Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in China and Hong Kong, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Authors: Wright, M.F., Wachs, S., Huang, Z., Kamble, S.V., Saudi, S., Bayraktar, F., Li, Z., Lei, L., Shu, C.
Title: Longitudinal Associations among Machiavellianism, Popularity Goals, and Adolescents’ Cyberbullying Involvement: The Role of Gender
Journal: The Journal of Genetic Psychology
Abstract: Drawing on the social-ecological perspective, this longitudinal study investigated the potential moderating effect of gender in the relationships among Machiavellianism, popularity goals, and cyberbullying involvement (i.e. victimization, perpetration) among adolescents from China, Cyprus, India, and the United States. There were 2,452 adolescents (Mage = 14.85; SD = .53; 13–16 years old; 49.1% girls) from China, Cyprus, India, and the United States included in this study. They completed surveys on Machiavellianism, popularity goals, and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration during the fall of 2014 (Time 1). One year later, during the fall of 2015, adolescents completed surveys on cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Findings revealed that Machiavellianism and popularity goals were both associated positively with Time 2 cyberbullying victimization and perpetration for all adolescents. The associations between Machiavellianism and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration and between popularity goals and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration were stronger for Chinese and Indian boys than girls. Opposite patterns were found for popularity goals and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration for adolescents from the United States. Gender did not moderate any of the associations for Cypriot adolescents or for Time 2 cyberbullying victimization. The social-ecological perspective provides a useful understanding of how various contexts influence bullying.
Authors: Danielle M Law, Bowen Xiao, Hezron Onditi, Junsheng Liu, Xiaolong Xie, Jennifer Shapka
Title: Measurement Invariance and Relationships Among School Connectedness, Cyberbullying, and Cybervictimization: A Comparison Among Canadian, Chinese, and Tanzanian Adolescents
Journal: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement invariance of the School Connectedness Scale for Chinese, Canadian, and Tanzanian adolescents, and to explore the inter association between school connectedness and cyberbullying/cybervictimization. Participants included 3872 adolescents from urban settings in China (N= 2053, Mage=16.36 years, SD = 1.14 years; 44.6% boys), Canada (N = 642, Mage = 12.13 years, SD = 0.77 years; 50.1% boys), and Tanzania (N = 1056, Mage=15.87 years, SD = 2.03 years; 52.8% boys). Adolescents self-reported their cybervictimization and cyberbullying experiences, as well as their perceived school connectedness. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed an approximate measurement invariance of the scale across the three countries. Chinese students showed the lowest levels of school connectedness while Tanzanian students showed the highest. The findings of the multivariate multigroup regression analyses across the three countries revealed similar relationships between school connectedness and cyberbullying/cybervictimization, thus broadening our understanding of school connectedness and its relationship to cyberbullying/cybervictimization across these three different countries.
Authors: PARK, M.S.-A., GOLDEN, K.J. VIZCAINO-VICKERS, S., JIDONG, D., and RAJ, S.
Title: Sociocultural values, attitudes and risk factors associated with adolescent cyberbullying in East Asia: a systematic review.
Journal: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace
Abstract: Cyberbullying amongst adolescents is a rapidly growing and alarming global phenomenon that can significantly harm their well-being. Studying cyberbullying in East Asia is especially important, where peer pressure based on collectivistic ideals and rigid cultural scripts for social interactions remain strong. Furthermore, the countries represented in this review are amongst the top globally for internet usage, suggesting that adolescents in East Asia are likely to be excessive users of social media communication and be more exposed to various forms of cyberbullying. This systematic review summarizes findings from peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on cyberbullying amongst adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 in East Asian countries (N = 21). SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant work published between 2008 and 2020. Search strategies involved using keywords related to cyberbullying, adolescents, East Asia, and the name of each country represented in the region (China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan). Key factors associated with cyberbullying specific to adolescents in this region are identified and discussed in this review, such as gender socialization patterns and literacy with digital media communication, emphasis on academic achievement and school factors, urban-rural digital divide, relationship with parents and teachers, and collectivistic values. The present review highlights the need to pay further attention to the sociocultural context in future cyberbullying research and calls for more context-specific cyberbullying prevention programs and awareness initiatives.
