Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in the United States of America, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.


Author(s): Chapin, J.

Year: 2016

Title: Adolescents and Cyber Bullying: The Precaution Adoption Process Model

Journal: Education and Information Technologies

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&id=EJ1100498

Abstract: A survey of adolescents (N = 1,488) documented Facebook use and experience with cyber bullying. The study found that 84% of adolescents (middle school through college undergraduates) use Facebook, and that most users log on daily. While 30% of the sample reported being cyber bullied, only 12.5% quit using the site, and only 18% told a parent or school official about the abuse. Up to 75% of middle school Facebook users have experienced cyber bullying. The current study was the first to apply the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) to cyber bullying or to test the model with children and adolescents. Results suggest that most adolescents are aware of cyber bullying and acknowledge it as a problem in their school. About half of the adolescents did not progress beyond Stage 2 of the PAPM (aware of the problem, but have not really thought about it). Adolescents also exhibited optimistic bias, believing they were less likely than peers to become cyber bullied. Implications for prevention education are discussed.

Citation: Chapin, J. (2016). Adolescents and Cyber Bullying: The Precaution Adoption Process Model. Education and Information Technologies, 21(4), 719-728.


Author(s): Ramsey, J. L., DiLalla, L. F., & McCrary, M. K.

Year: 2016

Title: Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=5&id=EJ1096972

Abstract: This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last 30 days) predicts depressive symptoms beyond traditional victimization and perceptions of high school cyber victimization. Findings from 634 college students (ages 18-22) across 25 U.S. states demonstrated significant relations between sexual minority status, particularly homosexual identification, and cyber victimization. The highest levels of depressive symptoms were reported by participants with high levels of both high school and recent cyber victimization and participants who reported high levels of both recent traditional victimization and recent cyber victimization. Findings should be used as a foundation for interventions geared to the sexual minority population.

Citation: Ramsey, J. L., DiLalla, L. F., & McCrary, M. K. (2016). Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students. Journal of School Violence, 15(4), 483-502.


Author(s): Fisher, B. W., Gardella, J. H., & Teurbe-Tolon, A. R.

Year: 2016

Title: Peer Cybervictimization Among Adolescents and the Associated Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis

Journal: Journal of Youth and Adolescence

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10964-016-0541-z

Abstract: Numerous adolescents in the United States experience peer cybervictimization, which is associated with a series of internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, substance use, risky sexual behavior) problems. The current study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing research on these relationships. Included in the meta-analyses are 239 effect sizes from 55 reports, representing responses from 257,678 adolescents. The results of a series of random effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation indicated positive and significant relationships between peer cybervictimization and a series of internalizing and externalizing problems, with point estimates of this relationship ranging from Pearson’s r = .14 to .34. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Citation: Fisher, B. W., Gardella, J. H., & Teurbe-Tolon, A. R. (2016). Peer cybervictimization among adolescents and the associated internalizing and externalizing problems: a meta-analysis. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(9), 1727-1743.


Author(s): Maynard, B. R., Vaughn, M. G., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Vaughn, S.

Year: 2016

Title: Bullying Victimization Among School-Aged Immigrant Youth in the United States

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15007041

Abstract: Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth.

Citation: Maynard, B. R., Vaughn, M. G., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Vaughn, S. (2016). Bullying victimization among school-aged immigrant youth in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(3), 337-344.


Author(s): Williams, J. H., & Veeh, C. A.

Year: 2016

Title: Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15003821

Abstract: Cyberbullying (CB) has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of CB prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among CB research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age.

Citation: Williams, J. H., & Veeh, C. A. (2012). Continued knowledge development for understanding bullying and school victimization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 3-5.


Author(s): Barlett, C. P., Helmstetter, K., & Gentile, D. A.

Year: 2016

Title: The development of a new cyberbullying attitude measure

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216305787

Abstract: Three studies were conducted to validate a new positive attitude towards cyberbullying measure. Our developed measure is a self-report assessment that consists of nine items. Study 1 (N = 166) used exploratory factor analysis and found two distinct factors: Harmful Cyberbullying Attitudes (HCA; five items) and General Cyberbullying Characteristics (GCC; four items) that both had adequate reliability. The factor structure was replicated using confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (N = 336). Additionally, our new measure correlated significantly with existing measures of cyberbullying attitudes and cyberbullying behaviors. Finally, Study 3 (N = 159) further replicated the results of Study 2 and also showed that our HCA measure predicted cyberbullying perpetration above and beyond other cyberbullying attitude measures. Overall, our research suggests that our new cyberbullying attitude measure is reliable and valid.

Citation: Barlett, C. P., Helmstetter, K., & Gentile, D. A. (2016). The development of a new cyberbullying attitude measure. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 906-913.


Author(s): Doane, A. N., Boothe, L. G., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L.

Year: 2016

Title: Risky electronic communication behaviors and cyberbullying victimization: An application of Protection Motivation Theory

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216300620

Abstract: The present study tested Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as an explanation of electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and behaviors and cyberbullying victimization. We recruited 577 college students who completed a battery of surveys examining PMT-based constructs and cyberbullying victimization. We found that higher perceived susceptibility to cyberbullying victimization was associated with lower electronic communication safe behavioral intentions, higher electronic communication risky behaviors, and higher cyberbullying victimization. In addition, higher perceived severity of cyberbullying victimization was associated with higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and lower cyberbullying victimization. Furthermore, higher response efficacy and self-efficacy regarding electronic communication safe behaviors were predictive of higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions. The PMT-based model accounted for over 30% of the variability in cyberbullying victimization. PMT constructs may be promising targets for interventions designed to decrease the incidence of cyberbullying victimization.

Citation: Doane, A. N., Boothe, L. G., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L. (2016). Risky electronic communication behaviors and cyberbullying victimization: An application of Protection Motivation Theory. Computers in Human Behavior,60, 508-513.


Author(s): Schacter, H. L., Greenberg, S., & Juvonen, J.

Year: 2016

Title: Who’s to blame?: The effects of victim disclosure on bystander reactions to cyberbullying

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215302338

Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that bystanders are even less likely to intervene with online compared to offline bullying. Given that receiving social support following bullying can buffer victims from maladjustment, it is important to consider specific factors influencing bystanders’ intention to intervene and help the victim in online contexts. The current experiment examined how cybervictims’ disclosures (i.e., sharing personal information) on Facebook influence bystanders’ attributions of blame, empathy, and intention to intervene on behalf of a victim following a cyberbullying incident. Participants (N = 118) were randomly assigned to view the Facebook profile of a cybervictim who posted an update ranging in personal disclosure (high vs. low) and valence (positive vs. negative). Results indicate that viewing the high disclosure profile (i.e., more personal post from victim), regardless of valence, caused participants to blame the victim more and feel less empathy for the victim, which in turn predicted lower likelihood of bystander intervention with the bullying incident. These results are discussed in terms of implications for encouraging positive bystander behavior in response to incidents of cyberbullying.

Citation: Schacter, H. L., Greenberg, S., & Juvonen, J. (2016). Who’s to blame?: The effects of victim disclosure on bystander reactions to cyberbullying.Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 115-121.


Author(s): Gahagan, K., Vaterlaus, J. M., & Frost, L. R.

Year: 2016

Title: College student cyberbullying on social networking sites: Conceptualization, prevalence, and perceived bystander responsibility

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074756321530234X

Abstract: The majority of research on cyberbullying has been conducted with middle school and high school students and has not focused on specific technology platforms. The current study investigated college student experiences with cyberbullying on Social Networking Sites (SNS). College students (N = 196) from a northwestern university shared their conceptualizations of what cyberbullying looked like on SNS. Some college students (19%) reported that they had been bullied on SNS and 46% indicating that they had witnessed cyberbullying on SNS. The majority (61%) of college students who witnessed cyberbullying on SNS did nothing to intervene. College students were also asked about their perceived responsibility when they witnessed cyberbullying on SNS. Two diverging themes emerged that indicated some college students believed their responsibility to intervene was circumstantial, while others believed there is a constant clear level of responsibility for college student cyberbullying bystanders on SNS.

Citation: Gahagan, K., Vaterlaus, J. M., & Frost, L. R. (2016). College student cyberbullying on social networking sites: Conceptualization, prevalence, and perceived bystander responsibility. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 1097-1105.


Author(s): Ranney, M. L., Patena, J. V., Nugent, N., Spirito, A., Boyer, E., Zatzick, D., & Cunningham, R.

Year: 2016

Title: PTSD, cyberbullying and peer violence: prevalence and correlates among adolescent emergency department patients

Journal: General Hospital Psychiatry

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163834315002662

Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often underdiagnosed and undertreated among adolescents. The objective of this analysis was to describe the prevalence and correlates of symptoms consistent with PTSD among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department (ED).

Citation: Ranney, M. L., Patena, J. V., Nugent, N., Spirito, A., Boyer, E., Zatzick, D., & Cunningham, R. (2016). PTSD, cyberbullying and peer violence: prevalence and correlates among adolescent emergency department patients. General hospital psychiatry, 39, 32-38.


Author(s): Evans, C. B., & Smokowski, P. R.

Year: 2016

Title: Understanding weaknesses in bullying research: How school personnel can help strengthen bullying research and practice

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740916302419

Abstract: School personnel (teachers, administrators, counselors, staff, and social workers) would greatly benefit from a stronger understanding of bullying dynamics. In order to heighten their understanding, we must strengthen bullying research. Despite more than 40 years of bullying research, a number of methodological weaknesses continue to plague the field of bullying. First, there is a lack of a common definition of bullying, making it difficult to compare results across studies. Second, some researchers use one-item measures of bullying, a practice that lacks content validity and fails to assess the entire scope of the bullying dynamic. Third, many measures fail to assess all forms of bullying. Fourth, researchers often fail to provide a definition of bullying or to even include the word “bullying” in their measures, thus conflating the measurement of bullying and aggression. Finally, most scales measure the prevalence of bullying and fail to assess the motivations for bullying or reasons why youth are bullied or bully others. The current article provides an overview of these five weaknesses present in bullying research, presents possible solutions, and discusses implications for school personnel.

