Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Belgium, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
 


Author(s): DeSmet, A., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., Deboutte, G., … & De Troyer, O.
 
Year: 2018
 
Title: The efficacy of the Friendly Attac serious digital game to promote prosocial bystander behavior in cyberbullying among young adolescents: A cluster-randomized controlled trial
 
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
 
URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074756321730585X
 
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a social phenomenon which can bring severe harm to victims. Bystanders can show positive bystander behavior (e.g. defending) and decrease cyberbullying and its harm, or negative behavior (e.g. passive bystanding, joining) and sustain cyberbullying and its negative effects. Few interventions have currently targeted bystanders and evaluated results on their behavior or its determinants. The intervention consisted of a serious game specifically targeting cyberbullying bystander behavior. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 8th graders (n = 216) in two schools. Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after the intervention and at 4-week follow-up. The serious game intervention resulted in significant improvements in self-efficacy, prosocial skills, and the intention to act as a positive bystander. These are mainly predictors of positive bystander behavior. No significant effects were found for predictors of negative bystander behavior. The intervention also increased witnessing of cyberbullying incidents, potentially a measure of awareness of cyberbullying taking place, and quality of life. No effects were found on behavior itself, bullying or cyberbullying prevalence. This brief serious game intervention affected determinants of bystander behavior and quality of life among adolescents. Further efforts are needed to address (negative) bystander behavior and cyberbullying involvement.
 
Citation: DeSmet, A., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., Deboutte, G., … & De Troyer, O. (2018). The efficacy of the Friendly Attac serious digital game to promote prosocial bystander behavior in cyberbullying among young adolescents: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 336-347.
 


Author(s): Sun, S., Fan, X., & Du, J.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences
 
Journal: International Journal of Internet Science
 
URL: http://www.ijis.net/ijis11_1/ijis11_1_sun_et_al.pdf
 
Abstract: A total of 39 articles, which reported cyberbullying behaviors from both male and female respondents, were meta-analyzed to examine if gender difference existed in cyberbullying perpetration. From these 39 empirical studies, a total of 100 effect sizes were collected, each representing a reported gender difference in certain types of cyberbullying behaviors. Random-effects meta-regression models were used in data analysis. Despite some inconsistencies across the individual empirical studies, a statistically significant gender difference emerged, indicating that more males were involved in cyberbullying perpetration behaviors than females. Moderator analysis showed that the gender difference was not consistent across the levels of several study features (e.g., modality of cyberbullying, regions of samples). It was also revealed that some methodological issues (e.g., measurement of cyberbullying behaviors, self-report rather than behavioral data) remain obvious challenges for researchers in this area. Caution is warranted, because those studies that were rated as having poor study quality showed a larger than average effect size for gender difference in cyberbullying behaviors. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
 
Citation: Sun, S., Fan, X., & Du, J. (2016). Cyberbullying Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences. International Journal of Internet Science, 11(1).
 


Author(s): DeSmet, A., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., Cardon, G., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Deciding whether to look after them, to like it, or leave it: A multidimensional analysis of predictors of positive and negative bystander behavior in cyberbullying among adolescents
 
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
 
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215303228
 
Abstract: Positive bystander behavior in cyberbullying among adolescents may effectively mitigate cyberbullying and its harm for the victim. Limited, scattered, and sometimes only qualitative research is available on predictors of positive (e.g. defending, comforting or reporting) and negative (e.g. passive bystanding, joining, reinforcing) bystander behavior in cyberbullying. A multidimensional model and multilevel analysis were therefore applied in this study.
 
Citation: DeSmet, A., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Poels, K., Vandebosch, H., Cardon, G., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2016). Deciding whether to look after them, to like it, or leave it: A multidimensional analysis of predictors of positive and negative bystander behavior in cyberbullying among adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 398-415.
 


Author(s): Baldry, A. C., Farrington, D. P., & Sorrentino, A.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Cyberbullying in youth: A pattern of disruptive behavior
 
Journal: Psicología Educativa
 
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1135755X16000075
 
Abstract: Despite the growing diffusion of cyberbullying among students and the numerous studies in the literature, to date relatively little is known about its relationship with school bullying. This article seeks to understand if there is an overlap between the roles of bullies and victims in traditional and electronic bullying. In order to investigate this, 5,058 Italian middle and high school students were surveyed about their experiences of cyberbullying and cybervictimisation, looking also at their involvement in school bullying. The results highlighted a significant overlap between school bullying and cyberbullying, with 12.1% of all students who bullied others at least sometimes being also cyberbullies. Similarly, there was a significant overlap between school victimisation and cybervictimisation, with 7.4% of all students who were victimised at school at least sometimes being also cybervictimised. Our findings confirm the existence of an overlap between school bullying and cyberbullying. We discuss useful intervention programs to reduce or prevent cyberbullying.
 
