Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Belgium, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.
Author(s): Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H.
Title: Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber) Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence During Early Adolescence
Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine bullying perpetration and social intelligence (SI), which is a sociocognitive characteristic that has been proposed as a possible regulator of traditional and cyberbullying. We compared SI for perpetrators and nonperpetrators of traditional bullying and/or cyberbullying and examined longitudinal associations. A four-wave panel study with 6-month time intervals was conducted among 1,103 adolescents. Latent class analysis was used to examine developmental trajectories of bullying across 2 years. Four profiles of adolescents were found: nonstop traditional bullies, (traditional and cyber) bullies with decreasing perpetration, (traditional and cyber) bullies with increasing perpetration, and noninvolved. No separate nonstop cyberbullying class was found. In a next step, latent growth curves of SI were calculated for each profile. Nonstop traditional bullies had the lowest levels of SI and their level remained low. Further implications of these results for prevention and intervention, and for research are discussed.
Citation: Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber) Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence During Early Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36(2), 145-170.
Author(s): O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T.
Title: Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile.
Abstract: The harmful effects of bullying and harassment on children have long been of concern to parents, educators, and policy makers. The online world presents a new environment in which vulnerable children can be victimized and a space where perpetrators find new ways to perform acts of harassment. While online bullying is often considered to be an extension of persistent offline behavior, according to EU Kids Online (2011), the most common form of bullying is in person, face-to-face. With the rise in use of mobile Internet technologies, this balance is changing. Increased levels of use and more time spent online accessed through a variety of devices has increased children’s exposure to a range of online risks, including cyberbullying. This article presents the findings of the Net Children Go Mobile project, a cross-national study of children aged 9–16 in seven European countries. The research builds on the work of EU Kids Online and supports the identification of new trends in children’s online experiences of risk and safety. The study finds that while overall levels of bullying have remained relatively static, levels of online bullying have increased, particularly among younger teens. The relationship between cyberbullying and the use of mobile Internet technologies is examined and factors contributing to increased levels of cyberbullying are highlighted.
Citation: O’Neill, B., & Dinh, T. (2015). Mobile technologies and the incidence of cyberbullying in Seven European Countries: findings from Net children go mobile. Societies, 5(2), 384-398.
Author(s): Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H.
Title: Short-term longitudinal relationships between adolescents’(cyber) bullying perpetration and bonding to school and teachers.
Journal: International Journal of Behavioral Development
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional relationships between (cyber)bullying and (a) bonding to school and (b) bonding to teachers. These relationships were examined while controlling for traditional and cyberbullying victimization, as well as gender and age. The sample consisted of 2,128 Belgian early adolescents, who participated in a two-wave panel study with a 6-month time interval. The data were analysed using cross-lagged panel analyses. The results indicate the robust temporal stability of being bonded to school and teachers, bullying perpetration (traditional and cyber), and bullying victimization (traditional and cyber). For teacher bonding, a small negative bidirectional relationship was found with cyberbullying perpetration. Low levels of teacher bonding at Time 1 predicted subsequent cyberbullying at Time 2; cyberbullying at Time 1 led to later poor teacher bonding at Time 2. On the other hand, the expected longitudinal associations between school bonding and (cyber)bullying perpetration were not confirmed. The results of the current study implicate that a positive bonding to teachers in particular could be a protective factor against bullying via the Internet or mobile phone. Further implications of these results for prevention and intervention with regard to (cyber)bullying are discussed.
Citation: Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2015). Short-term longitudinal relationships between adolescents’(cyber) bullying perpetration and bonding to school and teachers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 0165025415573639.
Author(s): Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S.
Title: Popularity through online harm the longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence.
Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence
Abstract: The present study examines the reciprocal associations between cyberbullying behavior and young adolescents’ social status. For this purpose, a two-wave panel study with an 8-month time interval was conducted among an entire grade of 154 secondary school pupils (age 12-14). The survey featured items on traditional bullying and cyberbullying as well as peer-nomination questions on sociometric and perceived popularity. Cyberbullying was related to subsequent increases in perceived popularity of the perpetrators. In contrast, traditional bullying perpetration was not longitudinally associated with social status during the studied period. Although perceived popularity was also expected to precede cyberbullying behavior, this was not observed. Taken together, the results suggest that electronic forms of bullying, rather than traditional forms, can provide a means to acquire additional perceived popularity in early adolescence. The findings warrant future research on the factors that moderate the association between cyberbullying and social status.
Citation: Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Pabian, S. (2014). Popularity through online harm the longitudinal associations between cyberbullying and sociometric status in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 0272431614556351.
Author(s): Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., Desmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
Title: Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully.
Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Abstract: Cyberbullying on social network sites poses a significant threat to the mental and physical health of victimized adolescents. Although the role of bystanders in solving bullying instances has been demonstrated repeatedly in research on traditional bullying, their role in cyberbullying remains relatively understudied. Therefore, we set up an experimental scenario study in order to examine the influence of contextual factors (severity of the incident, identity and behaviour of other bystanders) on bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully in cases of harassment on Facebook. Four hundred and fifty-three second year students of Flemish secondary schools participated in the study. The results on the one hand showed that bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to help the victim when they witnessed a more severe incident. Incident severity also interacted with other bystanders’ identity in influencing behavioural intentions to help the victim. On the other hand, bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to join in the bullying when other bystanders were good friends rather than acquaintances. In addition, an interaction effect was found between other bystanders’ identity and behaviour on behavioural intentions to join in the bullying. Furthermore, both helping and reinforcing behavioural intentions differed according to gender.
Citation: Bastiaensens, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., Desmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2014). Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders’ behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 259-271.
Author(s): Vandebosch, H., Beirens, L., D’Haese, W., Wegge, D., & Pabian, S.
Title: Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: The Belgian case.
Citation: Vandebosch, H., Beirens, L., D’Haese, W., Wegge, D., & Pabian, S. (2012). Police actions with regard to cyberbullying: The Belgian case. Psicothema, 24(4), 646-652.
Author(s): Walrave, M., & Heirman, W.
Title: Cyberbullying: Predicting victimisation and perpetration.
Journal: Children & Society
Abstract: The double-edged nature of modern technology, continuously balancing between risks and opportunities, manifests itself clearly in an emerging societal problem known as cyberbullying. To analyse the extent and nature of the issue in Belgium, 1318 adolescents were questioned explicitly about their involvement in cyberbullying, as well as implicitly about their experience with specific types of cyberbullying-related behaviour. This alternate questioning revealed higher victimisation and perpetration rates. The study also provides better insight into predictors associated with victimisation or perpetration in cyberbullying. Especially past involvement in cyberbullying and engaging in online risk behaviour increase the likelihood of victimisation; non-rejection of cyberbullying and online identity experimentation augment the likelihood of perpetration. Girls are more likely to become victims of cyberbullying, whereas boys are more inclined to engage in electronic bullying. Moreover, the incidence of cyberbullying increases slightly with age. Finally, teens spending much time on the Internet, reporting higher ICT expertise and owning a computer with privileged online access share an increased likelihood of online bullying behaviour.
Citation: Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyberbullying: Predicting victimisation and perpetration. Children & Society, 25(1), 59-72.
Author(s): Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K.
Title: Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims.
Journal: New media & society
Abstract: A survey among 2052 primary and secondary school children reveals that cyberbullying among youngsters is not a marginal problem. However, there are discrepancies between the prevalence figures based on direct measurement versus indirect measurement of cyberbullying. Youngsters who have bullied someone via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are younger, and are more often victims and bystanders of bullying via the internet or mobile phone, and are more often the perpetrators of traditional bullying. Youngsters who have been bullied via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are more dependent upon the internet, feel less popular, take more internet-related risks, are more often a bystander and perpetrator of internet and mobile phone bullying, and are less often a perpetrator and more often a victim of traditional bullying. The implications for future research into cyberbullying and for cyberbullying prevention strategies are discussed.
Citation: Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims. New media & society, 11(8), 1349-1371.