Citation: Evans, C. B., & Smokowski, P. R. (2016). Understanding weaknesses in bullying research: How school personnel can help strengthen bullying research and practice. Children and Youth Services Review, 69, 143-150.


Author(s): Selkie, E. M., Fales, J. L., & Moreno, M. A.

Year: 2016

Title: Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15003821

Abstract: Cyberbullying (CB) has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of CB prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among CB research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age.

Citation: Selkie, E. M., Fales, J. L., & Moreno, M. A. (2016). Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment. Journal of Adolescent Health,58(2), 125-133.


Author(s): Waseem, M., Paul, A., Schwartz, G., Pauzé, D., Eakin, P., Barata, I., … & Joseph, M.

Year: 2016

Title: Role of Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Identifying Bullying

Journal: The Journal of Emergency Medicine

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467916305637

Abstract: This document provides a framework for recognizing, stabilizing, and managing children who have experienced bullying. With the advent of social media, bullying behavior is not limited to in-person situations, and often occurs via electronic communication, further complicating recognition because it may not impart any physical harm to the child. Recognition of bullying requires a high level of suspicion, as patients may not offer this history. After the stabilization of any acute or overt indications of physical injury, along with obtaining a history of the mechanism of injury, the EP has the opportunity to identify the existence of bullying as the cause of the injury, and can address the issue in the ED while collaborating with “physician-extenders,” such as social workers, toward identifying local resources for further support.

Citation: Waseem, M., Paul, A., Schwartz, G., Pauzé, D., Eakin, P., Barata, I., … & Joseph, M. (2016). Role of Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Identifying Bullying. The Journal of Emergency Medicine.


Author(s): Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A., Drake-Lavelle, K., & Allison, B.

Year: 2016

Title: Cyberbullying among college students with disabilities

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215303150

Abstract: Cyberbullying has received increasing attention in recent years. However, the majority of this research has focused on children in middle school and on neurotypical youth, to the omission of people with disabilities. The current study, however, examines cyberbullying as it occurs among college students with and without disabilities. Two hundred five students completed a survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying, along with measures of predictor and outcome variables theorized to be related to cyberbullying. The results revealed that, as with traditional bullying, students with disabilities are at particular risk for cyberbullying victimization. Predictors of victimization included traditional bullying victimization, Internet use, and the noticeability of the disability. Outcomes of cyberbullying victimization (e.g., low self-esteem, high depression) appear to be particularly pronounced for individuals with disabilities.

Citation: Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A., Drake-Lavelle, K., & Allison, B. (2016). Cyberbullying among college students with disabilities. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 416-427.


Author(s): Christie, C., & Dill, E.

Year: 2016

Title: Evaluating peers in cyberspace: The impact of anonymity

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215301552

Abstract: This research examined the question of whether the anonymity found in most types of computer-mediated communication (CMC) impacted individual reactions to people who agreed or disagreed with their own opinions. Participants (N = 256) evaluated other respondents who voiced an attitude that was either similar or dissimilar to the one they endorsed. The social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Reicher, Spears, & Postmes, 1995), suggests that anonymous group members will experience a heightened sense of social identity and show an increased likelihood of protecting that group by disparaging those who disagree with their beliefs. However, in the absence of a salient ingroup, we fail to find support for this. In contrast, we provide evidence that the impact of anonymity on interpersonal evaluations of peers is moderated by individual difference factors. Only those participants with high self-esteem, low levels of social anxiousness, or an elevated sense of autonomy evaluated targets more negatively when anonymous rather than identifiable. The current research suggests that any models used to understand anonymity’s effects in CMC situations will need to carefully consider both social and personal identity characteristics.

Citation: Christie, C., & Dill, E. (2016). Evaluating peers in cyberspace: the impact of anonymity. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 292-299.


Author(s): Pittman, M., & Reich, B.

Year: 2016

Title: Social media and loneliness: Why an Instagram picture may be worth more than a thousand Twitter words

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216302552

Abstract: Social media use continues to grow and is especially prevalent among young adults. It is surprising then that, in spite of this enhanced interconnectivity, young adults may be lonelier than other age groups, and that the current generation may be the loneliest ever. We propose that only image-based platforms (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat) have the potential to ameliorate loneliness due to the enhanced intimacy they offer. In contrast, text-based platforms (e.g., Twitter, Yik Yak) offer little intimacy and should have no effect on loneliness. This study (N = 253) uses a mixed-design survey to test this possibility. Quantitative results suggest that loneliness may decrease, while happiness and satisfaction with life may increase, as a function of image-based social media use. In contrast, text-based media use appears ineffectual. Qualitative results suggest that the observed effects may be due to the enhanced intimacy offered by image-based (versus text-based) social media use.

Citation: Pittman, M., & Reich, B. (2016). Social media and loneliness: Why an Instagram picture may be worth more than a thousand Twitter words. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 155-167.


Author(s): Sangalang, C. C., Tran, A. G., Ayers, S. L., & Marsiglia, F. F.

Year: 2016

Title: Bullying among urban Mexican-heritage youth: Exploring risk for substance use by status as a bully, victim, and bully-victim

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740915301341

Abstract: Little is known about adolescent bullying behavior and its relationship to substance use in ethnic minority populations. In a sample of youth of Mexican heritage, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of bullying behavior subtypes and its co-occurrence with recent alcohol, cigarette, and inhalant use. Data come from a school-based substance use prevention study in the Southwestern U.S. (n = 809). We explored the prevalence of bullying behavior by status among youth classified as bullies, victims, bully-victims, and rarely-involved bully-victims in an urban context. We also investigated risk of past 30-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, and inhalants by bullying behavior status. Compared to non-involved youth, rarely-involved bully-victims were more likely to use alcohol, bullies were more likely to engage in alcohol and cigarette use, and bully-victims were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and inhalants. In contrast, victims were not significantly at risk of substance use compared to non-involved youth. Chronic bullies and bully-victims are particularly at risk for substance use, with chronic bully-victims reflecting the greatest risk of using multiple substances. Prevention and early intervention programs aimed to reduce bullying can also work to decrease other risky behaviors, such as substance use, and should attend to the growing ethnic diversity among youth.

Citation: Sangalang, C. C., Tran, A. G., Ayers, S. L., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2016). Bullying among urban Mexican-heritage youth: Exploring risk for substance use by status as a bully, victim, and bully-victim. Children and Youth Services Review, 61, 216-221.


Author(s): Sargent, K. S., Krauss, A., Jouriles, E. N., & McDonald, R.

Year: 2016

Title: Cyber Victimization, Psychological Intimate Partner Violence, and Problematic Mental Health Outcomes Among First-Year College Students

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior,

and Social Networking

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2016.0115

Abstract: Both cyber victimization and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) have been associated with negative mental health outcomes among adolescents and young adults. The present study examined relations among cyber victimization, psychological IPV, and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior) among first-year college students. Consistent with polyvictimization theory, we hypothesized that cyber victimization and psychological IPV would be related to each other. We also hypothesized that each would uniquely contribute to depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior, after accounting for the other. Participants (N = 342, M age = 18.33 years; 50% male) completed questionnaires during a single lab visit. Results indicated that cyber victimization and psychological IPV were related to each other, and both contributed uniquely to depressive symptoms, but only cyber victimization contributed uniquely to antisocial behavior. Exploratory analyses indicated that experiencing both cyber victimization and psychological IPV was necessary for increased depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior. This study is the first to establish a unique relation between cyber victimization and mental health problems, after accounting for psychological IPV. The findings also suggest a need to consider multiple forms of victimization when considering relations between specific types of victimization and mental health problems.

Citation: Sargent, K. S., Krauss, A., Jouriles, E. N., & McDonald, R. (2016). Cyber victimization, psychological intimate partner violence, and problematic mental health outcomes among first-year college students.Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(9), 545-550.


Author(s): Doane, A. N., Boothe, L. G., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L.

Year: 2016

Title: Risky electronic communication behaviors and cyberbullying victimization: An application of Protection Motivation Theory

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.fau.edu/science/article/pii/S0747563216300620

Abstract: The present study tested Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as an explanation of electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and behaviors and cyberbullying victimization. We recruited 577 college students who completed a battery of surveys examining PMT-based constructs and cyberbullying victimization. We found that higher perceived susceptibility to cyberbullying victimization was associated with lower electronic communication safe behavioral intentions, higher electronic communication risky behaviors, and higher cyberbullying victimization. In addition, higher perceived severity of cyberbullying victimization was associated with higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions and lower cyberbullying victimization. Furthermore, higher response efficacy and self-efficacy regarding electronic communication safe behaviors were predictive of higher electronic communication safe behavioral intentions. The PMT-based model accounted for over 30% of the variability in cyberbullying victimization. PMT constructs may be promising targets for interventions designed to decrease the incidence of cyberbullying victimization.

Citation: Doane, A. N., Boothe, L. G., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L. (2016). Risky electronic communication behaviors and cyberbullying victimization: An application of Protection Motivation Theory. Computers in Human Behavior,60, 508-513.


Author(s): Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S.

Year: 2015

Title: Defining Cyberbullying: Implications for Research

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178915000750

Abstract: Despite a significant amount of attention by both the academic community and society at large, there continues to exist much confusion about both the conceptual and operational definitions of cyberbullying (and by implication, bullying in general). The trouble with this lack of clarity is that it leads to misinformation and misunderstanding about the phenomena at hand, and undermines the ability of various stakeholders to identify, prevent, and respond to these behaviors. In this article, we review the essential elements of cyberbullying that distinguish it from other peer-to-peer online interactions in an effort to inform current-day approaches to its study. We also present a cyberbullying scale that has demonstrated strong initial validity and reliability in ten different surveys involving nearly 15,000 students in the United States. The purpose is to reduce erratic and fitful advancement of our understanding of cyberbullying by fostering more consistency in the way it is measured and analyzed. Through this effort we hope to meaningfully assist those on the front lines of the problem to better know what cyberbullying is, and what it is not.