Authors: Xu, Y. and Trzaskawka, P.
Title: Towards Descriptive Adequacy of Cyberbullying: Interdisciplinary Studies on Features, Cases and Legislative Concerns of Cyberbullying
Journal: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law – Revue internationale de Sémiotique juridique
Abstract: In view of the complexity of cyberbullying, this paper aims to address the linguistic and legal aspects of cyberbullying from an interdisciplinary perspective. Based on authentic data collected from real cases, we will expound on features, defining properties and legal remedies of cyberbullying in the countries that contribute to this special issue, such as Nigeria, France, Poland and China. Firstly, we will present an overview of cyberbullying and its definition, along with cyberbullying’s attributes. Next, we will cover the various forms of cyberbullying, such as hate speech, harassment and trolling. Each of these forms of cyberbullying result in numerous outcomes, many of which are serious and, in the worst case, can result in a victim’s death. A discussion of such consequences and the legal remedies for cyberbullying will be provided. On a final note, the contributors seek to enrich the forthcoming studies on cyberbullying by offering suggestions towards descriptive adequacy of cyberbullying.
Authors: Michelle F. Wright, Lawrence B. Schiamberg, Sebastian Wachs, Zheng Huang,
Shanmukh V. Kamble, Shruti Soudi, Fatih Bayraktar, Zheng Li, Li Lei & Chang Shu
Title: The Influence of Sex and Culture on the Longitudinal Associations of Peer Attachment, Social Preference Goals, and Adolescents’ Cyberbullying Involvement: An Ecological Perspective
Journal: School Mental Health
Abstract: Using an ecological perspective, this one-year longitudinal study examined the moderating effect of sex in the associations among peer-related contexts (i.e., peer attachment, social preference goals) and cyberbullying involvement among adolescents from China, Cyprus, India, and the United States, along with investigating cross-cultural differences in these associations. Participants were 2,452 seventh and eighth grade adolescents (age range 12–16 years old; 49.1% girls) from China, Cyprus, India, and the USA. Adolescents completed questionnaires on peer attachment, social preference goals, and cyberbullying involvement (i.e., perpetration, victimization) at Time 1. Cyberbullying involvement was administered at Time 2 (one year later). Peer attachment and social preference goals were negative predictors of Time 2 cyberbullying involvement. Peer attachment and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration were moderated by sex for Chinese adolescents only, as well as social preference goals and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration for Chinese and the US adolescents. Sex did not moderate the associations among peer attachment, social preference goals, and Time 2 cyberbullying victimization. The findings of this study have implications for interventions focused on improving adolescents’ interactions with their peers at school and urges the need to develop bullying prevention programs sensitive to culture and sex. The ecological framework contributes to a more complete understanding of how multiple contexts influence bullying dynamics and provides a clear basis for policy and intervention.
Authors: Wang, L. and Sek-yum Ngai, S.
Title: Cyberbullying Perpetration Among Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Power Imbalance, Fun-seeking Tendency, and Attitude Toward Cyberbullying
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: The imbalance of power affords individuals to bully others. However, limited studies have explored the specific aspects of power imbalance in predicting cyberbullying. Furthermore, a fun-seeking tendency as a motive for cyberbullying and attitudes toward cyberbullying as cognitive stimuli have rarely been studied in relation to mediating the associations between power imbalance and cyberbullying in an integrated framework. This study aims to narrow these research gaps. Multistage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit a total of 1103 adolescents (52.5% females) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that proficiency in technology use is not only directly and positively associated with cyberbullying but also indirectly associated with cyberbullying via fun-seeking tendency. Although social status among peers had no direct effect on cyberbullying, the indirect effects of social status among peers on cyberbullying via the fun-seeking tendency and attitude toward cyberbullying were significant. Notably, physical power was neither directly associated with cyberbullying nor through the fun-seeking tendency or attitude toward cyberbullying in associating with cyberbullying. Implications of these findings for developing effective interventions are discussed.
Authors: Chen, Q. and Zhu. Y.