Citation: Baldry, A. C., Farrington, D. P., & Sorrentino, A. (2016). Cyberbullying in youth: A pattern of disruptive behaviour. Psicología Educativa, 22(1), 19-26.
 


Author(s): Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., & Bastiaensens, S.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Exposure to cyberbullying as a bystander: An investigation of desensitization effects among early adolescents
 
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
 
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216302977
 
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether (repeated) exposure to cyberbullying as a bystander has an impact on early adolescents’ moral evaluations in terms of a decrease in empathy and a shift towards a more tolerant attitude towards cyberbullying. A two-wave panel study with a 6-month time interval was conducted among a sample of 1412 adolescents aged 10–13. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to investigate relationships over time between being a bystander of cyberbullying, empathic responsiveness towards distressed others, and the attitude towards cyberbullying, while taking into account involvement in cyberbullying as a victim or a perpetrator. The results indicate a negative relationship between standing by at Time 1 and empathic responsiveness at Time 2. In other words, exposure to cyberbullying as a bystander at Time 1 predicted subsequent lower levels of empathic responsiveness at Time 2. The attitude towards cyberbullying at Time 2 was not influenced by seeing more cyberbullying acts at Time 1. Further implications of the results for prevention and intervention, and for future research are discussed.
 
Citation: Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., & Bastiaensens, S. (2016). Exposure to cyberbullying as a bystander: An investigation of desensitization effects among early adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 480-487.
 


Author(s): Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Online peer support in cyberbullying: investigating online fora of youth helpline organisations
 
Journal: AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research
 
URL: https://spir.aoir.org/index.php/spir/article/view/1035
 
Abstract: As cyberbullying victims can perceive various barriers for seeking social support in their face-to-face network (e.g. Baas, de Jong, & Drossaert, 2013; Hoff & Mitchell, 2009; Jacobs, Goossens, Dehue, Völlink, & Lechner, 2015), they can go online to seek for social support (Walther &  Boyd, 2002), for instance in online support groups (White & Dorman, 2001). In this ‘netnographic’ (Kozinets, 2002) study, we investigated online fora discussions about cyberbullying within two online support group fora of youth helpline organizations, examining patterns of social support according to the social support framework by Tardy (1985). This framework not only helps distinguish between different types of social support (House, 1981 in Tardy, 1985), it also takes into account reciprocal support seeking and providing in a network, evaluations of social support in terms of helpfulness, and comparisons of social support sought or provided with the realm of available social support (Tardy, 1985).
 
Citation: Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2016). Online peer support in cyberbullying: investigating online fora of youth helpline organisations. AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research, 5.
 


Author(s): Allison, K. R., & Bussey, K.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Cyber-bystanding in context: A review of the literature on witnesses’ responses to cyberbullying
 
Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
 
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740916300913
 
Abstract: As a form of peer victimisation, cyberbullying can be conceptualised as a group phenomenon; research on cyberbullying should therefore consider all participant roles, rather than focusing solely on perpetrators and victims. Bystanders are of particular interest in both traditional and cyberbullying as they have the potential to amend the situation by intervening, yet most witnesses remain passive. This paper reviews the literature on cyberbullying bystander behaviour, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative studies to identify factors that influence witnesses’ responses. It further compares the ability of two theoretical frameworks (the bystander effect and social cognitive theory) to account for and integrate the diverse findings of these studies. Although the bystander effect is the dominant paradigm for explaining bystander inaction in many contexts, social cognitive theory may be better able to capture the complex and contextually dependent nature of cyberbullying situations. This paper concludes by discussing the implications of this approach for future research, and for potential interventions to improve witnesses’ responses.
 
Citation: Allison, K. R., & Bussey, K. (2016). Cyber-bystanding in context: A review of the literature on witnesses’ responses to cyberbullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 183-194.
 
 


Author(s): Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying
 
Journal: Journal of youth and adolescence
 
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-015-0259-3
 
Abstract: Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber) bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10–17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed.
 
Citation: Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(2), 328-339.
 