Citation: Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2015). Defining Cyberbullying: Implications for Research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 69-74.


Author(s): Carter, J. M. & Wilson, F. L.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying: A 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon

Journal: Pediatric Nursing

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/8f1c4fa5499f34eb2b131577da597608/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents’ daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook(TM) or MySpace(TM)) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

Citation: Carter, J. M., & Wilson, F. L. (2015). Cyberbullying: a 21st century health care phenomenon. Pediatric nursing, 41(3), 115.


Author(s): Whittaker, E. & Kowalski, R. M.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying Via Social Media

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyberbullying&id=EJ1046635

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a surge of research on cyberbullying. In this article, three studies examined prevalence rates of cyberbullying among college-age students, venues through which cyberbullying occurs, with a particular focus on social media, and perceptions of cyberbullying as a function of features of the target (e.g., peer, celebrity, groups). Study 1 found texting and social media to be the most commonly used venues for cyberbullying victimization. Study 2 determined that features of the target of cyber aggressive comments influenced perceptions of cyberbullying. Online aggressive comments directed toward peers were perceived most negatively whereas those targeted toward random people known only online were evaluated least negatively. Using an innovative methodology for examining cyberbullying, Study 3 found that venue (e.g., Facebook, comments, forum posts) and features of the target influenced the nature of online exchanges. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

Citation: Whittaker, E., & Kowalski, R. M. (2015). Cyberbullying via social media.Journal of School Violence, 14(1), 11-29.


Author(s): Herrera, J., Kupczynski, L. & Mundy, M.A.

Year: 2015

Title: The Impact of Training on Faculty and Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying in an Urban South Central Texas Middle School

Journal: Research in Higher Education Journal

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying+in+the+usa&id=EJ1056180

Abstract: Bullying has been around for decades; however, with the advancements of new emerging technology and devices, the ability for bullying to transcend into the cyber-world is becoming an international issue. Researchers have been intently studying the effects associated with cyberbullying to gain a better understanding of its perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in addition to legal issues and ways to counteract cyber-bullying. This study focused on determining whether cyber-bullying training for students at an urban south central Texas middle school is effective. The researchers utilized a quantitative research method to measure middle school students’ perceptions of cyberbullying regarding a single intervention. Data was collected by the school district through the administration of an online student cyber-bullying survey prior to students viewing an “Internet Safety Basics” video, one week after viewing the video and six weeks after students viewed the video. Through analysis, only one area of students’ perceptions with regard to the intervention was significant. This area focused on seventh grade students’ perception on the effects of cyber-bullying. When students’ and teachers’ perceptions were compared for analysis, two areas were found to have significant difference: their perceptions of the effects of cyber-bullying and their perceptions of ways on how to positively report cyber-bullying. Results indicate the need for more cyber-bullying interventions or curriculum for students in grades 6, 7 and 8 and training for middle school teachers as literature supports cyber-bullying peaks at these grade levels.

Citation: Herrera, J., Kupczynski, L., & Mundy, M. A. (2015). The Impact of Training on Faculty and Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying in an Urban South Central Texas Middle School. Research in Higher Education Journal, 27.


Author(s): DePaolis, K. & Williford, A.

Year: 2015

Title: The Nature and Prevalence of Cyber Victimization among Elementary School Children

Journal: Child & Youth Care Forum

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=4&id=EJ1057826

Abstract: Background: Despite growing concern about the impact of cyberbullying on youth, few studies to date have investigated this phenomenon among elementary school samples. Consequently, little is known about cyber victimization exposure among younger children. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and nature of cyber victimization among a sample of elementary school students and determine whether significant differences existed between cyber victimized and non-cyber victimized students. Methods: A total of 660 3rd-5th grade students in six schools completed an online survey on measures of traditional and cyber bullying and victimization. Descriptive statistics were used to determine prevalence, mechanism (e.g., social media), identity of the perpetrator, and whether incidents were reported to others. Fixed effects regression models, including dummy coded school variables to control for nesting, were run to assess group differences. Results: Descriptive findings revealed that a substantial number of youth (17.7 %; n = 114) reported cyber victimization, predominantly through online games. Only 38% (n = 43) of cyber victimized children knew the identity of the perpetrator and almost 50% reported they did not tell anyone about the incident. Results also revealed that cyber victimized children reported significantly higher rates of traditional victimization and bullying involvement along with higher pro-bullying attitudes and lower pro-defending attitudes and self-efficacy for defending others. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest the need for developmentally appropriate prevention and intervention programs implemented at the elementary school level if efforts to address this complex problem are to be successful.

Citation: DePaolis, K., & Williford, A. (2015, June). The nature and prevalence of cyber victimization among elementary school children. In Child & Youth Care Forum (Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 377-393). Springer US.


Author(s): Hase, C. N., Goldberg, S. B., Smith, D., Stuck, A. & Campain, J.

Year: 2015

Title: Impacts of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying on the Mental Health of Middle School and High School Students

Journal: Psychology in the Schools

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=5&id=EJ1064422

Abstract: A critical debate within the field of school psychology has centered on the relationship between bullying and cyberbullying in terms of prevalence, overlap, and impact. The current study sought to address the following questions: (1) Does cyberbullying create new victims or merely a new means of victimization? (2) Does cyberbullying uniquely contribute to negative outcomes above and beyond those of traditional bullying? Utilizing an anonymous survey to examine students’ experiences with cyberbullying, traditional bullying, and negative psychological symptoms, it was found that the vast majority of students who were bullied online were also victims of in-person bullying. Both forms of victimization were independently associated with negative outcomes. However, when controlling for traditional bullying, cyberbullying did not remain a predictor of negative mental health outcomes. In contrast, when controlling for cyberbullying, traditional bullying remained a significant predictor of negative mental health outcomes. These results suggest that although traditional and cyber forms of bullying tend to target the same victims, traditional bullying is more uniquely associated with negative psychological outcomes.

Citation: Hase, C. N., Goldberg, S. B., Smith, D., Stuck, A., & Campain, J. (2015). Impacts of traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the mental health of middle school and high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 52(6), 607-617.


Author(s): Foley, C., May, D. C., Blevins, K. R. & Akers, J.

Year: 2015

Title: An Exploratory Analysis of Cyber-Harassment of K-12 Teachers by Parents in Public School Settings+D8

Journal: Educational Policy

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=8&id=EJ1071876

Abstract: Although the topic of cyber-harassment in schools is one that has received significant media and research attention, much of that attention has been given to harassment against (and among) students. In this article, we examine responses from more than 5,700 public schoolteachers regarding their experiences with cyber-harassment by parents, a topic heretofore unexplored in the United States. Analyses suggest that victims of cyber-harassment are significantly more likely to teach in middle and high schools with large enrollments, be younger, and perceive their interactions with parents as largely negative. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

Citation: Foley, C., May, D., Blevins, K. R., & Akers, J. (2014). An Exploratory Analysis of Cyber-Harassment of K-12 Teachers by Parents in Public School Settings. Educational Policy, 0895904814550071.


Author(s): Toledano, S., Werch, B. L. & Wiens, B. A.

Year: 2015

Title: Domain-Specific Self-Concept in Relation to Traditional and Cyber Peer Aggression

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=8&id=EJ106241

Abstract: Individuals who aggress against others have been described both as having overall low self-concept and as having high, inflated self-concept. The conceptualization of self-concept as domain specific provides an alternate means to resolving this controversy. In this study, 223 middle school students completed self-report measures assessing self-concept across six domains as well as engagement in peer aggression, including cyber aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported engaging in higher levels of traditional and cyber peer aggression reported significantly lower self-concept in the domains of behavioral adjustment, intellectual and school status, and happiness and satisfaction. Higher levels of traditional and cyber peer aggression were not significantly related to self-concept in the domains of popularity, physical appearance and attributes, and freedom from anxiety. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Citation: Toledano, S., Werch, B. L., & Wiens, B. A. (2015). Domain-Specific Self-Concept in Relation to Traditional and Cyber Peer Aggression. Journal of School Violence, 14(4), 405-423.


Author(s): Bauman, S. & Baldasare, A.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyber Aggression among College Students: Demographic Differences, Predictors of Distress, and the Role of the University

Journal: Journal of College Student Development

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=9&id=EJ1062861

Abstract: Using the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey, we collected data from 1,114 undergraduate students at a large public Southwestern university. In addition to inquiring about students’ experiences with bullying, we inquired about the level of distress and the digital medium used. Results showed differences in types of experiences and level of distress by demographic groups (members of Greek organizations, LGBT students), and obtained students’ perspectives on the role of the university in curbing this behavior. The strongest predictor of the level of distress was the use of Facebook to perpetrate the bullying. Implications of findings are discussed.

Citation: Bauman, S., & Baldasare, A. (2015). Cyber Aggression Among College Students: Demographic Differences, Predictors of Distress, and the Role of the University. Journal of College Student Development, 56(4), 317-330.


Author(s): Raskauskas, J. & Huynh, A.

Year: 2015

Title: The process of coping with cyberbullying: A systematic review

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178915000816

Abstract: Cyberbullying is an established threat to the well-being of youth worldwide. How victims cope with cyberbullying has the potential to buffer against negative effects. The present study is a systematic review of research on coping with cyberbullying to identify whether the process of coping is being used to identify pathways to resilience. In this review the process of coping with cyberbullying, the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, and to what degree existing studies have examined the process of coping were considered. Findings indicated that much of the prior literature has identified components of the process but few studies have looked at the process itself. Understanding the process of coping with cyberbullying has important implications for how victims appraise the threat of cyberbullying, select coping strategies, and perceive their ability to enact those strategies (self-efficacy). The need for additional research and an explanation of how a better understanding of the process is needed to design effective cyberbullying interventions are discussed.