Title: Cyberbullying victimisation among adolescents in China: Coping strategies and the role of self-compassion
Journal: Health & Social Care in the Community
Abstract: Coping strategies have the ability to reduce immediate and long-term stress from cyberbullying experiences. This study compares the perceptions of cyberbullying victims and non-victims in relation to the coping strategies for different types of cyberbullying victimisation. A group of 1,339 Chinese adolescents from vocational schools in Jiangxi province participated in the study. Effects of demographic factors, cyberbullying victimisation and self-compassion on coping strategies were computed with logistic regression analysis. Results showed that cyberbullying victims indicated a stronger preference towards doing nothing, or to rely on themselves, instead of seeking help. Both victims and non-victims indicated ‘Asking a parent/family for help’ as the first choice across all victimisation types. The effects of self-compassion on coping with cyberbullying were found to be significant. This study provides evidence that can be used to enhance policy and practice for effectively enabling parents and professionals’ involvement in cyberbullying intervention. Cyberbullying prevention programs should therefore arm parents with the knowledge to provide support to, and strengthen self-compassion of children, to modulate positive coping emotions and cyber behaviour.
Authors: Han, Z., Wang, Z., and Li, Y.
Title: Cyberbullying Involvement, Resilient Coping, and Loneliness of Adolescents During Covid-19 in Rural China
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Abstract: Cyberbullying involvement can lead to internal health issues, especially mental health problems. Different coping strategies may reduce or enhance the strengths between cyberbullying experience and mental health problems. In this study, we examined the correlations between cyberbullying involvement and loneliness among a group of children and adolescents during the Covid-19 pandemic in China, focusing on investigating the protecting effect of the resilient coping strategy. The results demonstrated that 86.68% of the students were not involved in cyberbullying activities, 8.19% were victims only, 1.89% was perpetrators only, and 3.24% were both victims and perpetrators. Compared with the non-involved, the victims-only group had a significantly higher degree of reported loneliness and a lower score of resilient coping, while the differences of the other groups were not significant. Resilient coping strategy can significantly reduce loneliness and play a mediating role between cyberbullying victimization and loneliness, but such mitigating effect was relatively weak. Besides, peer relations were the primary protective factors, and age was the primary risk factor of loneliness among the controlled variables. This study can enrich current knowledge of cyberbullying involvement and the psychological health among children and adolescents, especially in the context of the pandemic.
Authors: Yang, F.
Title: Coping strategies, cyberbullying behaviors, and depression among Chinese netizens during the COVID-19 pandemic: a web-based nationwide survey
Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders
Abstract: As a major life stressor now, the COVID-19 pandemic could substantially increase risks of cyberbullying and depression for global people, especially in the context of increased digital interconnectedness and strict social distancing. Though people are adopting different coping strategies, still little is known about their cyberbullying and depression and how the two associated with coping strategies. A web-based nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted among 5,608 netizens during the peak time of COVID-19 in China. The study collected cross-sectional data on participants’ coping strategies, general cyberbullying behaviors, cyberbullying behaviors specifically to residents of Hubei Province where first COVID-19 case was reported, and depression. A two-factor structure applied to participants’ coping strategies, namely problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, and the former was more adopted. There existed gender, age, education, and income differences in the coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was associated with less cyberbullying behaviors while had no correlation with depression; emotion-focused coping was found positively correlated with cyberbullying and depression. The association between emotion-focused coping and depression was mediated by cyberbullying. The study used cross-sectional design, and its findings should be cautioned to be generalized to other countries, due to the differences in culture, stage of crisis, and government policies on COVID-19. Problem-focused coping was associated with less cyberbullying, and emotion-focused coping predicted cyberbullying and depression. Cyberbullying mediated the correlation between emotion-focused coping and depression. These findings provide new perspectives for interventions on people’s coping strategies towards COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Li, J. and Hesketh, T.