Author(s): Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Popularity through online harm: The longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence
 
Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence
 
URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0272431614556351
 
Abstract: The present study examines the reciprocal associations between cyberbullying behavior and young adolescents’ social status. For this purpose, a two-wave panel study with an 8-month time interval was conducted among an entire grade of 154 secondary school pupils (age 12-14). The survey featured items on traditional bullying and cyberbullying as well as peer-nomination questions on sociometric and perceived popularity. Cyberbullying was related to subsequent increases in perceived popularity of the perpetrators. In contrast, traditional bullying perpetration was not longitudinally associated with social status during the studied period. Although perceived popularity was also expected to precede cyberbullying behavior, this was not observed. Taken together, the results suggest that electronic forms of bullying, rather than traditional forms, can provide a means to acquire additional perceived popularity in early adolescence. The findings warrant future research on the factors that moderate the association between cyberbullying and social status.
 
Citation: Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S. (2016). Popularity through online harm: The longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36(1), 86-107.
 
 


Author(s): Bastiaensens, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: From normative influence to social pressure: how relevant others affect whether bystanders join in cyberbullying
 
Journal: Social Development
 
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sode.12134/full
 
Abstract: As cyberbullying is a phenomenon that is inherently social, the normative social influence of significant others can play an important role in the behaviour of adolescents involved in cyberbullying incidents. Using data from 525 adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying, we created a path model in order to investigate whether injunctive and descriptive norms of certain reference groups can cause bystanders to experience social pressure and join in cyberbullying. The results showed that social pressure fully mediated the relationship between the injunctive norm of friends approving of cyberbullying and joining in cyberbullying as a bystander. Furthermore, both the injunctive norm of parents approving of cyberbullying and bystanders’ involvement in cyberbullying perpetration were related to joining in cyberbullying as a bystander.
 
Citation: Bastiaensens, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2016). From normative influence to social pressure: how relevant others affect whether bystanders join in cyberbullying. Social Development, 25(1), 193-211.
 
 


Author(s): Erreygers, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., & Baillien, E.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Helping behavior among adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying: The role of impulsivity
 
Journal: Learning and Individual Differences
 
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1041608016300255
 
Abstract: Impulsivity has a significant impact on behavior during adolescence. Moreover, previous research has shown associations between impulsivity (or low self-control) and perpetration and victimization of cyberbullying. However, the influence of impulsivity on bystander behavior has not been investigated yet, although bystanders play an important role in bullying situations. The present study examined the relationship between impulsivity and helping behavior in bystanders of cyberbullying. To predict the likelihood of helping a victim when witnessing cyberbullying, we collected self-reported data from a representative sample of 2309 pupils, aged 9 to 17. The results suggested that more impulsive adolescents were less likely to help the cybervictim. An explanation for the findings may be that helping behavior in a cyberbullying context requires inhibitory abilities which are deficit in impulsive adolescents. These findings could be used to inform intervention strategies about which factors are associated with bystander behavior in cyberbullying and how to target these.
 
Citation: Erreygers, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., & Baillien, E. (2016). Helping behavior among adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying: The role of impulsivity. Learning and Individual Differences, 48, 61-67.
 
 


Author(s): Heirman, W., Walrave, M., Vandebosch, H., Wegge, D., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S.
 
Year: 2016
 
Title: Cyberbullying Research in Belgium: An Overview of Generated Insights and a Critical Assessment of the Mediation of Technology in a Web 2.0 World
 
Journal: Cyberbullying Across the Globe 
 
URL: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-25552-1_9
Abstract: As one of the most recent forms of peer aggression, cyberbullying has emerged in our communities as a societal problem affecting the mental health of contemporary youth. As the prefix “cyber-” suggests, this type of bullying occurs through the use of an electronic medium. Following some widely covered cases in media (e.g. The Megan Meier story, the Amanda Todd case), scholarly attention devoted to this topic has significantly increased during the past decade (Tokunaga, Computers in Human Behavior 26(3), 277–287, 2010). Also in Belgium, scholars have put their efforts together to gain a better understanding of cyberbullying. In this context, the research group Media, ICT/Interpersonal relations in Organisations and Society (MIOS) has adopted the role of a Belgian pioneer in studying this form of negative online conduct among youngsters on the Internet and via mobile devices. The first aim of the chapter is to provide an overview of the outcomes of these research efforts. Both the prevalence rates, observed across five large-scale studies conducted by MIOS on cyberbullying, and the predictors of victimization and perpetration identified in these studies will be discussed.
As a second aim, we want to address the question whether cyberbullying has an amplified impact as compared with the harm caused by traditional bullying. This amplification of harm has been suggested both in media and in academic coverage on cyberbullying. In the context of these discourses, technology is said to operate as a facilitator of maladaptive behaviour among youth for various reasons. More specifically, five features of technology are commonly discussed as facilitating cyberbullying. These are technology’s potential to (1) safeguard perpetrators with anonymity, (2) to allow offenders to remain unnoticed for adult supervision, (3) to decrease perpetrators’ empathy caused by a lack of non-verbal cues in the online realm, (4) to provide them with a large (theoretically) infinite audience and finally, (5) to allow them to invade 24/7 in victims’ lives.
In response to the increasing demand for clarity, this study offers a conceptual framework in which all technology-related aspects are integrated and critically appreciated with respect to their potentially exacerbating role in cyberbullying. This critical assessment encompasses the following discussions: (1) how these features may aggravate the impact of cyberbullying, (2) whether some of these aspects can also have beneficial outcomes for young people’s well-being, (3) whether these aspects are exclusively applicable to the area of cyberbullying (or whether these aspects also feature non-electronic forms of bullying) and, moreover, (4) how the impact of some of these issues may have changed during the shift of the static World Wide Web into a more dynamic and interactive Web 2.0 environment.
Citation: Heirman, W., Walrave, M., Vandebosch, H., Wegge, D., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S. (2016). Cyberbullying Research in Belgium: An Overview of Generated Insights and a Critical Assessment of the Mediation of Technology in a Web 2.0 World. In Cyberbullying Across the Globe (pp. 169-191). Springer International Publishing.
 