Citation: Raskauskas, J., & Huynh, A. (2015). The process of coping with cyberbullying: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 118-125.


Author(s): Peluchette, J. V., Karl, K., Wood, C., & Williams, J.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying victimization: Do victims’ personality and risky social network behaviors contribute to the problem?

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215004689

Abstract: This study examines the impact of risky social network site practices (SNS) and individual differences in self-disclosure and personality on the likelihood of cyberbullying victimization among young adult Facebook users. Results from 572 respondents show that posting indiscreet or negative content, having Facebook friends who post such content, and number of Facebook friends were all strong predictors of cyberbullying victimization. In addition, most of the personality variables examined (conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, self-disclosure) were significant predictors of at least some of these risky SNS practices. However, only extroversion and openness were significant predictors of cyberbullying victimization. Implications for individuals and organizations are provided.

Citation: Peluchette, J. V., Karl, K., Wood, C., & Williams, J. (2015). Cyberbullying victimization: Do victims’ personality and risky social network behaviors contribute to the problem?. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 424-435.


Author(s): Rose, C. A., & Tynes, B. M.

Year: 2015

Title: Longitudinal Associations Between Cybervictimization and Mental Health Among U.S. Adolescents

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15002177

Abstract: An emerging body of literature suggests that victims of bullying report detrimental mental health outcomes, such as depression and anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cybervictimization, depression, and anxiety among school-aged youth over a 3-year time frame.

Citation: Rose, C. A., & Tynes, B. M. (2015). Longitudinal associations between cybervictimization and mental health among US adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(3), 305-312.


Author(s): Stockdale, L. A., Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Erickson, D. H.

Year: 2015

Title: Borderline personality disorder features, jealousy, and cyberbullying in adolescence

Journal: Personality and Individual Differences

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886915002482

Abstract: Cyberbullying, or aggression through electronic means towards a victim who cannot easily defend themselves, has become increasingly common in society. Researchers have shown that personality disorders and jealousy in close relationships may increase the likelihood that individuals will use aggression against their peers. However, no known research has examined the relationship between personality disorders, jealousy, and cyberbullying behaviors. The current study addresses this gap by examining associations between borderline personality disorder features, jealousy, and cyberbullying behaviors in adolescents. The sample includes 106 adolescents (53 males) with a mean age of 16.1 years (SD = .49), who completed self-report measures of borderline personality features, jealousy, and cyberbullying. Higher levels of borderline personality disorder features were associated with increased levels of cyberbullying behaviors. Jealousy fully mediated the relationship between borderline personality disorder features and cyberbullying behaviors. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for society, intervention, and treatment are discussed.

Citation: Stockdale, L. A., Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Erickson, D. H. (2015). Borderline personality disorder features, jealousy, and cyberbullying in adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 148-153.


Author(s): Goodboy, A. K., & Martin, M. M.

Year: 2015

Title: The personality profile of a cyberbully: Examining the Dark Triad

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215001739

Abstract: The present study examined the relationships between the Dark Triad personality traits and self-reported cyberbullying behaviors. College students (N = 227) completed a questionnaire and reported on their trait Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism, and the degree to which they cyberbullied (i.e., both visual and text based bullying) others in the past year. Correlations revealed that all three Dark Triad traits were related positively with cyberbullying. However, multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three Dark Triad traits, psychopathy emerged as the unique predictor of cyberbullying. These findings reinforce extant research suggesting that personality traits are important predictors of computer-mediated behavior.

Citation: Goodboy, A. K., & Martin, M. M. (2015). The personality profile of a cyberbully: Examining the Dark Triad. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 1-4.


Author(s): Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., & Eisenberg, M. E.

Year: 2015

Title: School-level contextual predictors of bullying and harassment experiences among adolescents

Journal: Social Science & Medicine

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953615301751

Abstract: Bullying and prejudice-based harassment frequently occur in school settings and have significant consequences for the health and wellbeing of young people. Yet far fewer studies have examined the role of the school environment in peer harassment than individual factors. This multilevel study examined associations between a variety of school-level risk and protective factors and student-level reports of bullying and prejudice-based harassment during adolescence.

Citation: Gower, A. L., McMorris, B. J., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2015). School-level contextual predictors of bullying and harassment experiences among adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 47-53.


Author(s): Dillon, K. P., & Bushman, B. J.

Year: 2015

Title: Unresponsive or un-noticed?: Cyberbystander intervention in an experimental cyberbullying context

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214007249

Abstract: With increasing reliance on computer-mediated communication, emergencies and negative communication will also increase. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents report being cyberbullied, and over 25% of those report multiple occurrences. Though important gains have been made to understand the adverse effects and possible risk factors of cyberbullying for victims and cyberbullies, most individuals (70%; Pew Research Center, 2014) online fall into a third group—cyberbystanders. This experiment tests the first step (i.e., cyberbystanders notice the cyberbullying incident) of the five-step Bystander Intervention Model in a virtual environment. Data were analyzed from 221 cyberbystanders who witnessed in real time multiple episodes of cyberbullying. Results confirm that noticing cyberbullying significantly predicts intervention, indirect or direct. Nearly 68% of participants noticed the cyberbullying, but only 10% directly intervened by engaging with the bully. Most participants (68%) intervened indirectly after the incident and threat were removed. Further research is necessary to understand other boundary conditions, and to test the remaining steps of the Bystander Intervention Model in a virtual environment. This model has been very effective in understanding and increasing bystander intervention in the real world. We hope that the model will have similar effects on understanding and increasing cyberbystander intervention in the virtual world.

Citation: Dillon, K. P., & Bushman, B. J. (2015). Unresponsive or un-noticed?: Cyberbystander intervention in an experimental cyberbullying context.Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 144-150.


Author(s): Bellmore, A., Calvin, A. J., Xu, J. M., & Zhu, X.

Year: 2015

Title: The five W’s of “bullying” on Twitter: Who, What, Why, Where, and When

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214006621

Abstract: This paper explores the utility of machine learning methods for understanding bullying, a significant social-psychological issue in the United States, through social media data. Machine learning methods were applied to all public mentions of bullying on Twitter between September 1, 2011 and August 31, 2013 to extract the posts that referred to discrete bullying episodes (N = 9,764,583) to address five key questions. Most posts were authored by victims and reporters and referred to general forms of bullying. Posts frequently reflected self-disclosure about personal involvement in bullying. The number of posts that originated from a state was positively associated with the state population size; the timing of the posts reveal that more posts were made on weekdays than on Saturdays and more posts were made during the evening compared to daytime hours. Potential benefits of merging social science and computer science methods to enhance the study of bullying are discussed.

Citation: Bellmore, A., Calvin, A. J., Xu, J. M., & Zhu, X. (2015). The five W’s of “bullying” on Twitter: Who, What, Why, Where, and When. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 305-314. (2015). The five W’s of “bullying” on Twitter: Who, What, Why, Where, and When. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 305-314.


Author(s): Reed, K. P., Nugent, W., & Cooper, R. L.

Year: 2015

Title: Testing a path model of relationships between gender, age, and bullying victimization and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in adolescents

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740915001656

Abstract: The goal of this study was to test a path model for the relationships between age, gender, traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimization, and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescents. A hypothesized path model was fit to data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) on a nationally representative sample of 15,425 high-school students from across the United States. Results suggested that the effects of traditional and cyberbullying victimization on suicidal thinking, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were mediated by violent behavior, substance abuse, and depression. Results also suggested reciprocal paths between substance abuse and violent behavior. There were statistically significant indirect paths from both traditional and cyberbullying victimization to suicide attempts without the involvement of depression, suicidal thinking, or suicide planning, findings suggesting a model for spontaneous, unplanned adolescent suicides. Results suggested that female adolescents who reported cyberbullying victimization also reported higher rates of depression and suicidal behaviors compared to their male counterparts, and that as adolescents got older, depression and substance abuse tended to increase, while violent behavior and suicidal thinking tended to decrease. The implications of these findings for social workers, school counselors, and others who work with adolescents are considered.

Citation: Reed, K. P., Nugent, W., & Cooper, R. L. (2015). Testing a path model of relationships between gender, age, and bullying victimization and violent behavior, substance abuse, depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in adolescents. Children and youth services review, 55, 128-137.


Author(s): Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P.

Year: 2015

Title: The Overlap Between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X14007587

Abstract: Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap. Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying (relational, verbal, and physical) with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience (e.g., who sent the message, how was the message sent, and what was the message about).

Citation: Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(5), 483-488.


Author(s): Mitchell, K. J., & Jones, L. M.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying and Bullying Must Be Studied Within a Broader Peer Victimization Framework

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15000567

Abstract: For more than a decade, researchers have been exploring the prevalence and impact of various forms of peer victimization online or in the “cyber” world. Adolescents’ use of new technologies such as the Internet, cell phones, and text messaging has expanded dramatically [1,2]. As of 2012, 95% of teens (ages, 12–17 years) were using the Internet, 81% were using some kind of social media, 78% owned a cell phone, and 75% of teens were texting [3]. Given that youth online communication has increased, it is not surprising that negative and harassing behaviors online, including cyberbullying, have increased as well [4].

Citation: Mitchell, K. J., & Jones, L. M. (2015). Cyberbullying and bullying must be studied within a broader peer victimization framework. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(5), 473-474.


Author(s): Barboza, G. E.

Year: 2015

Title: The association between school exclusion, delinquency and subtypes of cyber- and F2F-victimizations: Identifying and predicting risk profiles and subtypes using latent class analysis

Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213414002841

Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed.

Citation: Barboza, G. E. (2015). The association between school exclusion, delinquency and subtypes of cyber-and F2F-victimizations: Identifying and predicting risk profiles and subtypes using latent class analysis. Child abuse & neglect, 39, 109-122.


Author(s): Tennant, J. E., Demaray, M. K., Coyle, S., & Malecki, C. K.