Title: Experiences and Perspectives of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents in Mainland China-Implications for Policy
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Abstract: The prevalence of traditional bullying and cyberbullying is high among Chinese adolescents. The aims of this study are to explore: (1) characteristics of children who are targets or perpetrators of traditional bullying or cyberbullying; (2) causes of bullying in middle school; (3) reactions and coping strategies of bullying victims; and (4) impacts of bullying on victims’ psychosocial well-being. Students were selected based on the findings of previous quantitative research at schools in Zhejiang, Henan, and Chongqing. Snowball sampling led to identification of more informants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with students involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying as perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. Forty-one students aged 12–16 years (21 boys and 20 girls) from 16 schools in three provinces participated. Data collection and analysis followed a grounded theory approach. Among these students traditional bullying was much more common than cyberbullying, but there was a large overlap between the two types. The results informed a conceptual framework which identified the main causes of bullying in these settings: these included lack of education about bullying, inadequate classroom and dormitory management, and teachers’ failure to recognize and punish bullying. Children with specific characteristics (such as being unattractive or low-achieving), were more likely to be bullied. Most victims lacked support of parents and teachers even when requested, leading to poor psychosocial well-being, difficulties with socialization, and poor academic performance. Our findings suggest that schools need to address bullying culture, through multi-faceted locally-appropriate approaches, based on zero tolerance. It is crucial to ensure that students, teachers and parents recognize the importance of such interventions.
Authors: Wang, L. and Sek-yum Ngai, S.
Title: The effects of anonymity, invisibility, asynchrony, and moral disengagement on cyberbullying perpetration among school-aged children in China
Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
Abstract: In recent years, a growing body of literature has started to document the factors leading to cyberbullying perpetration. However, some remaining issues must be addressed. Drawing on I3 theory and social cognitive theory, the current study investigated: (a) the relationship between moral disengagement and cyberbullying perpetration, which has been explored extensively but yields inconclusive conclusions; (b) the effects of fundamental factors of the online disinhibition effect (online anonymity, invisibility, and asynchrony) on cyberbullying perpetration; and (c) the potential mediating role of moral disengagement between the fundamental factors of the online disinhibition effect and cyberbullying perpetration. A total of 1103 students (mean age 15.3 years, 52.5% girls) answered questionnaires about their cyberbullying involvement, perceived moral disengagement, online anonymity, invisibility, and asynchrony. The results suggested that moral disengagement was positive associated with cyberbullying perpetration. Anonymity was not directly associated with cyberbullying but operated through moral disengagement and then predicted cyberbullying perpetration. Asynchrony not only directly fostered cyberbullying but also operated through moral disengagement and then predicted cyberbullying. Notably, in the Chinese context, online invisibility was not directly associated with cyberbullying perpetration, nor did it operate through moral disengagement to predict cyberbullying perpetration. The findings of the current study have theoretical, practical, and policymaking implications for understanding and curtailing adolescents’ cyberbullying involvement.
Authors: Michelle F. Wright, Zheng Huang, Sebastian Wachs, Ikuko Aoyama, Shanmukh Kamble, Shruti Soudi, Zheng Li, Li Lei & Chang Shu,
Title: Associations between cyberbullying perpetration and the dark triad of personality traits: the moderating effect of country of origin and gender
Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development
Abstract: This study’s aim was to investigate the associations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, callous and unemotional traits, and cyberbullying perpetration among 1,637 adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, 48% girls overall) from China, India, and Japan. Adolescents completed questionnaires on the dark triad of personality traits, and cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying perpetration. Narcissism and callous and unemotional traits were related to cyberbullying perpetration for Chinese and Indian adolescents, as was Machiavellianism for Indian adolescents. Gender did not moderate these associations. Our findings suggest the need to monitor the dark triad of personality traits and for prevention programmes against cyberbullying to consider the cultural context.
Authors: Zhu, Y., Li, W., O’Brien, J.E., and Liu, T.
