Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Australia, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Author(s): Chalmers, C., Campbell, M. A., Spears, B. A., Butler, D., Cross, D., Slee, P., & Kift, S.
Title: School policies on bullying and cyberbullying: perspectives across three Australian states.
Journal: Educational Research
Abstract: Background: Despite decades of research, bullying in all its forms is still a significant problem within schools in Australia, as it is internationally. Anti-bullying policies and guidelines are thought to be one strategy as part of a whole school approach to reduce bullying. However, although Australian schools are required to have these policies, their effectiveness is not clear. As policies and guidelines about bullying and cyberbullying are developed within education departments, this paper explores the perspectives of those who are involved in their construction.
Citation: Chalmers, C., Campbell, M. A., Spears, B. A., Butler, D., Cross, D., Slee, P., & Kift, S. (2016). School policies on bullying and cyberbullying: perspectives across three Australian states. Educational Research, 1-19.
Author(s): Young, H., Campbell, M., Spears, B., Butler, D., Cross, D., & Slee, P.
Title: Cyberbullying and the role of the law in australian schools: Views of senior officials.
Journal: Australian Journal of Education
Abstract: This study examined the opinions of influential, authoritative employees from the education and legal systems, regarding their perceptions of the role of the law and cyberbullying in Australian schools. Participants were asked whether they thought a specific law for cyberbullying should be introduced, what particular behaviours, if any, should be criminalised and who should be involved. Participants were located across three Australian States. Thematic analysis was used to identify eight main themes within the data, namely (1) uses of the law in general, (2) introduction of a law for cyberbullying, (3) benefits and difficulties of criminalising cyberbullying for young people, (4) conditions for a cyberbullying law for young people, (5) who should be involved in a cyberbullying law, (6) legal sanctions thought to be appropriate, (7) educational and legal solutions and (8) educational interventions for student cyberbullying. Implications include increasing the awareness of how existing legislative responses can be used as deterrents, working towards more effective cooperation of education and legal systems.
Citation: Young, H., Campbell, M., Spears, B., Butler, D., Cross, D., & Slee, P. (2016). Cyberbullying and the role of the law in Australian schools: Views of senior officials. Australian Journal of Education, 60(1), 86-101.
Author(s): Corby, E. K., Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S.
Title: Students’ perceptions of their own victimization: A youth voice perspective.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the different perceptions of victims were categorized and found to relate to: the bully, the bystanders, the bullying incidents, the emotional impact on the victim, and the victim’s ability to respond. The perceptions of these students challenge a number of suppositions presented in the literature that attempt to explain why cyberbullying is associated with more negative outcomes than traditional bullying. The implications for antibullying programs to address these issues are discussed.
Citation: Corby, E. K., Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2016). Students’ perceptions of their own victimization: A youth voice perspective. Journal of School Violence, 15(3), 322-342.
Author(s): Tanrikulu, I., & Campbell, M.
Title: Correlates of traditional bullying and cyberbullying perpetration among Australian students
Journal: Children and youth services review
Abstract: This study investigated the associations of gender, age, trait anger, moral disengagement, witnessing of interparental conflict, school connectedness and the religious makeup of the school setting in the involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying perpetration. Five hundred Australian students completed an anonymous self-report, paper-based questionnaire. According to the results, 25.2% of the participants reported having engaged in traditional or cyberbullying perpetration. While trait anger and moral disengagement were associated with being a traditional bully, trait anger, interparental conflicts, moral disengagement and school connectedness were associated with being a traditional bully-victim. Additionally, trait anger and moral disengagement were associated with being a traditional-and-cyberbully. Our findings indicated that besides individual variables, the family and school environment have an impact on traditional and cyberbullying perpetration behavior. Results imply that any prevention attempts to reduce traditional and cyberbullying should consider students’ experiences both at home and at school.
Citation: Tanrikulu, I., & Campbell, M. (2015). Correlates of traditional bullying and cyberbullying perpetration among Australian students. Children and youth services review, 55, 138-146.
Author(s): Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hadwen, K., Cardoso, P., Slee, P., Roberts, C., … & Barnes, A.
Title: Longitudinal impact of the Cyber Friendly Schools program on adolescents’ cyberbullying behavior.
Journal: Aggressive behavior.