Year: 2015

Title: The dangers of the web: Cybervictimization, depression, and social support in college students

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215003015

Abstract: Data on students’ perceptions of social support, traditional and cyber victimization behavior, and social-emotional well-being were collected from a sample of 267 university students in the Midwestern United States. One purpose of the current study was to examine possible sex differences in perceptions of the prevalence of cybervictimization experiences. The current study also examined whether cybervictimization accounted for additional variance in depression beyond traditional victimization and if social support would buffer the associations among traditional and cyber victimization and depression. Young men and women did not report significantly different rates of cybervictimization. Cybervictimization was significantly related to depression above and beyond that of traditional victimization. Social support was negatively related to depression. However, there was no moderating role of social support. The results of this study highlight the significant impact that traditional and cyber victimization may have on college students’ well-being. Social support was also an important factor in the relation to depression, however, it did not provide a buffer in the association between victimization and depression.

Citation: Tennant, J. E., Demaray, M. K., Coyle, S., & Malecki, C. K. (2015). The dangers of the web: Cybervictimization, depression, and social support in college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 348-357.


Author(s): Stoll, L. C., & Block, R.

Year: 2015

Title: Intersectionality and cyberbullying: A study of cybervictimization in a Midwestern high school

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215004495

Abstract: Cyberbullying has been the focus of much empirical research in the past decade. Several scholars have examined the effects of gender on cyberbullying with mixed results. Little research, however, has considered the effects of race and sexuality, and analyzing these demographic characteristics individually (i.e., non-interactively) provides a limited view of the influences of race, gender, and sexuality on cybervictimization. Accordingly, we employ an intersectional approach that captures more fully the nuances between cyberbullying and social location. For example, given the centrality of race in American society, it is surprising that the research on cyberbullying among adolescents finds little evidence of a “race effect.” We hypothesize that racial identity moderates the degree to which cybervictimization rates vary by gender and sexuality. Evidence from an original survey of students in a Midwestern high school (N = 752) lends qualified support to our conditional hypotheses: the relationship between gender and victimization is stronger for white students than it is for students of color, but there are no racial differences in the impact of a student’s sexuality and their experiences with cyberbullying.

Citation: Stoll, L. C., & Block, R. (2015). Intersectionality and cyberbullying: A study of cybervictimization in a Midwestern high school. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 387-397.


Author(s): Barlett, C. P.

Year: 2015

Title: Predicting adolescent’s cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

Journal: Journal of Adolescence

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197115000342

Abstract: The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

Citation: Barlett, C. P. (2015). Predicting adolescent’s cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis. Journal of adolescence, 41, 86-95.


Author(s): Espinoza, G.

Year: 2015

Title: Daily cybervictimization among Latino adolescents: Links with emotional, physical and school adjustment

Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.fau.edu/science/article/pii/S0193397315000350

Abstract: The current study examines how Latino adolescents’ daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents.

Citation: Espinoza, G. (2015). Daily cybervictimization among Latino adolescents: Links with emotional, physical and school adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 38, 39-48.


Author(s): Connell, N. M., Morris, R. G., & Piquero, A. R.

Year: 2015

Title: Predicting Bullying Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior

Journal: International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology

URL: http://ijo.sagepub.com/content/60/9/1082.abstract

Abstract: Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined.

Citation: Connell, N. M., Morris, R. G., & Piquero, A. R. (2015). Predicting Bullying Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 0306624X15573760.


Author(s): Alhabash, S., Baek, J. H., Cunningham, C., & Hagerstrom, A.

Year: 2015

Title: To comment or not to comment?: How virality, arousal level, and commenting behavior on YouTube videos affect civic behavioral intentions

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563215004070

Abstract: An experiment investigated the effects of commenting behavior, virality, and arousal level on anti-cyberbullying civic behavioral intentions. Participants (N = 98) were exposed to cyberbullying-related YouTube videos that varied in arousal level (low vs. high), number of views (low vs. high), and commenting behavior where they either commented on the video or did not comment after watching it. Participants expressed greater Civic Behavioral Intentions (CBI) upon exposure to highly than lowly arousing videos. Additionally, they expressed greater CBI when instructed to comment on highly arousing videos with high than low views, while those who did not comment on highly arousing videos expressed greater CBI upon exposure to videos with low than high views. As for lowly arousing videos, participants who were instructed to comment expressed greater CBI when the video had low than high views, while those who did not comment did not differ in CBI as a function of the number of views. Viral behavioral intentions (VBI) were the strongest predictors of CBI with degrees that varied as a function of commenting behavior, virality, arousal level, and the interactions among them. Results are discussed within the framework of the relationship between online engagement and offline civic action.

Citation: Alhabash, S., Baek, J. H., Cunningham, C., & Hagerstrom, A. (2015). To comment or not to comment?: How virality, arousal level, and commenting behavior on YouTube videos affect civic behavioral intentions. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 520-531.


Author(s): Meter, D. J., & Bauman, S.

Year: 2015

Title: When Sharing Is a Bad Idea: The Effects of Online Social Network Engagement and Sharing Passwords with Friends on Cyberbullying Involvement

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2015.0081

Abstract: Every day, children and adolescents communicate online via social networking sites (SNSs). They also report sharing passwords with peers and friends, a potentially risky behavior in regard to cyber safety. This longitudinal study tested the hypotheses that social network engagement in multiple settings would predict more cyberbullying involvement over time, and that youth who reported sharing passwords would also experience an increase in cyberbullying involvement. Data were collected at two time points one year apart from 1,272 third through eighth grade students. In line with the first study hypothesis, participating in more online SNSs was associated with increased cyberbullying involvement over time, as well as sharing passwords over time. Cyberbullying involvement at T1 predicted decreases in sharing passwords over time, suggesting that youth become aware of the dangers of sharing passwords as a result of their experience. Sharing passwords at T1 was unrelated to cyberbullying involvement at T2. Although it seems that youth may be learning from their previous mistakes, due to the widespread use of social media and normality of sharing passwords among young people, it is important to continue to educate youth about cyber safety and risky online behavior.

Citation: Meter, D. J., & Bauman, S. (2015). When sharing is a bad idea: the effects of online social network engagement and sharing passwords with friends on cyberbullying involvement. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(8), 437-442.


Author(s): Selkie, E. M., Kota, R., Chan, Y. F., & Moreno, M.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2014.0371

Abstract: Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

Citation: Selkie, E. M., Kota, R., Chan, Y. F., & Moreno, M. (2015). Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(2), 79-86.


Author(s): Rice, E., Petering, R., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Goldbach, J., Plant, A., … & Kordic, T.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

Journal: American Journal of Public Health

URL: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302393

Abstract: We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students.

Citation: Rice, E., Petering, R., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Goldbach, J., Plant, A., … & Kordic, T. (2015). Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among middle-school students. American journal of public health, 105(3), e66-e72.


Author(s): Kessel Schneider, S., O’Donnell, L., & Smith, E.

Year: 2015

Title: Trends in Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization in a Regional Census of High School Students, 2006-2012

Journal: Journal of School Health

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/josh.12290/full

Abstract: Schools are increasingly being called upon to address cyberbullying and its consequences. This study compares cyberbullying and school bullying trends and examines help-seeking among cyberbullying victims.

Citation: Kessel Schneider, S., O’Donnell, L., & Smith, E. (2015). Trends in Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization in a Regional Census of High School Students, 2006‐2012. Journal of school health, 85(9), 611-620.


Author(s): Hertz, M. F., Everett Jones, S., Barrios, L., David‐Ferdon, C., & Holt, M.

Year: 2015

Title: Association Between Bullying Victimization and Health Risk Behaviors Among High School Students in the United States

Journal: Journal of School Health

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/josh.12339/full

Abstract: Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between in-person and electronic bullying victimization among US high school students and health risk behaviors and conditions related to violence, substance use, sexual risk, overweight and physical activity, sleep, and asthma.

Citation: Hertz, M. F., Everett Jones, S., Barrios, L., David‐Ferdon, C., & Holt, M. (2015). Association between bullying victimization and health risk behaviors among high school students in the United States. Journal of school health,85(12), 833-842.


Author(s): Connell, N. M., El Sayed, S., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Schell-Busey, N. M.

Year: 2015

Title: The Intersection of Perceptions and Experiences of Bullying by Race and Ethnicity among Middle School Students in the United States

Journal: Deviant Behavior

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2014.977159

Abstract: Little is known about how ethnic identity influences bullying. Using a racially diverse sample, we examine how within-race perceptions match experiences. We utilize bivariate probit regression to examine the correlation between actual and perceived victimization and bullying experiences. Results suggest no differences in victimization by ethnicity but perceived victimization differed across groups. Perceived and actual bullying differed across all groups. School climate acted as a protective factor against bullying and victimization, but school diversity increased the likelihood of bullying by whites and Latinos. These findings shed light on the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the etiology of bullying.

Citation: Connell, N. M., El Sayed, S., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Schell-Busey, N. M. (2015). The Intersection of Perceptions and Experiences of Bullying by Race and Ethnicity among Middle School Students in the United States. Deviant Behavior, 36(10), 807-822.


Author(s): Pham, T., & Adesman, A.

Year: 2015

Title: Teen victimization: prevalence and consequences of traditional and cyberbullying

Journal: Current Opinion in Pediatrics

URL: http://journals.lww.com/co-pediatrics/Abstract/2015/12000/Teen_victimization___prevalence_and_consequences.16.aspx

Abstract: Purpose of review: In recent years, there has been increased recognition that the experiences of youth who have endured bullying cannot be ignored or dismissed as harmless acts by ‘kids being kids’. The present article reviews several key risks and consequences of bullying for adolescent victims. Recent findings: Bullying victimization has been linked with a number of adverse health and social outcomes, including mental health issues, weapon-carrying, substance abuse, academic problems, and other adverse consequences – some of which may persist into adulthood. Recent findings on cyberbullying, in particular, highlight the real-life consequences of virtual victimization. Summary: Pediatricians play a critical role in identifying and supporting victims of bullying and counseling parents about surveillance and intervention strategies.