Title: Parent–Child Attachment Moderates the Associations Between Cyberbullying Victimization and Adolescents’ Health/Mental Health Problems: An Exploration of Cyberbullying Victimization Among Chinese Adolescents
Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a public health concern worldwide, including China. Cyberbullying victimization has negative effects on adolescents’ health and mental health. This study examined the associations between cyberbullying victimization and several health and mental health problems among adolescents in China. A total of 3,232 adolescents aged 15 to 17 were recruited from 18 high schools in Xi’an, China, using a stratified random sampling method. Self-report data were collected via survey from adolescents in Xi’an, China. In total, 22.2% and 6.3% of the sample reported having experienced cyberbullying victimization in their lifetime and the past year, respectively. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression revealed that lifetime and preceding-year cyberbullying victimization was, respectively, significantly associated with poorer health (β = −1.58, p < .001; β = −2.22, p < .001), more severe depressive symptoms (β= 3.74, p < .001; β = 4.48, p < .001), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (β = 7.16, p < .001; β = 4.77, p < .001). Binary regression revealed that lifetime and preceding-year cyberbullying victimization was, respectively, significantly related to higher odds of problem drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, p < .001; OR = 1.84, p < .01), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.69, p < .001; OR = 2.21, p < .001), and gambling engagement (OR = 1.35, p < .05; OR = 1.97, p < .01). Furthermore, greater levels of parent–child attachment were a protective factor against the negative effects of cyberbullying victimization on adolescents’ depressive symptoms (p < .001) and PTSD (p < .05). It is critical to develop and implement prevention and early intervention programs that are tailored to address the needs of adolescents in China. Parental involvement needs to be incorporated into interventions for cyberbullying victimization.
Author(s): Wong, R. Y., Cheung, C. M., & Xiao, B.
Title: Does gender matter in cyberbullying perpetration? An empirical investigation
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a highly prevalent online misbehavior that has recently received public attention due to its potentially devastating consequences. In response to the call to understand the mechanism leading to cyberbullying perpetration, this study draws on I3theory to understand the decisions of young adults to engage in cyberbullying. Furthermore, it examines the influence of gender on various determinants of cyberbullying perpetration. The results of an online survey involving 208 university students reveal that both cyberbullying victimization and perceived online disinhibition enhance the intention to perpetrate cyberbullying, whereas self-control is a critical buffer that represses the propensity to cyberbully others. Our findings also show that the factors influencing cyberbullying differ in strength for male and female students. We believe that these findings not only provide a theoretical explanation of cyberbullying perpetration but also offer valuable insights for combatting cyberbullying among university students.
Author(s): Xin, M., Xing, J., Pengfei, W., Houru, L., Mengcheng, W., & Hong, Z.
Title: Online activities, prevalence of Internet addiction and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents in China
Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports
URL: (Now defunct)
Abstract: To investigate the online activities, prevalence of Internet Addiction in relation to demographic characteristics and risk factors related to family and school among adolescents.
Author(s): Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Coping with cyberbullying victimization: An exploratory study of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong
Journal: International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice
Abstract: Limited information is available on how victims cope with their cybervictimization experience. Therefore, using 432 cases of cyberbullying victimization (i.e., victims-only as passive victims and victim-bullies as aggressive victims) in a sample of Hong Kong school-age Chinese adolescents, this study examines the effects of different demographics (i.e., age and sex) and psychosocial characteristics (i.e., self-esteem, empathy, prosocial behavior, family attachment, perception of a harmonious school, sense of school belonging and commitment, and positive school experience and involvement) on different victim coping approaches (i.e., avoidant, aggressive, passive, and active). Findings indicate that older male adolescents who engage in prosocial behavior are likely to employ an active approach, while those who reported fewer positive school experiences and involvement are likely to use an avoidant coping style in coping with their victimization. Adolescents who perceived their school as a harmonious place but with fewer positive school experiences and involvement are likely to adopt a passive coping style, while those who retaliated against their bullying perpetrators are likely to be males and high in empathy level. Implications are offered to inform practices in aiding adolescents to cope with potential cyberbullying victimization effectively.
Author(s): Lai, C. S., Mohamad, M. M., Lee, M. F., Salleh, K. M., Sulaiman, N. L., Rosli, D. I., & Chang, W. V.