Abstract: Cyberbullying is a major public health problem associated with serious mental, social, and academic consequences for young people. To date, few programs addressing cyberbullying have been developed and empirically tested. The Cyber Friendly Schools (CFS) group-randomized controlled trial measured the longitudinal impact of a whole-school online cyberbullying prevention and intervention program, developed in partnership with young people. Non-government secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia, (N = 35; 3,000+ students) were randomized to an intervention (n = 19) or usual practice control group (n = 16 schools). Students completed online questionnaires in 2010, 2011, and at 1-year follow-up in 2012, measuring their cyberbullying experiences during the previous school term. The intervention group received the program in Grades 8 and 9 (aged 13–14 years). Program effects were tested using two-part growth models. The program was associated with significantly greater declines in the odds of involvement in cyber-victimization and perpetration from pre- to the first post-test, but no other differences were evident between the study conditions. However, teachers implemented only one-third of the program content. More work is needed to build teacher capacity and self-efficacy to effectively implement cyberbullying programs. Whole-school cyberbullying interventions implemented in conjunction with other bullying prevention programs may reduce cyber-victimization more than traditional school-based bullying prevention programs alone. Aggr. Behav. 42:166–180, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Citation: Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hadwen, K., Cardoso, P., Slee, P., Roberts, C., … & Barnes, A. (2015). Longitudinal impact of the Cyber Friendly Schools program on adolescents’ cyberbullying behavior. Aggressive behavior.
Author(s): Quirk, R., & Campbell, M.
Title: On standby? A comparison of online and offline witnesses to bullying and their bystander behaviour.
Journal: Educational Psychology
Abstract: Given their ubiquitous presence as witnesses to school-yard bullying, the role of the ‘bystander’ has been studied extensively. The prevalence and behaviour of bystanders to cyberbullying, however, is less understood. In an anonymous, school-based questionnaire, 716 secondary school students from South-East Queensland reported whether they had witnessed traditional and/or cyberbullying, and how they responded to each type. Overlap in bystander roles between online and offline environments was examined, as was their relationship to age and gender. Students who witnessed traditional bullying were more likely to have witnessed cyberbullying. Bystanders’ behaviour was sometimes similar in both contexts of traditional and cyberbullying, mainly if they were outsiders but half of the 256 students who reported witnessing both traditional and cyberbullying, acted in different roles across the two environments. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of previous research on cyberbullying and traditional-bystanders. Future research should further explore the role of bystanders online, including examining whether known predictors of traditional-bystander behaviour similarly predict cyber-bystander behaviour.
Citation: Quirk, R., & Campbell, M. (2015). On standby? A comparison of online and offline witnesses to bullying and their bystander behaviour. Educational Psychology, 35(4), 430-448.
Author(s): Bussey, K., Fitzpatrick, S., & Raman, A.
Title: The role of moral disengagement and self-efficacy in cyberbullying.
Journal: Journal of School Violence
Abstract: This study examines the association between moral disengagement and cyberbullying using a measure of moral disengagement tailored to cyberbullying. It also examines adolescents’ self-beliefs in their competence to engage in cyberbullying (cyberbullying self-efficacy beliefs) and how these beliefs may moderate the relation between moral disengagement and cyberbullying. Participants were 942 mainly White (83.5%) boys and girls from Grades 7 to 9 (Mage = 13.2 years, range = 11–15 years). Results revealed that when students believed firmly in their cyberbullying capabilities, high levels of self-reported cyberbullying were associated with greater moral disengagement proneness even when controlling for knowledge of cyberbullying moral standards. These results suggest that reducing cyberbullying will involve more than policies that sanction such behavior. Factors that reduce the use of moral disengagement processes, particularly among those students who believe in their cyberbullying capabilities, need to be promoted.
Citation: Bussey, K., Fitzpatrick, S., & Raman, A. (2015). The role of moral disengagement and self-efficacy in cyberbullying. Journal of School Violence, 14(1), 30-46.
Author(s): Wozencroft, K., Campbell, M., Orel, A., Kimpton, M., & Leong, E.
Title: University Students’ Intentions to Report Cyberbullying.