Author(s): Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H.

Year: 2016

Title: Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber) Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence During Early Adolescence

Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence

URL: http://jea.sagepub.com/content/36/2/145.short

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine bullying perpetration and social intelligence (SI), which is a sociocognitive characteristic that has been proposed as a possible regulator of traditional and cyberbullying. We compared SI for perpetrators and nonperpetrators of traditional bullying and/or cyberbullying and examined longitudinal associations. A four-wave panel study with 6-month time intervals was conducted among 1,103 adolescents. Latent class analysis was used to examine developmental trajectories of bullying across 2 years. Four profiles of adolescents were found: nonstop traditional bullies, (traditional and cyber) bullies with decreasing perpetration, (traditional and cyber) bullies with increasing perpetration, and noninvolved. No separate nonstop cyberbullying class was found. In a next step, latent growth curves of SI were calculated for each profile. Nonstop traditional bullies had the lowest levels of SI and their level remained low. Further implications of these results for prevention and intervention, and for research are discussed.

Citation: Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber) Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence During Early Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36(2), 145-170.


Author(s): O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T.

Year: 2015

Title: Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile.

Journal: Societies

URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4698/5/2/384/htm

Abstract: The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to perform acts of harassment. While online bullying is often considered to be an extension of persistent offline behavior, according to EU Kids Online (2011), the most common form of bullying is in person, face-to-face. With the rise in use of mobile Internet technologies, this balance is changing. Increased levels of use and more time spent online accessed through a variety of devices has increased children’s exposure to a range of online risks, including cyberbullying. This article presents the findings of the Net Children Go Mobile project, a cross-national study of children aged 9–16 in seven European countries. The research builds on the work of EU Kids Online and supports the identification of new trends in children’s online experiences of risk and safety. The study finds that while overall levels of bullying have remained relatively static, levels of online bullying have increased, particularly among younger teens. The relationship between cyberbullying and the use of mobile Internet technologies is examined and factors contributing to increased levels of cyberbullying are highlighted.

Citation: O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T. (2015). Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile. Societies, 5(2), 384-398.


Author(s): Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H.

Year: 2015

Title: Short-term longitudinal relationships between adolescents’(cyber) bullying perpetration and bonding to school and teachers.

Journal: International Journal of Behavioral Development

URL: http://jbd.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/16/0165025415573639.abstract

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional relationships between (cyber)bullying and (a) bonding to school and (b) bonding to teachers. These relationships were examined while controlling for traditional and cyberbullying victimization, as well as gender and age. The sample consisted of 2,128 Belgian early adolescents, who participated in a two-wave panel study with a 6-month time interval. The data were analysed using cross-lagged panel analyses. The results indicate the robust temporal stability of being bonded to school and teachers, bullying perpetration (traditional and cyber), and bullying victimization (traditional and cyber). For teacher bonding, a small negative bidirectional relationship was found with cyberbullying perpetration. Low levels of teacher bonding at Time 1 predicted subsequent cyberbullying at Time 2; cyberbullying at Time 1 led to later poor teacher bonding at Time 2. On the other hand, the expected longitudinal associations between school bonding and (cyber)bullying perpetration were not confirmed. The results of the current study implicate that a positive bonding to teachers in particular could be a protective factor against bullying via the Internet or mobile phone. Further implications of these results for prevention and intervention with regard to (cyber)bullying are discussed.

Citation: Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2015). Short-term longitudinal relationships between adolescents’(cyber) bullying perpetration and bonding to school and teachers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 0165025415573639.


Author(s): Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S.