Title: Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Students in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions
Journal: Advanced Science Letters
Abstract: This research was conducted to gain an understanding of the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Malaysian higher learning institutions. Additionally, the present research also attempted to find out the common platforms where cyberbullying occurred and coping strategies used by cyber victims. A set of questionnaire was developed for the purpose of data collection. A total of 712 public and private college/university students participated in this research. The research findings revealed that 66% of the respondents reported having been cyberbullied; the prevalence rate for female was higher compared to male cyber users; Malays students yielded highest percentage of cyber victims compared to other ethnic groups. Current findings also indicated that Facebook and mobile phone social apps were the most common platforms where cyberbullying took place. The exploration of cyberbullying effects showed that most of the cyber victims became over sensitive towards their surrounding and developed emotional changes. Apart from that, the findings also indicated that the most common coping strategy was seeking assistance from friends and classmates. Pragmatic and effective steps have to be taken by higher leaning institutions in order to help students deal with problems in cyberbullying and more importantly to prevent cyberbullying from happening.
Author(s): LEI, Z. C., & Yong, C. H. E. N.
Title: The Path of Anti-School Bullying under Rule of Law in China
Journal: DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science
Abstract: Anti-school bullying is a worldwide problem with great harm. The data of NSRC shows that school bullying occurs frequently in China. School bullying has serious social harmfulness, not only will it lead to high probability of deviant behaviors, but also influence the sufferers’ mental health. There are many causes that lead to high occurrence of school bullying, the most significant one of which is the lack of systemic and mature laws and regulations in China. In order to prevent and control school bullying effectively, the legal system should be perfected. Concretely speaking, at least the following five aspects should paid enough attention to: Setting reasonable purpose and principles for the laws and regulations, making a clear legal definition of school bullying, establishing the school bullying prevention committee, reasonably defining the boundary of obligations and responsibilities among different parties, and perfecting legal remedy system against school bullying.
Author(s): Han, Z., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H.
Title: School bullying in urban China: prevalence and correlation with school climate
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health
Abstract: School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention.
Author(s): Leung, A. N. M., Wong, N., & Farver, J. M.
Title: Cyberbullying in Hong Kong Chinese students: Life satisfaction, and the moderating role of friendship qualities on cyberbullying victimization and perpetration
Journal: Personality and Individual Differences
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a serious concern among Internet users worldwide. Few studies have examined the variables that may moderate cyberbullying behavior, especially among the Chinese population. This study examined cyberbullying with 312 Hong Kong Chinese college students (Mage=19.64). The goal was to understand the relative impact of cyberbullying experiences as measured by life satisfaction and to examine how friendship quality may moderate this relation differentially for males and females. The results showed that 58% of the participants reported cyberbullying others and of those 68% also reported being cyber-victimized. Cyberbullying victimization and cyberbullying perpetration were both negatively correlated with life satisfaction. Male students perpetrated more cyberbullying than female students. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration were positively related for both males and females. Friendship closeness and security only moderated the relation between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration for female students. Interestingly, the two components of friendship quality moderated the relation in opposite directions. Specifically, friendship closeness buffered the relation between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration while friendship security enhanced the relation. These findings indicate that gender and subscales of friendship quality should be included when investigating the effect of friendship on cyberbullying behavior, cyberbullying involvement and life satisfaction.
Author(s): Lyu, W., & Zhang, J.
Title: The Influence of Childhood Psychological Maltreatment on Mainland China College Students’ Cyberbullying: The Mediating Effect of Moral Disengagement and the Moderating Effect of Moral Identity
Journal: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
Abstract: This study aims to explore the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment, Mainland China college students’ cyberbullying, moral disengagement, and moral identity by surveying 200 college students via the Childhood Psychological Maltreatment Scale, the Cyberbullying Questionnaire, the Moral Disengagement Questionnaire, and the Moral Identity Questionnaire. The relationships are summarised from four viewpoints: firstly, childhood psychological maltreatment is significantly positive correlated with college students’ cyberbullying and moral disengagement; secondly, childhood psychological maltreatment has a significant direct effect on their cyberbullying; thirdly, childhood psychological maltreatment has a significant indirect effect on their cyberbullying through moral disengagement; and fourthly, moral identity plays a significant role in the influences of moral disengagement on college students’ cyberbullying. These relationships indicate that moral disengagement partially mediates the influences of childhood psychological maltreatment on college students’ cyberbullying and that moral identity significantly moderates the influences of moral disengagement on college students’ cyberbullying.