Citation: Pham, T., & Adesman, A. (2015). Teen victimization: prevalence and consequences of traditional and cyberbullying. Current opinion in pediatrics,27(6), 748-756.


Author(s): Yousef, M., Shaher, W., & Bellamy, A.

Year: 2015

Title: The Impact of Cyberbullying on the Self-Esteem and Academic Functioning of Arab American Middle and High School Students.

Journal: Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology

URL: http://www.investigacion-psicopedagogica.com/revista/articulos/37/english/Art_37_998.pdf

Abstract: Introduction. Cyberbullying has received a considerable amount of attention within the academic and public literature. However, very little if any cyberbullying research has been conducted among Arab American students. This current study explored the impact of cyberbullying among middle and high school Arab American students on their self-esteem and academic functioning. It further explored the extent to which levels of emotional intelligence moderated these relationships. Method. The population of this study consisted of 1,152 middle and high school students, grades 6 through 12 from four different charter schools in Wayne County in Michigan. These schools represented different ethnic groups, such as Arab Americans, African Americans, Hispanic and White. Results. The results of the study indicate that Arab Americans experience more cyberbullying than the other ethnic groups within the study. The data illustrates that cyberbullying has an expected negative effect on student self-esteem and academic functioning among the Arab American group. There were mixed findings among the other ethnic student groups. Discussion. The level of student emotional intelligence was shown to moderate the relationships between cyberbullying, self-esteem and academic functioning more-so among Arab Americans than for the African American and White American student groups. This finding informs school practitioners that it would be advantageous to develop programs that promote emotional intelligence among students.

Citation: Yousef, M., Shaher, W., & Bellamy, A. (2015). The Impact of Cyberbullying on the Self-Esteem and Academic Functioning of Arab American Middle and High School Students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 13(3).


Author(s): Paullet, K. & Pinchot, J.

Year: 2014

Title: Behind the Screen Where Today’s Bully Plays: Perceptions of College Students on Cyberbullying

Journal: Journal of Information Systems Education

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyberbullying&id=EJ1043377

Abstract: This exploratory study of 168 undergraduate students examined the perceptions of college students about cyberbullying. The study focused on students’ knowledge of the topic, opinions about cyberbullying, and personal experiences they may have had as either a victim or a witness of cyberbullying. Reporting of cyberbullying incidents was also explored, and participants were asked to indicate what can or should be done to prevent cyberbullying.

Citation: Paullet, K., & Pinchot, J. (2014). Behind the screen where today’s bully plays: perceptions of college students on cyberbullying. Journal of information systems education, 25(1), 63.


Author(s): Ockerman, M. S., Kramer, C. & Bruno, M.

Year: 2014

Title: From the School Yard to Cyber Space: A Pilot Study of Bullying Behaviors Among Middle School Students

Journal: RMLE Online: Research in Middle Level Education

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyberbullying+in+the+united+states&pg=3&id=EJ1032363

Abstract: Bullying and cyberbullying continue to be major problems in today’s schools and topics of heightened public concern. This pilot study aimed to increase the knowledge base concerning bullying and cyberbullying, to explore the relationship between traditional bullying and cyberbullying, and to solicit information on the prevalence rates of technology use by students in grades 5–8 (N=352). This information enhances the current research in cyberbullying and contributes to the development of prevention, intervention, and response strategies, especially as they relate to school counselors and mental health providers in schools.

Citation: Ockerman, M. S., Kramer, C., & Bruno, M. (2014). From the school yard to cyber space: A pilot study of bullying behaviors among middle school students. RMLE Online, 37(6), 1-18.


Author(s): Eskey, M. T., Taylor, C. L. & Eskey Jr., M. T.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyber-Bullying in the Online Classroom: Instructor Perceptions of Aggressive Student Behavior

Journal: Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&id=EJ1048301

Abstract: The advent of online learning has created the medium for cyber-bullying in the virtual classroom and also by e-mail. Bullying is usually expected in the workplace and between students in the classroom. Most recently, however, faculty members have become surprising targets of online bullying. For many, there are no established policies nor is training provided on how to react. The current research defines the problem, reviews the findings of a cyber-bullying survey, and explores recommendations for addressing cyber-bullying through policies, training, and professional development.

Citation: Eskey, M. T., Taylor, C. L., & Eskey Jr, M. T. (2014). Cyber-Bullying in the Online Classroom: Instructor Perceptions of Aggressive Student Behavior.Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 17(4), n4.


Author(s): Johnston, P., Tankersley, M., Joenson, T., Hupp, M., Buckley, J., Redmond-McGowan, M., Zanzinger, A., Poirier, A. & Walsh, A.

Year: 2014

Title: Motivations behind “Bullies Then Offenders” versus “Pure Bullies”: Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

Journal: Education

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=5&id=EJ1034290

Abstract: Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has focused on the pure offender and pure victim. The specific bully type the “offender then victim” or “bully victim” is of interest in this study as there may be variances in motivations between the types. Knowledge of such differences may have implications for practice. The bully victim is defined as someone who was a victim of bulling and subsequently bullied another person. This study was designed to identify motivations behind bully victim behaviors as compared to motivations associated with bully only types. The identification of motivations may serve to help faculty and counselors create more effective prevention strategies. Researchers used a qualitative approach and identified three persons who self-identified as bully victims. Each participant was interviewed about their bullying experiences. Results suggest that motivations of succorance and aggression associated with the bully victims are similar to those persons who bully only. There were additional motivations described by bully victims. Bully victims indicated they understood the negative physical reactions to bullying but did not realize there were mental impacts felt by victims. Additionally, the bully victims reported that they felt better about themselves after bullying others. The identification of motivations associated with each bully type may provide professionals in practice an effective framework for bully prevention and remediation efforts.

Citation: Johnston, P., Tankersley, M., Joenson, T., Hupp, M., Buckley, J., Redmond-McGowan, M., … & Walsh, A. (2014). Motivations Behind. Education,134(3), 316-325.


Author(s): Wright, M. F.

Year: 2014

Title: Longitudinal Investigation of the Associations between Adolescents’ Popularity and Cyber Social Behaviors

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=8&id=EJ1032420

Abstract: As adolescents become increasingly immersed in electronic technologies, popular adolescents may act in similar ways online as they do offline. This longitudinal study employed peer nominations and self-reports to examine perceived popularity and social preference in relation to cyber social behaviors among 256 adolescents during the fall (T1) and spring (T2). Linear associations were found between T1 popularity types (i.e., perceived popularity, social preference) and T2 cyber prosocial behavior. On the other hand, both linear and curvilinear associations were found between T1 popularity types and T2 cyber aggression. In particular, T2 cyber aggression was elevated at higher levels of T1 perceived popularity and lower levels of T1 social preference. Taken together, these findings suggest that the relations between both popularity types and cyber social behaviors follow similar patterns as face-to-face social behaviors.

Citation: Wright, M. F. (2014). Longitudinal investigation of the associations between adolescents’ popularity and cyber social behaviors. Journal of school violence, 13(3), 291-314.


Author(s): Smokowski, P. R., Evans, C. & Cotter, K.L.

Year: 2014

Title: The Differential Impacts of Episodic, Chronic, and Cumulative Physical Bullying and Cyberbullying: The Effects of Victimization on the School Experiences, Social Support, and Mental Health of Rural Adolescents

Journal: Violence and Victims

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/0de88f00ab33045c8d35eed3456bcf01/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Few studies have examined the impacts of past, current, and cirro nie physical bullying and cyberbullying on youth, especially in rural settings. This study augments this scant literature by exploring the school experiences, social support, and mental health outcomes for rural, middle school youth. The participants for this 2-year longitudinal study were 3,127 youth from 28 middle schools. Participants were classified as nonvictims, past victims (i.e., victimized during Year 1 but not Year 2), current victims (i.e., victimized during Year 2 but not Year 1), and chronic victims (i.e., victimized during both Year 1 and Year 2). Findings illustrated that chronic victimization resulted in the lowest levels of school satisfaction, social support, future optimism, and self-esteem. Chronic victims also reported the highest levels of school hassles, perceived discrimination, peer rejection, anxiety, depression, and externalizing behaviors. In terms of episodic victimization, current year victimization was associated with worse outcomes than past year victimization. Implications and limitations were discussed.

Citation: Smokowski, P. R., Evans, C. B., & Cotter, K. L. (2014). The differential impacts of episodic, chronic, and cumulative physical bullying and cyberbullying: The effects of victimization on the school experiences, social support, and mental health of rural adolescents. Violence and victims, 29(6), 1029-1046.


Author(s): Messias, E., Kindrick K. & Castro, J.

Year: 2014

Title: School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: Correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC youth risk behavior survey

Journal: Comprehensive Psychiatry

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010440X1400025X

Abstract: While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N = 15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9–12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it’s important to screen for depression and suicidality.

Citation: Messias, E., Kindrick, K., & Castro, J. (2014). School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Comprehensive psychiatry, 55(5), 1063-1068.


Author(s): Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C.

Year: 2014

Title: Bullying Prevalence Across Contexts: A Meta-analysis Measuring Cyber and Traditional Bullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X14002547

Abstract: Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional–cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying.

Citation: Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevalence across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(5), 602-611.


Author(s): Evans, C. B., Fraser, M. W., & Cotter, K. L.