Journal: Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology
Abstract: Little is known about the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and less about whether they utilise anti-bullying policies. However, failure to report cyberbullying incidents to authorities would lessen the efficacy of these policies. This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and their reporting intentions for cyberbullying incidents. Two hundred and eighty-two students completed a survey on their intentions to report cyberbullying. Results found cyberbullying exists among university students and they would report to authorities if the policy outlined specific information. Students who had been cyber victimised were more likely to report than those students who had not been cyberbullied. Implications for universities are discussed.
Citation: Wozencroft, K., Campbell, M., Orel, A., Kimpton, M., & Leong, E. (2015). University Students’ Intentions to Report Cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 15, 1-12.
Author(s): Cross, D., Lester, L., Barnes, A., Cardoso, P., & Hadwen, K.
Title: If it’s about me, why do it without me? Genuine student engagement in school cyberbullying education.
Journal: International Journal of Emotional Education
Abstract: This study reports on a three-year group randomized controlled trial, the Cyber Friendly Schools Project (CFSP), aimed to reduce cyberbullying among grade 8 students during 2010-2012. In each year, 14-15 year old student “cyber” leaders acted as catalysts to develop and implement whole-school activities to reduce cyberbullying-related harms. This paper examines students’ leadership experiences and the effectiveness of their training and intervention efforts. A mixed methods research design comprising interviews and questionnaires was used to collect data from 225 grade 10 students at the end of their leadership years (2010 & 2011). Four to six cyber leaders were recruited from each of the 19 intervention schools involved in each year of the study. The cyber leaders reported high self-efficacy post-training, felt their intervention efforts made a difference, and experienced a sense of agency, belonging and competence when given opportunities for authentic leadership. They identified key barriers and enablers to achieving desired outcomes. Students greatly valued having their voices heard. Their engagement in the development and delivery of whole-school strategies allowed them to contribute to and enhance efforts to promote their peers’ mental health and wellbeing. However, a lack of support from school staff limits students’ effectiveness as change-enablers.
Citation: Cross, D., Lester, L., Barnes, A., Cardoso, P., & Hadwen, K. (2015). If it’s about me, why do it without me? Genuine student engagement in school cyberbullying education. International Journal of Emotional Education, 7(1), 35.
Author(s): Hemphill, S. A., Tollit, M., Kotevski, A., & Heerde, J. A.
Title: Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying Victimization A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students.
Journal: Journal of interpersonal violence
Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to compare the individual, peer, family, and school risk and protective factors for both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. This article draws on data from 673 students from Victoria, Australia, to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Participants completed a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. There were few similarities and important differences in the predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. For Grade 9 cyber-bullying victimization, in the fully adjusted model, having been a victim of traditional bullying in Grade 7 and emotional control in Grade 7 were predictors. For Grade 9 traditional bullying victimization, predictors were Grade 7 traditional bullying victimization, association with antisocial peers, and family conflict, with family attachment and emotional control marginally statistically significant. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization, as is the implementation of programs to assist students to regulate their emotions effectively. In addition, traditional bullying victimization may be reduced by addressing association with antisocial friends, family conflict, and bonding to families.
Citation: Hemphill, S. A., Tollit, M., Kotevski, A., & Heerde, J. A. (2014). Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying Victimization A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260514553636.
Author(s): Price, D., Green, D., Spears, B., Scrimgeour, M., Barnes, A., Geer, R., & Johnson, B.
Title: A qualitative exploration of cyber-bystanders and moral engagement.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: Studies have found that moral disengagement plays a significant role in the continuation of bullying situations (Bonanno, 2005); however, the moral stance of cyber-bystanders — those who witness online bullying — is not yet clear. While research into traditional face-to-face bullying reported that peers would probably or certainly intervene to support victims in 43% of cases (Rigby & Johnson, 2006) actual intervention is reportedly much less (Atlas & Pepler, 1998; Craig & Pepler, 1997). Little is known, however, about the attitudes and behaviours of bystanders or witnesses when online, or their probable intentions to intervene. This study employed three digital animations of typical cyberbullying scenarios to explore young people’s views of cyber-bystanders. Youth from Years 8–12 (mean age 15.06, N = 961) from one metropolitan secondary school in Adelaide, South Australia, completed an online survey after watching vignettes. To shed light on the rationale and thinking behind their understanding of bystanders and moral dis/engagement when online, this article reports on the qualitative responses from young people in relation to one of these animations/vignettes. The findings suggest that young people perceive cyber-bystanders to have the capacity to morally engage in cyberbullying incidents; however, there are various barriers to their active positive engagement. The implications can inform educators and school counsellors about possible ways to support students to intervene when they witness cyberbullying.