Author(s): Rao, J., Wang, H., Pang, M., Yang, J., Zhang, J., Ye, Y., … & Dong, X.
Title: Cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation among junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China
Journal: Injury prevention
Abstract: Cyberbullying research in China is in early stage. This study describes the cyberbullying experiences of junior and senior high school students in Guangzhou, China, and to examine the risk factors associated with cyberbullying perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims among students. We also investigated the frequency of cyberbullying and coping strategies of student victims.
Author(s): Chan, H. C., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Traditional School Bullying and Cyberbullying Perpetration: Examining the Psychosocial Characteristics of Hong Kong Male and Female Adolescents
Journal: Youth & Society
Abstract: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying are growing concerns worldwide. Research has been devoted to understanding the etiology of bullying behaviors. Using a large sample of secondary school adolescents in Hong Kong (N= 1,893), this study explores gender differences in mean levels of traditional school bullying (i.e., physical and verbal forms of bullying, and extortion and exclusion) and cyberbullying (i.e., overt and relational aggression) behaviors, and psychosocial characteristics (i.e., self-efficacy, empathy, prosocial behavior, family bonding, perception of a harmonious school, sense of belonging in school, and positive school experiences and involvement). The differential role of psychosocial characteristics in types of bullying perpetration is also examined. Findings indicate that the perpetration of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying behaviors are positively correlated, and male adolescents reported higher levels of bullying perpetration than female adolescents. Multivariate findings reveal that, to some extent, male and female adolescents shared a similar set of psychosocial risk factors of bullying perpetration, especially in the perpetration of traditional school bullying. The findings of this study may have important implications for practice in regard to minimizing, if not entirely preventing, through the joint efforts of the family, school, and social service systems, the propensity of adolescents to engage in the perpetration of bullying behaviors.
Author(s): Sun, S., Fan, X., & Du, J.
Title: Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences
Journal: International Journal of Internet Science
Abstract: A total of 39 articles, which reported cyberbullying behaviors from both male and female respondents, were meta-analyzed to examine if gender difference existed in cyberbullying perpetration. From these 39 empirical studies, a total of 100 effect sizes were collected, each representing a reported gender difference in certain types of cyberbullying behaviors. Random-effects meta-regression models were used in data analysis. Despite some inconsistencies across the individual empirical studies, a statistically significant gender difference emerged, indicating that more males were involved in cyberbullying perpetration behaviors than females. Moderator analysis showed that the gender difference was not consistent across the levels of several study features (e.g., modality of cyberbullying, regions of samples). It was also revealed that some methodological issues (e.g., measurement of cyberbullying behaviors, self-report rather than behavioral data) remain obvious challenges for researchers in this area. Caution is warranted, because those studies that were rated as having poor study quality showed a larger than average effect size for gender difference in cyberbullying behaviors. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Author(s): Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S.
Title: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies: Prevalence and a review of the whole-school intervention approach.
Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior
Abstract: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying have been a growing concern globally. In this review, we first review the prevalence of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in selected major Chinese societies, namely the Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Empirical findings on the characteristics of bullying perpetrators, victims, and the offense circumstances are described. As an intervention strategy, we then comprehensively review the whole-school intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. Its origin, key components, and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents are discussed. We conclude the review with potential implications for the application of this intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies.
Author(s): Ong, R.
Title: Cyber-bullying and young people: How Hong Kong keeps the new playground safe
Journal: Computer Law & Security Review
Abstract: The number of people using digital communication technologies and participating in networked public spheres (Twitter and Facebook) has escalated in recent years. While this digital revolution has brought immense benefits to the global society, its ability for anonymous communication, and its ability to generate, manipulate and disseminate digital information which can be accessed instantaneously and continuously has also led to an abuse of these technologies causing irreparable harm to another person’s reputation and creates a record that causes serious psychological and emotional trauma. Protecting citizens from these forms of abuse is a priority of most governments. This paper provides an overview of the traditional tort remedies and a summary of the statutory schemes in Hong Kong.