Year: 2014

Title: The effectiveness of school-based bullying prevention programs: A systematic review

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178914000743

Abstract: Bullying is a social phenomenon. About 30% of school children are involved in bullying as victims, bullies, or bully/victims. The victims of bullying suffer multiple negative consequences, including poor social and academic adjustment, depression, and anxiety. This paper extends Farrington and Ttofi’s (2009) meta-analysis of controlled trials of 44 bullying interventions, which suggests that bullying programs are effective in decreasing bullying and victimization. We review controlled trials of bullying interventions published from June, 2009 through April, 2013, focusing on substantive results across 32 studies that examined 24 bullying interventions. Of the 32 articles, 17 assess both bullying and victimization, 10 assess victimization only, and 5 assess bullying only. Of the 22 studies examining bullying perpetration, 11 (50%) observed significant effects; of the 27 studies examining bullying victimization, 18 (67%) reported significant effects. Although the overall findings are mixed, the data suggest that interventions implemented outside of the United States with homogeneous samples are more successful than programs implemented in the United States, where samples tend to be more heterogeneous. Few studies have measured bullying with sufficient precision to have construct validity. Finding strong measures to assess the complex construct of bullying remains a major challenge for the field.

Citation: Evans, C. B., Fraser, M. W., & Cotter, K. L. (2014). The effectiveness of school-based bullying prevention programs: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(5), 532-544.


Author(s): Foshee, V. A., Reyes, H. L. M., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Basile, K. C., Chang, L. Y., Faris, R., & Ennett, S. T.

Year: 2014

Title: Bullying as a Longitudinal Predictor of Adolescent Dating Violence

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X14001165

Abstract: One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent.

Citation: Foshee, V. A., Reyes, H. L. M., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Basile, K. C., Chang, L. Y., Faris, R., & Ennett, S. T. (2014). Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(3), 439-444.


Author(s): Crosslin, K., & Golman, M.

Year: 2014

Title: “Maybe you don’t want to face it” – College students’ perspectives on cyberbullying

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214004476

Abstract: Cyberbullying is a growing phenomenon in our society with the technological advances that are occurring. This type of bullying can transpire at all hours via text message, email, or social networking sites. According to several studies, college students are being affected by cyberbullying, with prevalence rates ranging from 8% to 21%. Many psychological ramifications exist as a result of cyberbullying among victims and bullies. It is crucial to learn more about how this phenomenon is affecting the social and learning environments in college, as well as how college students view cyberbullying. First and second-year students at a southern university were recruited to participate in this qualitative study. The researchers conducted six focus groups with 54 students. The participants reported reasons for cyberbullying in the college environment, such as retaliation in relationships. Independence and autonomy were discussed as reasons why college students do not report cyberbullying to others when it occurs. Participants discussed future interventions to reduce cyberbullying that included coping strategies, utilizing university services, and engaging in legal action. The authors recommend utilizing a multi-level Socio-Ecological approach to reduce cyberbullying rates. Additionally, evaluation research needs to be conducted on what works and what does not in the prevention of cyberbullying.

Citation: Crosslin, K., & Golman, M. (2014). “Maybe you don’t want to face it”–College students’ perspectives on cyberbullying. Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 14-20.


Author(s): Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Martell, B. N., Holland, K. M., & Westby, R.

Year: 2014

Title: A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178914000615

Abstract: Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term “bullying” in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult.

Citation: Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Martell, B. N., Holland, K. M., & Westby, R. (2014). A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies. Aggression and violent behavior, 19(4), 423-434.


Author(s): Evans, C. B., Smokowski, P. R., & Cotter, K. L.

Year: 2014

Title: Cumulative bullying victimization: An investigation of the dose–response relationship between victimization and the associated mental health outcomes, social supports, and school experiences of rural adolescents

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740914002321

Abstract: Bullying victimization is a common experience for adolescents. Past research documents that victims have more negative mental health outcomes, social relationships, and school experiences compared to their non-victimized classmates. However, this research is largely cross-sectional, often lacks youth living in rural areas, and does not explore the longitudinal burden that victimization places on adolescent development. Further, few researchers have examined bullying victimization using a dose–response model; the dose model posits that more exposure to a stimuli presents a greater impact. The current study examines how cumulative experiences of traditional and cyber victimization over a three year period are associated with the mental health, social relationships, and school experiences of 2246 middle and high school students in two low income, rural counties in the south. Regression analysis confirms that increased victimization was associated with more negative mental health functioning, social relationships, and school experiences. Implications are discussed.

Citation: Evans, C. B., Smokowski, P. R., & Cotter, K. L. (2014). Cumulative bullying victimization: An investigation of the dose–response relationship between victimization and the associated mental health outcomes, social supports, and school experiences of rural adolescents. Children and youth services review, 44, 256-264.


Author(s): Nickerson, A. B., Aloe, A. M., Livingston, J. A., & Feeley, T. H.

Year: 2014

Title: Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassment

Journal: Journal of Adolescence

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197114000323

Abstract: Although peer bystanders can exacerbate or prevent bullying and sexual harassment, research has been hindered by the absence of a validated assessment tool to measure the process and sequential steps of the bystander intervention model. A measure was developed based on the five steps of Latané and Darley’s (1970) bystander intervention model applied to bullying and sexual harassment. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 562 secondary school students confirmed the five-factor structure of the measure. Structural equation modeling revealed that all the steps were influenced by the previous step in the model, as the theory proposed. In addition, the bystander intervention measure was positively correlated with empathy, attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment, and awareness of bullying and sexual harassment facts. This measure can be used for future research and to inform intervention efforts related to the process of bystander intervention for bullying and sexual harassment.

Citation: Nickerson, A. B., Aloe, A. M., Livingston, J. A., & Feeley, T. H. (2014). Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassment. Journal of adolescence, 37(4), 391-400.


Author(s): Holt, T. J., Turner, M. G., & Exum, M. L.

Year: 2014

Title: The Impact of Self Control and Neighborhood Disorder on Bullying Victimization

Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235214000488

Abstract: Whereas past research has examined the effect of individual-level and neighborhood-level predictors of bullying victimization separately, the current study examines their effects collectively.

Citation: Holt, T. J., Turner, M. G., & Exum, M. L. (2014). The impact of self control and neighborhood disorder on bullying victimization. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(4), 347-355.


Author(s): Dunn, H. K., Gjelsvik, A., Pearlman, D. N., & Clark, M. A.

Year: 2014

Title: Association between Sexual Behaviors, Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation in a National Sample of High School Students: Implications of a Sexual Double Standard

Journal: Women’s Health Issues

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049386714000851

Abstract: The sexual double standard is the notion that women are more harshly judged for their sexual behaviors than men. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sexual double standard could explain gender differences in bullying victimization among adolescents and the extent to which that relationship correlated with depression and suicidal ideation.

Citation: Dunn, H. K., Gjelsvik, A., Pearlman, D. N., & Clark, M. A. (2014). Association between sexual behaviors, bullying victimization and suicidal ideation in a national sample of high school students: implications of a sexual double standard. Women’s health issues, 24(5), 567-574.


Author(s): Brown, C. F., Demaray, M. K., & Secord, S. M.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214000740

Abstract: Cyber or electronic bullying is a growing problem among school-aged children and research on cyberbullying is still relatively young. The primary purposes of the current study were: (a) to investigate gender and grade level differences among cyber victims (b) to investigate the overlap between traditional victimization and cyber victimization and (c) to investigate the associations among cyber victimization and social emotional outcomes. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires on cyber victimization, traditional victimization, and social-emotional outcomes in a school-based sample of 106 middle school students. Results demonstrated that levels of cyber victimization did not differ by grade or by gender, cyber victimization and traditional victimization are distinct but related constructs, and relations between cyber victimization and social emotional outcomes varied by gender, with girls suffering more than boys. This study also confirmed that traditional bullying continues to be significantly related to a number of negative outcomes for all students. These findings, as well as implications and direction of future research, are discussed.

Citation: Brown, C. F., Demaray, M. K., & Secord, S. M. (2014). Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes. Computers in human behavior, 35, 12-21.


Author(s): Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M.

Year: 2014

Title: Digital metamorphosis: Examination of the bystander culture in cyberbullying

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178914000603

Abstract: Cyberbullying requires researchers to refine their perspectives to encapsulate its etiology and the multi-faceted practices. The infusion of technology has expanded the traditional definition of bullying and challenged the conventional characteristics of roles (e.g., perpetrators, victims, bystanders) involved in online bullying incidents. Specific to the role of bystanders, the digital culture presents inherent challenges that may prevent witnesses from taking a stand against unjust behaviors across online environments. To examine the digital metamorphosis of the bystander culture and its challenges to conventional approaches towards prevention and intervention, five area topics will be discussed: (a) overview of bullying and cyberbullying, (b) bystander culture, (c) digital bystanders, (d) interrelated effects of digital accessibility, anonymity, and autonomy and (e) digital upstanders.

Citation: Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M. (2014). Digital metamorphosis: Examination of the bystander culture in cyberbullying. Aggression and violent behavior,19(4), 418-422.


Author(s): Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Ranney, M., Patel, S., Kelley, C., Eschmann, R., & Washington, T.

Year: 2014

Title: Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214001101

Abstract: Homicide is the second leading cause of death for young people, and exposure to violence has a negative impact on youth mental health, academic performance, and relationships. We demonstrate that youth violence, including bullying, gang violence, and self-directed violence, increasingly occurs in the online space. We review the literature on violence and online social media, and show that while some forms of online violence are limited to Internet-based interactions, others are directly related to face-to-face acts of violence. Central to our purpose is uncovering the real-world consequences of these online events, and using this information to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We discuss several limitations of the existing literature, including inconsistent definitions for some forms of online violence, and an overreliance on descriptive data. Finally, we acknowledge the constantly evolving landscape of online social media, and discuss implications for the future of social media and youth violence research.

Citation: Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Ranney, M., Patel, S., Kelley, C., Eschmann, R., & Washington, T. (2014). Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 548-553.


Author(s): Gibb, Z. G., & Devereux, P. G.

