals: The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for proactive media literacy initiatives that promote the ethical and responsible social use of technology by students. Results: Examples of initiatives to reduce cyberbullying and other harmful uses of social media are presented. These initiatives are targeted not just at students but at teachers, other school personnel, and parents. The need to address cyberbullying via school policies and country or regional laws is also discussed.
Citation: Bhat, C. S., Chang, S. H., & Linscott, J. A. (2010). Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue. New Horizons in Education, 58(3), 34-43.
Author(s): Fung, A. L.
Title: The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention
Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
Abstract: This study preliminarily investigated the phenomenon of cyberbullying in Hong Kong. From a pool of 7,654 students, 48 Primary 4 to Form 3 students who were assessed as potential aggressors participated in the study. The purpose was to understand the frequency of cyberbullying behaviours and the relationship between cyberbullying and two types of aggression–proactive and reactive aggression. Results indicated that more cyberbullying behaviours were exhibited among secondary school students than among primary school students, with common practices including name calling, teasing, and gossiping. Emotional ventilation was regarded as the major reason for cyberbullying; for example, revenge was a form of reactive aggression and showing off a form of proactive aggression.
Citation: Fung, A. L. (2010). The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention. Journal of Youth Studies (10297847), 13(2).
Author(s): Li, Q.
Title: A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying.
Journal: Educational Research
Abstract: Background and purpose: This study explores the issues of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of a sample of Canadian and Chinese adolescents’ experiences and possible culture differences related to bullying and cyberbullying.
Citation: Li, Q. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying. Educational Research, 50(3), 223-234.