Citation: Price, D., Green, D., Spears, B., Scrimgeour, M., Barnes, A., Geer, R., & Johnson, B. (2014). A qualitative exploration of cyber-bystanders and moral engagement. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 24(01), 1-17.
Author(s): Brack, K., & Caltabiano, N.
Title: Cyberbullying and self-esteem in Australian adults.
Journal: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace
Abstract: Cyberbullying research is currently focused on identifying personal factors which increase the risk of an individual being involved in the behaviour. Recent findings indicate that within the web of cyberbullying culture a large group of individuals are both cyberbullies and victims. This group of cyberbully/victims has been shown to differ from pure cyberbullies or victims on various factors during adolescence; particularly self-esteem. However, little research to date has investigated cyberbullying behaviour in adults. The current study examined the prevalence of cyberbully typologies and their relationship with self-esteem within a convenience sample of 164 Australian young adults (72% being females; 17-25 years). Results found that the largest group identified were cyberbully/victims (62%), followed by individuals not involved (17%), cyberbullies (11%) and cybervictims (10%) respectively. The ratio of males and females in each of the four cyberbully typologies was similar. Contrary to previous research, all four cyberbully typologies reported similar levels of self-esteem. These findings suggest that research should examine cyberbullying behaviour across all age groups to determine if this is related to different factors in adolescence compared to adulthood. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed.
Citation: Brack, K., & Caltabiano, N. (2014). Cyberbullying and self-esteem in Australian adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8.
Author(s): Tanrikulu, I., & Campbell, M. A.
Title: Sibling bullying perpetration associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.
Journal: Journal of interpersonal violence
Abstract: This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts.
Citation: Tanrikulu, I., & Campbell, M. A. (2014). Sibling bullying perpetration associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260514539763.
Author(s): Srivastava, A., Gamble, R., & Boey, J.
Title: Cyberbullying in Australia: Clarifying the problem, considering the solutions.
Journal: The International Journal of Children’s Rights
Abstract: With the increasing use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT), a new method of bullying has emerged known as cyberbullying. It is indeed ironic that the advancement in communication tools designed to improve the life of mankind is also the cause of much pain. More and more frequently we do read or hear of cases of young children being victims because of the misuse of ICT which have in some extreme cases led to them committing suicide. Unfortunately the ICT’s very nature of being accessible from anywhere and anytime, and its often anonymous nature makes it difficult to regulate what children say or do to each other. This paper discusses the scope of the cyberbullying problem amongst the young in Australia and considers what role the government, the courts and schools should play in detecting, deterring or preventing such conduct.
Citation: Srivastava, A., Gamble, R., & Boey, J. (2013). Cyberbullying in Australia: Clarifying the problem, considering the solutions. The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 21(1), 25-45.
Author(s): Robson, C., & Witenberg, R. T.
Title: The influence of moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender on traditional bullying and cyberbullying.
Journal: Journal of school violence
Abstract: The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the specific practices of moral justification and diffusion of responsibility. Furthermore, overall moral disengagement and the specific practices of diffusion of responsibility and attribution of blame predicted cyberbullying. Morally based self-esteem did not influence either form of bullying. Age predicted cyberbullying, with a greater tendency for older students to bully than younger students, while gender predicted involvement in traditional bullying, with boys more likely to bully than girls. Implications for antibullying interventions in schools are suggested. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Citation: Robson, C., & Witenberg, R. T. (2013). The influence of moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender on traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of school violence, 12(2), 211-231.
Author(s): Compton, L., Campbell, M. A., & Mergler, A.
Title: Teacher, parent and student perceptions of the motives of cyberbullies.
Journal: Social Psychology of Education
Abstract: Understanding the motivation of students who cyberbully is important for both prevention and intervention efforts for this insidious form of bullying. This qualitative exploratory study used focus groups to examine the views of teachers, parents and students as to the motivation of students who cyberbully and who bully in other traditional forms. In addition, these groups were asked to explain their understanding of what defines bullying and cyberbullying. The results suggested that not only were there differences in definitions of cyberbullying and bullying between the three groups, but also that there were differences in perceptions of what motivates some youth to cyberbully. The implications of these results are discussed for both prevention and intervention strategies.
