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Victims of cyberbullying are at an increased risk for traditional bullying victimization, substance use, and school problems.Correct
According to an article published in the journal Deviant Behavior, victims of cyberbullying were significantly more likely to report experiences with traditional bullying, to use illicit substances, and to have other problems at school.Incorrect
Most targets of cyberbullying tell an adult (parent or teacher) about their experience.Correct
According to Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying, only about 40% of middle school victims of cyberbullying told their parents and less than 30% told a teacher. The book also points out that these numbers are much improved from just 4 years ago when fewer than 15% of victims told an adult.Incorrect
Most students have experienced cyberbullying.Correct
On average, about 25% of middle and high school students have been the target of cyberbullying at some point in their lifetimes. So the majority have not experienced it.
Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Neither an Epidemic Nor a Rarity. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(5), 539-543.
Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying: An Update and Synthesis of the Research (pp. 13-36). In J. W. Patchin and S. Hinduja (Eds.). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives. New York: Routledge.Incorrect
Victims report that they are primarily cyberbullied by strangers.Correct
When it comes to cyberbullying, the concept of “stranger danger” is not usually accurate. According to Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying, 21.1% of victims said the cyberbully was a friend, 20% said it was an ex-friend, and 26.5% said it was someone else from school. Only 6.5% said the cyberbully was a stranger. Articles published in the Journal of Adolescent Health also found that most youth are victimized by someone that they know, and the conflict that prompts the harassment often originates at school.
Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22-S30.
Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the Overlap in Internet Harassment and School Bullying: Implications for School Intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S42-S50.Incorrect
Boys are more likely to be victims of cyberbullying than girls.Correct
While there are some differences found in the research, overall it appears that girls are slightly more likely to report being the victim of cyberbullying than boys. More studies have reported either that girls are more likely to be victims or that there are no gender differences in cyberbullying. When looking at lifetime experiences versus more recent experiences, the prevalence rates are even higher for girls. For more information, see the articles below.
Lenhart, A. (2007, June 27). Cyberbullying and Online Teens. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project.
Li, Q. (2005). New Bottle but Old Wine: A Research of Cyberbullying in Schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1777-1791.
Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers and online-only contacts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S51-58.Incorrect
Traditional schoolyard bullies are also likely to be cyberbullies.Correct
According to an article published in Deviant Behavior, traditional bullies are 2.5 times more likely to be a cyberbully than someone who does not bully offline.Incorrect
Research has shown that utilizing blocking and filtering software decreases the likelihood of experiencing cyberbullying.Correct
According to an article published in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, using filtering software is not significantly related to a decreased chance of Internet harassment victimization. Some adults believe that by simply purchasing and installing such software, they have “done their part” in safeguarding their child’s participation online. This is naïve and unwise. It is really important to actively participate in your child’s online experiences, establish rules, and informally monitor their activities. Software solutions only go so far in controlling certain actions in cyberspace, and can be circumvented by a motivated adolescent.
Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, J. K. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308-1316.Incorrect
More students experience cyberbullying today that bullying at school.Correct
Conventional wisdom would have us believe that since technology has proliferated over the last decade and stories of cyberbullying are frequently mentioned in the news, it is likely more prevalent than traditional, schoolyard bullying. However, research demonstrates that this is not the case (at least not yet). Most studies that have collected data on both behaviors show that bullying still happens more frequently at school than online.
Wang, J., Nansel, T. R., & Iannotti, R. J. (2011). Cyber Bullying and Traditional Bullying: Differential Association with Depression. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(4): 415–417.Incorrect
Most who cyberbully others are outcasts or just mean kids.Correct
Most cyberbullying is done by regular kids who are getting revenge for some real or perceived threat or injury, or by those who think they are just joking around. According to Englander (2008): ‘‘Cyberbullies themselves identify their own anger and desire for revenge as the major immediate motive for engaging in cyberbullying. A second motive is identified by students who report that they engage in cyberbullying ‘as a joke.’” They aren’t just “mean kids” or those who are marginalized.
Englander, E. K. (2008). Research brief: Cyberbullying & bullying in Massachusetts: Frequency & motivations. http://webhost.bridgew.edu/marc/MARC%20findings%20summary%202008.pdf.Incorrect
Teens are less likely to cyberbully others if they know their friends don’t do it.Correct
“Youth who believed that many of their friends were involved in bullying and cyberbullying were themselves more likely to report cyberbullying behaviors.”
Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(5), 711-722.Incorrect
All U.S. States have laws that require schools to have anti-bullying policies.Correct
As of 2015, every state has a bullying law, but Montana’s 2015 law is the only one in the U.S. that does not require schools to have an anti-bullying policy.Incorrect
Cyberbullying rates have been increasing dramatically over the last five years in the United States.Correct
There are three studies that we are aware of that have explored cyberbullying experiences over time. One was conducted by Lisa Jones and her colleagues at the University of New Hampshire. Examining the three waves of the Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000, 2005, 2010), they find a slight increase in cyberbullying behaviors over that time period (from 6% to 9% to 11%). But these rates don’t cover the most recent five year. The second data source (the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey) also showed a slight increase from 2009 to 2011 (6.2% to 9%), but then a decrease from 2011 to 2013 (9% to 6.7%). Finally the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, asked about cyberbullying in 2011 and 2013 and found rates decreased from 16.2% to 14.8%.
Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D. (2013). Online harassment in context: Trends from three Youth Internet Safety Surveys. Psychology of Violence, 3(1), 53-69.Incorrect
Those who have been cyberbullied tend to have lower self-esteem than someone who has not been cyberbullied.Correct
A 2010 article published in the Journal of School Health found “A moderate and statistically significant relationship exists between low self-esteem and experiences with cyberbullying.”
Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 80(12), 614-621.
Brewer, G. & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 255-260.Incorrect
Brewer, G. & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 255-260.
Educators do not have the authority to discipline students for cyberbullying that does not occur at school.Correct
While this can be a challenging issue, a number of federal district court cases have attempted to clarify the conditions under which school officials can discipline students for off-campus behavior. For example, in J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District (2000), the court made it clear that schools do have the authority to discipline students when speech articulated or behavior committed off‐campus results in a clear disruption of the school environment. If any off-campus behavior results in a substantial disruption at school, they can intervene.
Moreover, if students are denied the opportunity to learn in a safe environment (because of cyberbullying), school officials who fail to act may also be found liable under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and/or Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972.
Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 71-78.Incorrect
Cyberbullying is just a problem in the United States.Correct
There have been a number of recent studies which have demonstrated that cyberbullying is also a problem in a number of other countries (Australia, Canada, Greece, Sweden, Turkey). Below are some examples of recent journal articles that address cyberbullying in other countries. In addition, several other studies are underway exploring cyberbullying across the world.
Aricak, T., et al. (2008). Cyberbullying among Turkish adolescents. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 11 (3), 253-261.
Fleming, M. J., Greentree, S., Cocotti-Muller, D., Elias, K. A., and Morrison, S. (2006). Safety in cyberspace: Adolescents’ safety and exposure online. Youth and Society, 38(2), 135-154
Floros, G.D., Simos, K. E., Fisoun, V., Dafouli, E., and Geroukalis, D. (2013). Adolescent online cyberbullying in Greece: The impact of parental online security practices, bonding, and online impulsiveness. Journal of School Health, 83(6), 445-453.
Li, Q. (2007). Bullying in the new playground: Research into cyberbullying and Cybervictimisation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(4), 435-454.
Slonje, R. and Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147-154.Incorrect