Year: 2014

Title: Popularity through online harm the longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence.

Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence

URL: http://jea.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/10/27/0272431614556351.abstract

Abstract: The present study examines the reciprocal associations between cyberbullying behavior and young adolescents’ social status. For this purpose, a two-wave panel study with an 8-month time interval was conducted among an entire grade of 154 secondary school pupils (age 12-14). The survey featured items on traditional bullying and cyberbullying as well as peer-nomination questions on sociometric and perceived popularity. Cyberbullying was related to subsequent increases in perceived popularity of the perpetrators. In contrast, traditional bullying perpetration was not longitudinally associated with social status during the studied period. Although perceived popularity was also expected to precede cyberbullying behavior, this was not observed. Taken together, the results suggest that electronic forms of bullying, rather than traditional forms, can provide a means to acquire additional perceived popularity in early adolescence. The findings warrant future research on the factors that moderate the association between cyberbullying and social status.

Citation: Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S. (2014). Popularity through online harm the longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 0272431614556351.


Author(s): Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., Desmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563213003865

Abstract: Cyberbullying on social network sites poses a significant threat to the mental and physical health of victimized adolescents. Although the role of bystanders in solving bullying instances has been demonstrated repeatedly in research on traditional bullying, their role in cyberbullying remains relatively understudied. Therefore, we set up an experimental scenario study in order to examine the influence of contextual factors (severity of the incident, identity and behaviour of other bystanders) on bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully in cases of harassment on Facebook. Four hundred and fifty-three second year students of Flemish secondary schools participated in the study. The results on the one hand showed that bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to help the victim when they witnessed a more severe incident. Incident severity also interacted with other bystanders’ identity in influencing behavioural intentions to help the victim. On the other hand, bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to join in the bullying when other bystanders were good friends rather than acquaintances. In addition, an interaction effect was found between other bystanders’ identity and behaviour on behavioural intentions to join in the bullying. Furthermore, both helping and reinforcing behavioural intentions differed according to gender.

Citation: Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., Desmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2014). Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 259-271.


Author(s): Vandebosch, H., Beirens, L., D’Haese, W., Wegge, D., & Pabian, S.

Year: 2012

Title: Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: The Belgian case.

Journal: Psicothema

URL: http://www.unioviedo.net/reunido/index.php/PST/article/view/9717

Abstract:

Citation: Vandebosch, H., Beirens, L., D’Haese, W., Wegge, D., & Pabian, S. (2012). Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: The Belgian case. Psicothema, 24(4), 646-652.


Author(s): Walrave, M., & Heirman, W.

Year: 2011

Title: Cyberbullying: Predicting victimisation and perpetration.

Journal: Children & Society

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2009.00260.x/full

Abstract: The double-edged nature of modern technology, continuously balancing between risks and opportunities, manifests itself clearly in an emerging societal problem known as cyberbullying. To analyse the extent and nature of the issue in Belgium, 1318 adolescents were questioned explicitly about their involvement in cyberbullying, as well as implicitly about their experience with specific types of cyberbullying-related behaviour. This alternate questioning revealed higher victimisation and perpetration rates. The study also provides better insight into predictors associated with victimisation or perpetration in cyberbullying. Especially past involvement in cyberbullying and engaging in online risk behaviour increase the likelihood of victimisation; non-rejection of cyberbullying and online identity experimentation augment the likelihood of perpetration. Girls are more likely to become victims of cyberbullying, whereas boys are more inclined to engage in electronic bullying. Moreover, the incidence of cyberbullying increases slightly with age. Finally, teens spending much time on the Internet, reporting higher ICT expertise and owning a computer with privileged online access share an increased likelihood of online bullying behaviour.

Citation: Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyberbullying: Predicting victimisation and perpetration. Children & Society, 25(1), 59-72.


Author(s): Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K.

Year: 2009

Title: Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims.

Journal: New media & society

URL: http://nms.sagepub.com/content/11/8/1349.abstract

Abstract: A survey among 2052 primary and secondary school children reveals that cyberbullying among youngsters is not a marginal problem. However, there are discrepancies between the prevalence figures based on direct measurement versus indirect measurement of cyberbullying. Youngsters who have bullied someone via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are younger, and are more often victims and bystanders of bullying via the internet or mobile phone, and are more often the perpetrators of traditional bullying. Youngsters who have been bullied via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are more dependent upon the internet, feel less popular, take more internet-related risks, are more often a bystander and perpetrator of internet and mobile phone bullying, and are less often a perpetrator and more often a victim of traditional bullying. The implications for future research into cyberbullying and for cyberbullying prevention strategies are discussed.

Citation: Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims. New media & society, 11(8), 1349-1371.