Citation: Compton, L., Campbell, M. A., & Mergler, A. (2014). Teacher, parent and student perceptions of the motives of cyberbullies. Social Psychology of Education, 17(3), 383-400.
Author(s): Campbell, M. A., Slee, P. T., Spears, B., Butler, D., & Kift, S.
Title: Do cyberbullies suffer too? Cyberbullies’ perceptions of the harm they cause to others and to their own mental health
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: While it is recognized that there are serious sequelae for students who are victims of cyberbullying including depression, anxiety, lower self-esteem and social difficulties, there has been little research attention paid to the mental health of students who cyberbully. It is known that students who traditionally bully report they feel indifferent to their victims, showing a lack of empathy and that they themselves are at increased risk for psychosocial adjustment. However, there is scant research on the mental health associations for students who cyberbully or their awareness of their impact on others. The current study sought to ascertain from Australian students who reported cyberbullying others in school years 6 to 12 (10-19 years of age), their perceptions of their mental health and the harm they caused to and the impact their actions had, on their victims. Most students who cyberbullied did not think that their bullying was harsh or that they had an impact on their victims. They reported more social difficulties and higher scores on stress, depression and anxiety scales than those students who were not involved in any bullying. The implications of these findings for the mental health of the cyberbullies and for psychologists in schools who assist them, are discussed.
Citation: Campbell, M. A., Slee, P. T., Spears, B., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2013). Do cyberbullies suffer too? Cyberbullies’ perceptions of the harm they cause to others and to their own mental health. School Psychology International, 34(6), 613-629.
Author(s): Shaw, T., & Cross, D.
Title: The clustering of bullying and cyberbullying behaviour within Australian schools.
Journal: Australian Journal of Education
Abstract: Bullying between students at school can seriously affect students’ health and academic outcomes. To date, little is known regarding the extent to which bullying behaviour is clustered within certain schools rather than similarly prevalent across all schools. Additionally, studies of bullying behaviour in schools that do not account for clustering of such behaviour by students within the same school are likely to be underpowered and yield imprecise estimates. This article presents intraclass correlation (ICC) values for bullying victimisation and perpetration measures based on a large representative sample of 106 Australian schools. Results show that bullying is not confined to specific schools and school differences contribute little to explaining students’ bullying behaviour. Despite this, seemingly negligible ICC values can substantially affect the sample sizes required to attain sufficiently powered studies, when large numbers of students are sampled per school. Sample size calculations are illustrated.
Citation: Shaw, T., & Cross, D. (2012). The clustering of bullying and cyberbullying behaviour within Australian schools. Australian Journal of Education, 56(2), 142-162.
Author(s): Lester, L., Cross, D., & Shaw, T.
Title: Problem behaviours, traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents: longitudinal analyses.
Journal: Emotional and behavioural difficulties
Abstract: Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people’s problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary school (grade 8, age 12) predicted levels of engagement in problem behaviours at the end of grade 9 (age 14). Levels of victimisation and perpetration were found to moderate each other’s associations with engagement in problem behaviours. Cyberbullying did not represent an independent risk factor over and above levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration for higher levels of engagement in problem behaviours. The findings suggest that to reduce the clustering of cyberbullying behaviours with other problem behaviours, it may be necessary to focus interventions on traditional bullying, specifically direct bullying.
Citation: Lester, L., Cross, D., & Shaw, T. (2012). Problem behaviours, traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents: longitudinal analyses. Emotional and behavioural difficulties, 17(3-4), 435-447.
Author(s): Sakellariou, T., Carroll, A., & Houghton, S.
Title: Rates of cyber victimization and bullying among male Australian primary and high school students.