Author(s): Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C.
Title: Game on? Online friendship, cyberbullying, and psychosocial adjustment in Hong Kong Chinese children.
Journal: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
Abstract: Across 626 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders, children’s experiences of victimization and bullying in online and real life contexts were compared. Children reported their best friendships at school and online when playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). With demographic variables, computer gaming habits, school victimization and real life friendship measures statistically controlled, online victimization uniquely and negatively explained variance in friendship satisfaction, while online friendship positively and significantly explained additional variance in children’s social competence, friendship satisfaction, self esteem, and life satisfaction. This research demonstrates theoretical and practical importance of investigating social experiences (both negative, i.e., being cyber-bullied, and positive, i.e., building up online friendship) for early adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Author(s): Lam, L. T., & Li, Y.
Title: The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: This study investigates the psychometric properties of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) designed to assess Cyber Bullying among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 484 adolescents aged between 11–16years randomly recruited from high schools within a region. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied to investigate the factorial structure of these scales. Reliability was examined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients by sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among these scales and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children as well as the Zung’s Anxiety Scales. A single-factor model for the E-VS and a 2-factor model for the E-BS were resulted from the EFA with large factor loadings and about 47% and 56% of variance explained respectively. Cronhach’s alpha values provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.55 to 0.96. Correlations between the E-VS and Depression as well as Anxiety scales showed positive and significant relationships, however, the E-BS was only related to Depression. Psychometric evidence has shown that both E-VS and E-BS are valid instruments for measuring Cyber bullying behaviour and victimisation. Further studies are required on the test–retest reliability, discriminate validity, responsiveness, as well as normative information for standardisation.
Author(s): Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M.
Title: Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China. Findings revealed that cyberbullying among high school students in the heartland of central China is relatively common with 34.84% (N = 501) of participants reported having bullied someone and 56.88% (N = 818) reported having been bullied by online. Significant gender differences were found, suggesting that boys are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying both as perpetrators and victims. Students with lower academic achievement were more likely to be perpetrators online than were students with better academic achievement. Students who spend more time on online, have access to the internet in their bedrooms, have themselves experienced traditional bullying as victims, and are frequently involved in instant-messaging and other forms of online entertainment are more likely to experience cyberbullying. Increased parent and teacher supervision reduced students’ involvement in cyberbullying. Implications for intervention are explored.
Author(s): Bhat, C. S., Chang, S. H., & Linscott, J. A.
Title: Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue.
Journal: New Horizons in Education
Abstract: Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications technology is an issue that youth are encountering in Asia and in other parts of the world. Students who are cyberbullied experience several detrimental psychosocial effects that detract from their ability be successful in school. In some instances, youth suicide has been linked to cyberbullying. Goals: The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for proactive media literacy initiatives that promote the ethical and responsible social use of technology by students. Results: Examples of initiatives to reduce cyberbullying and other harmful uses of social media are presented. These initiatives are targeted not just at students but at teachers, other school personnel, and parents. The need to address cyberbullying via school policies and country or regional laws is also discussed.
Author(s): Fung, A. L.
Title: The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention
Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
URL: (Now defunct)
Abstract: This study preliminarily investigated the phenomenon of cyberbullying in Hong Kong. From a pool of 7,654 students, 48 Primary 4 to Form 3 students who were assessed as potential aggressors participated in the study. The purpose was to understand the frequency of cyberbullying behaviours and the relationship between cyberbullying and two types of aggression–proactive and reactive aggression. Results indicated that more cyberbullying behaviours were exhibited among secondary school students than among primary school students, with common practices including name calling, teasing, and gossiping. Emotional ventilation was regarded as the major reason for cyberbullying; for example, revenge was a form of reactive aggression and showing off a form of proactive aggression.
Author(s): Li, Q.
Title: A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying.
Journal: Educational Research
Abstract: Background and purpose: This study explores the issues of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of a sample of Canadian and Chinese adolescents’ experiences and possible culture differences related to bullying and cyberbullying.