Journal: School Psychology International
Abstract: The prevalence and nature of electronic forms of bullying (cyberbullying) was investigated among 1,530 primary and secondary school aged male students (Years 6 to 12; 9-18 years, chronologically) in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Findings revealed that victimization via the Internet was the most common form of cyberbullying with 11.5 percent of students reporting at least one experience of it during the school year. A significant main effect was found, with junior secondary school students (Years 8 to 10) the most likely to be victimized in this manner. With regard to the cyberbullying of others, the Internet was again the most commonly employed method, with 8.5 percent of students reporting using it. A main effect was evident between year levels for all four forms of cyberbullying investigated. The transmission of electronic images was the least reported form of cyberbullying experienced (4.8 percent) and the least frequently perpetrated form of cyberbullying (3.7 percent), which is less than the only other study conducted reporting such data. These findings are discussed in the light of the relatively limited cyberbullying research undertaken to date. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Citation: Sakellariou, T., Carroll, A., & Houghton, S. (2012). Rates of cyber victimization and bullying among male Australian primary and high school students. School Psychology International, 33(5), 533-549.
Author(s): Grigg, D. W.
Title: Definitional constructs of cyber-bullying and cyber-aggression from a triangulatory overview: a preliminary study into elements of cyber-bullying.
Journal: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the acts that constitute cyber-bullying and to see how from a lay concept these acts are classified. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered using two groups of participants (two Australian participants and three British participants may posit different cultural views). The first set of data was generated through cyber-bullying element extraction from cyber-bullying literature and interviews were conducted with five college students (three from the United Kingdom and two from Australia). The second set was generated through open ended demonstration of internet negative acts such as sending unwanted messages, rude images, threats and malicious messages in a scenario classification questionnaire. This involved the recruitment of 114 first year undergraduate psychology students in the United Kingdom. The scenario questionnaire measured participants’ categorisation of internet negative acts from a lay perspective. Participants’ perceptions of cyber-bullying were examined through grounded theory and thematic narratives to see how these findings differ from literature in the cyber-bullying arena. Findings – Emerging theory indicates the need to treat cyber-bullying as a standalone entity without the confounding role that the more traditional concept of bullying plays in cyber bullying definitions. Additionally, internet negative acts, irrespective of their terminological classifications, were perceived as immoral and anti-social. Suggestions were made to aid practitioners’ to implement interventions against cyber-bullying. Research limitations/implications – Participant numbers at stage one were limited. Thus, it is suggested future replication(s) of this study employ(s) a larger number of participants so as to ascertain the generalisability of findings. It is also suggested that potential future studies should employ quantitative analyses to further triangulate the findings of the current study. Originality/value – The strength of the present study lies in its rich qualitative triangulation, as well as its focus on exploring elements that constitute cyber-bullying from a lay perspective.
Citation: Grigg, D. W. (2012). Definitional constructs of cyber-bullying and cyber-aggression from a triangulatory overview: a preliminary study into elements of cyber-bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 4(4), 202-215.
Author(s): Toshack, T., & Colmar, S.
Title: A cyberbullying intervention with primary-aged students
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: A small-scale evaluation of a psycho-educational program on cyberbullying with a group of Year 6 girls was implemented over six sessions, and was subsequently evaluated. Its content included knowledge of cyberbullying and its effects, and management and safety strategies for the participants and their peers. Increases in the girls’ detailed knowledge of cyberbullying and safety strategies followed the program’s implementation. Students provided positive evaluations of the program and also suggested some good ideas for a schoolwide policy on cyberbullying. To date there has been minimal intervention research on cyberbullying, and few studies with primary-aged students. The present study redresses this imbalance.
Citation: Toshack, T., & Colmar, S. (2012). A cyberbullying intervention with primary-aged students. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22(02), 268-278.
Author(s): Hemphill, S. A., Tollit, M., & Kotevski, A.
Title: Rates of bullying perpetration and victimisation: A longitudinal study of secondary school students in Victoria, Australia.
Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
Abstract: Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying perpetration (non-technology-based [traditional] bullying, cyberbullying and relational aggression) and victimisation (traditional face-to-face bullying, and cyberbullying) in a sample of almost 800 Grade Nine students in Victoria, Australia, followed up in Grades 10 and 11. In the current paper, data from Grades 9 to 11 are described and analysed. The results showed that the most common form of bullying in Grades 9-11 was relational aggression, with up to 72% of boys and 65% of girls in Grade Nine reporting that they engaged in relational aggression. In Grades 9-11 rates of traditional bullying perpetration and relational aggression were higher in boys than girls, whereas rates of traditional bullying victimisation in Grade Nine and cyberbullying victimisation in Grades 9 and 10 were higher in girls than boys. Across time, gender differences in victimisation reduced. Rates of traditional bullying perpetration increased in boys and girls from Grade Nine to Grade 11, whereas rates of relational aggression decreased over time for boys and girls. The implications of these findings for schools are that rates of bullying perpetration, including more covert forms of bullying behaviour, are high. Anti-bullying programmes in schools need to target all of the different subtypes of bullying.
Citation: Hemphill, S. A., Tollit, M., & Kotevski, A. (2012). Rates of bullying perpetration and victimisation: A longitudinal study of secondary school students in Victoria, Australia. Pastoral Care in Education, 30(2), 99-112.
Author(s): Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S.
Title: Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation.
Journal: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
Abstract: It is well recognised that there are serious correlates for victims of traditional bullying. These have been shown to include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms, in addition to often severe physical harm and even suicide. Bullied students also feel more socially ineffective and have greater interpersonal difficulties, together with higher absenteeism from school and lower academic competence. In the emerging field of cyberbullying many researchers have hypothesised a greater impact and more severe consequences for victims because of the 24/7 nature and the possibility of the wider audience with this form of bullying. However, to date there is scarce empirical evidence to support this. This study sought to compare victims’ perceptions of the harshness and impact of bullying by traditional and cyber means. The major findings showed that although students who had been victimised by traditional bullying reported that they felt their bullying was harsher and crueller and had more impact on their lives than those students who had been cyberbullied, the correlates of their mental health revealed that cybervictims reported significantly more social difficulties, and higher levels of anxiety and depression than traditional victims. The implications for school counsellors and mental health workers are discussed.
Citation: Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2012). Victims’ perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimisation. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 389-401.
Author(s): Griezel, L., Finger, L. R., Bodkin-Andrews, G. H., Craven, R. G., & Yeung, A. S.
Title: Uncovering the structure of and gender and developmental differences in cyber bullying.
Journal: The Journal of Educational Research
Abstract: Although literature on traditional bullying is abundant, a limited body of sound empirical research exists regarding its newest form: cyber bullying. The sample comprised Australian secondary students (N = 803) and aimed to identify the underlying structure of cyber bullying, and differences in traditional and cyber bullying behaviors across gender and grade. Reliability analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and factorial invariance testing demonstrated that the newly extended measure of traditional and cyber bullying was psychometrically sound. Multiple-Indicators-Multiple-Causes models demonstrated gender, grade, and gender by grade interaction effects for traditional and cyber forms of bullying and being bullied. Findings were interpreted in the context of bullying theory. Moreover, potential limitations of the investigation and implications for theory, research, and practice were discussed.
Citation: Griezel, L., Finger, L. R., Bodkin-Andrews, G. H., Craven, R. G., & Yeung, A. S. (2012). Uncovering the structure of and gender and developmental differences in cyber bullying. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(6), 442-455.
Author(s): Barnes, A., Cross, D., Lester, L., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., & Monks, H.
Title: The invisibility of covert bullying among students: Challenges for school intervention.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: Covert bullying behaviours are at least as distressing for young people as overt forms of bullying, but often remain unnoticed or unacknowledged by adults. This invisibility is increased in schools by inattention to covert bullying in policy and practice, and limited staff understanding and skill to address covert behaviours. These factors can lead to a school culture that appears to tolerate and thus inadvertently encourages covert bullying. This study explores these dynamics in Australian primary and secondary schools, including the attitudes of over 400 staff towards covert bullying, their understanding of covert bullying behaviours, and their perceived capacity to address these behaviours both individually and at a whole-school level. While most respondents felt a responsibility to intervene in bullying situations, nearly 70% strongly agreed with statements that staff need more training to address covert bullying. Only 10% of respondents described their current whole-school strategies as very effective in reducing covert bullying, and fewer than 40% reported their school had a bullying policy that explicitly referred to covert bullying. These results suggest an urgent need for sustainable professional development to enhance school staff understanding, skills and self-efficacy to address covert bullying through school policy and practice, and the need to identify and consolidate effective strategies to better address these behaviours.
Citation: Barnes, A., Cross, D., Lester, L., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., & Monks, H. (2012). The invisibility of covert bullying among students: Challenges for school intervention. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22(02), 206-226.
Author(s): Nicol, S.
Title: Cyber-bullying and trolling.
Journal: Youth Studies Australia
Abstract: Bullying – of the school-yard type – has appeared in research in YSA for decades, and cyber-bullying (in a TAFE setting) made its first YSA appearance in 2009. Now, an ever-increasing exposure to technology is enabling ever-increasing bullying of this kind – often anonymous, outside the normal barriers of time and location and often as damaging as face-to-face bullying.
Citation: Nicol, S. (2012). Cyber-bullying and trolling. Youth Studies Australia, 31(4), 3.
Author(s): Pearce, N., Cross, D., Monks, H., Waters, S., & Falconer, S.
Title: Current Evidence of Best Practice in Whole-School Bullying Intervention and Its Potential to Inform Cyberbullying Interventions.
Journal: Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Abstract: In 2004, a set of validated guidelines for school bullying prevention and management was released by the Child Health Promotion Research Centre in Australia to guide schools’ action to prevent and manage bullying behaviours. At this time little was known about cyber and other forms of covert bullying behaviours. These guidelines were updated in 2010 to include current research that provides a greater understanding of all forms of bullying behaviour. This article describes a summary of the current empirical evidence used to update these guidelines particularly related to relatively new and emergent forms of bullying, such as cyberbullying. Meta-analyses and reviews that assessed the effectiveness of school-based bullying interventions were examined to inform the relevance of the previously validated guidelines and to identify potential intervention strategies to reduce cyberbullying. This review confirmed the importance of a systematic whole-school approach to effectively prevent and manage all forms of bullying behaviours in schools (including cyberbullying) and the need to strengthen capacity supports to enable schools to put evidence into informed practice.
Citation: Pearce, N., Cross, D., Monks, H., Waters, S., & Falconer, S. (2011). Current Evidence of Best Practice in Whole-School Bullying Intervention and Its Potential to Inform Cyberbullying Interventions. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 21(01), 1-21.
Author(s): Goff, W.
Title: The shades of grey of cyberbullying in Australian schools.
Journal: Australian Journal of Education
Abstract: This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school’s duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its current form has failed to keep up with the advances in technology and does not effectively deal with the problems surrounding cyberbullying, both within society and within our schools. Such findings suggest that this lack of direction within Australia could be potentially detrimental to the perceptions of the value and use of the internet both within Australian schools and within Australian households, and support the need for global unity in the development of risk management strategies to deal with this growing phenomenon.
Citation: Goff, W. (2011). The shades of grey of cyberbullying in Australian schools. Australian Journal of Education, 55(2), 176-181.
Author(s): Stacey, E.
Title: Research into cyberbullying: Student perspectives on cybersafe learning environments.
Journal: Informatics in education
Abstract: This paper reports a qualitative study designed to investigate the issues of cybersafety and cyberbullying and report how students are coping with them. Through discussion with 74 students, aged from 10 to 17, in focus groups divided into three age levels, data were gathered in three schools in Victoria, Australia, where few such studies had been set. Social networking sites and synchronous chat sites were found to be the places where cyberbullying most commonly occurred, with email and texting on mobile phones also used for bullying. Grades 8 and 9 most often reported cyberbullying and also reported behaviours and internet contacts that were cybersafety risks. Most groups preferred to handle these issues themselves or with their friends rather then alert parents and teachers who may limit their technology access. They supported education about these issues for both adults and school students and favoured a structured mediation group of their peers to counsel and advise victims. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Citation: Stacey, E. (2009). Research into cyberbullying: Student perspectives on cybersafe learning environments. Informatics in education, 8(1), 115-130.
Author(s): Maher, D.
Journal: Youth Studies Australia
Abstract: The issue of cyberbullying has been reported on widely in the press, with extreme cases generally presented as the norm. In this article, the interactions of Australian primary children aged 11 to 12 years old are presented to illustrate some bullying practices that young people engage in. The findings suggest that while cyberbullying occurs, it is generally not extreme in nature. Some differences in cyberbullying between girls and boys were found and examined. The article concludes with several recommendations to help minimise and manage cyberbullying.
Citation: Maher, D. (2008). Cyberbullying. Youth Studies Australia, 27(4), 50-57.