Year: 2014

Title: Who does that anyway? Predictors and personality correlates of cyberbullying in college

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214002878

Abstract: Less is known about cyberbullying behaviors in college populations because studies on this topic traditionally have focused on adolescent populations, have not measured correlates of this behavior within college samples, or have methodological weaknesses limiting their findings. By using a more comprehensive measure of cyberbullying behaviors and examining what is associated with its occurrence, the current study aims to extend the knowledge about cyberbullying behaviors in college. Results showed that approximately 52% of college students report engaging in cyberbullying behaviors and indicated that victims of CBB and individuals high on a subclinical measure of psychopathy were more likely to report having engaged in CBB. It was also found that victims of CBB, men, and individuals high on subclinical psychopathy engaged in a wider range of cyberbullying behaviors. Age was the only factor associated with a decrease in CBB.

Citation: Gibb, Z. G., & Devereux, P. G. (2014). Who does that anyway? Predictors and personality correlates of cyberbullying in college. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 8-16.


Author(s): Feng, Y., & Xie, W.

Year: 2014

Title: Teens’ concern for privacy when using social networking sites: An analysis of socialization agents and relationships with privacy-protecting behaviors

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214000144

Abstract: U.S. teens are spending substantial time on social networking sites (SNSs). Yet, only a few studies have documented teens’ privacy-protecting behaviors on SNSs. Using data of Facebook teen users and their parents in the U.S. from the Pew Internet’s Teens & Privacy Management Survey (N = 622), this study investigated the socialization agents of teens’ level of online privacy concern, and the relationship between teens’ level of online privacy concern and their privacy-protecting behaviors on SNSs. Based on path analysis results, this study identified parents and SNS use as the two significant socialization agents. In particular, this study revealed the role of parents’ privacy concern and the role of SNS use in motivating teens to increase online privacy concern, which, in turn, drives teens to adopt various privacy-setting strategies on SNSs and to set their Facebook profiles to private. Implications for policymakers and educators were discussed.

Citation: Feng, Y., & Xie, W. (2014). Teens’ concern for privacy when using social networking sites: An analysis of socialization agents and relationships with privacy-protecting behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 153-162.


Author(s): Beck, D., Egalite, A., & Maranto, R.

Year: 2014

Title: Why they choose and how it goes: Comparing special education and general education cyber student perceptions

Journal: Computers & Education

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.fau.edu/science/article/pii/S0360131514000682

Abstract: While critics offer concerns that cyber charter schools under-enroll special education students, such schools may offer advantages for these students, and some cyber schools have identified this market niche. Little is known about such schools. We surveyed parents (n = 232; 48.7% response rate) and students (n = 269; 53.7% response rate) at a cyber charter school that we will call SunTech, where special education students account for 26% of the student body. Findings indicate that special education students and their parents were more likely than general education peers to mention behavioral issues as influencing their decision to choose SunTech. Compared to general education counterparts, special education students and parents reported somewhat higher levels of satisfaction in the school and somewhat lower levels of satisfaction in their prior schools. Implications are discussed.

Citation: Beck, D., Egalite, A., & Maranto, R. (2014). Why they choose and how it goes: Comparing special education and general education cyber student perceptions. Computers & Education, 76, 70-79.


Author(s): Yahner, J., Dank, M., Zweig, J. M., & Lachman, P.

Year: 2014

Title: The Co-Occurrence of Physical and Cyber Dating Violence and Bullying Among Teens

Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence

URL: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/30/7/1079.abstract

Abstract: This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and—for the first time ever—digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse.

Citation: Yahner, J., Dank, M., Zweig, J. M., & Lachman, P. (2014). The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260514540324.


Author(s): Korenis, P., & Billick, S. B.

Year: 2014

Title: Forensic Implications: Adolescent Sexting and Cyberbullying

Journal: Psychiatric Quarterly

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11126-013-9277-z

Abstract: Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one’s relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person’s cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50 % of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

Citation: Korenis, P., & Billick, S. B. (2014). Forensic implications: Adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. Psychiatric quarterly, 85(1), 97-101.


Author(s): Doane, A. N., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L.

Year: 2014

Title: Predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among college students: An application of the Theory of Reasoned Action

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214001733?np=y

Abstract: The present study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as an explanation for cyberbullying perpetration among 375 (128 male, 246 female) college students. Empathy toward cyberbullying victims was also included in the models. Participants completed the cyberbullying perpetration scale of the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey (Doane, Kelley, Chiang, & Padilla, 2013) that assesses four types of cyberbullying (deception, malice, public humiliation, and unwanted contact). Across all four models, results showed that lower empathy toward cyberbullying victims predicted more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying perpetration, more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying predicted higher intentions to cyberbully, and higher cyberbullying intentions predicted more frequent perpetration of cyberbullying behaviors. Injunctive norms regarding cyberbullying (e.g., perception of peers’ approval of cyberbullying perpetration) predicted intentions to engage in malice and unwanted contact behaviors. The results demonstrate that the TRA is a useful framework for understanding cyberbullying perpetration.

Citation: Doane, A. N., Pearson, M. R., & Kelley, M. L. (2014). Predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among college students: An application of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 154-162.


Author(s): Yu, S.

Year: 2014

Title: Fear of Cyber Crime among College Students in the United States: An Exploratory Study

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/a0ff4672e175310f465dc22f905dc162/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: A literature review on fear of crime suggests perceived crime seriousness, perceived risk of victimization, and victimization experience as the three major predictors for fear of crime. In the present study I test these factors on cyber crimes as their relationships with fear of cyber crime are generally unexplored in the literature. Precisely, four cyber crimes are chosen, including online scam, cyber bullying, digital piracy, and computer virus. This study is the first study that takes into account of four types of cyber crime concurrently while addressing the relationship between fear of crime and the three major predictors. The findings suggest that fear of cyber crime does not always share the same predictors, depending on the crime. Internet use also plays a role in the fear of cyber crime.

Citation: Yu, S. (2014). Fear of cyber crime among college students in the United States: An exploratory study. International Journal of Cyber Criminology,8(1), 36.


Author(s): Chisholm, J. F.

Year: 2014

Title: Review of the Status of Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Prevention

Journal: Journal of Information Systems Education

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/e428058aaf195a9db39dc6d4e8ca2548/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Cyberbullying may be one of the “diseases” of the 21th Century. Despite efforts to curtail its incidence and prevalence over the past 20 years, its direct and indirect harmful effects have made it a public concern about the wellbeing of children, adolescents, and adults. Empirical studies as well as psychological theories have addressed different aspects of cyberbullying (e.g. characteristics of victims, bullies, and bystanders, prevalence rates, specific types of cyberbullying behavior, gender differences, intervention/prevention strategies, legal/legislative measures, etc.). While consensus is evident in some areas researched, significant findings in other areas are inconsistent, indicative of the inherent complexities of this phenomenon and the methodological problems hampering insight into the nature of this problem and its possible solutions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of the research and theoretical perspectives on cyberbullying in hopes of encouraging good scholarship, improved methodologies and thoughtful inquiries to better inform educators, parents, mental health service providers, policy makers and others so that they can more effectively promote healthy online and offline behaviors among digital users. This discussion reviews the definition and characteristics of cyberbullying, its prevalence, populations affected, gender differences, theoretical perspectives and issues of intervention and prevention.

Citation: Chisholm, J. F. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of information systems education, 25(1), 77-87.


Author(s): Martinez-Prather, K., & Vandiver, D. M.

Year: 2014

Title: Sexting among Teenagers in the United States: A Retrospective Analysis of Identifying Motivating Factors, Potential Targets, and the Role of a Capable Guardian

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/f0edafcbc6c7ab296f8a447df14c5bd0/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Sexting is often broadly defined as the sending and/or receiving of sexually suggestive images or

messages to peers through a cell phone (Mitchell et al., 2012). The use of broad definitions and

sampling methods among prior sexting studies has produced variations in the research findings. The

current study provides a retrospective examination of sexting among 378 teenagers sampled from

university college freshmen at a midsize southern university in the United States regarding sexting

attitudes and behaviors during high school. Approximately one-third of the participants reported

sending a sexting image of himself or herself in high school to someone else using a cell phone. Those

who reported more texting use, in general and those who spent more time with friends in an

unsupervised setting were significantly more likely to report sexting. Parental monitoring, however,

was not significantly related to sexting. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Citation: Martinez-Prather, K., & Vandiver, D. M. (2014). Sexting among teenagers in the united states: a retrospective analysis of identifying motivating factors, potential targets, and the role of a capable guardian. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(1), 21.


Author(s): Roberto, A. J., Eden, J., Savage, M. W., Ramos-Salazar, L., & Deiss, D. M.

Year: 2014

Title: Prevalence and Predictors of Cyberbullying Perpetration by High School Seniors

Journal: Communication Quarterly

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463373.2013.860906

Abstract: Cyberbullying is the deliberate and repeated misuse of communication technology by an individual or group to threaten or harm others. Guided largely by the communication skills deficiency model and previous research on cyberbullying, this study examins the effects of several predictor variables (i.e., verbal aggression, sex, risky behaviors, parental monitoring, parental limits, technology use, and scope of Internet activities) on cyberbullying perpetration. A total of 1,606 incoming freshmen at a large southwestern university completed an online survey measuring all predictor and dependent variables under investigation. Overall, 35% of these individuals reported that they had cyberbullied at least one person during their senior year of high school. Results indicated that verbal aggression, risky behaviors, and cyberbullying victimization emerged as significant predictors of cyberbullying perpetration. These results have important theoretical and practical implications for those interested in developing cyberbullying prevention interventions.

Citation: Roberto, A. J., Eden, J., Savage, M. W., Ramos-Salazar, L., & Deiss, D. M. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of cyberbullying perpetration by high school seniors. Communication Quarterly, 62(1), 97-114.


Author(s): Carpenter, L. M., & Hubbard, G. B.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyberbullying: Implications for the Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner

Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcap.12079/full

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying.

Citation: Carpenter, L. M., & Hubbard, G. B. (2014). Cyberbullying: implications for the psychiatric nurse practitioner. Journal of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing, 27(3), 142-148.


Author(s): Randa, R., & Reyns, B. W.

Year: 2014

Title: Cyberbullying Victimization and Adaptive Avoidance Behaviors at School

Journal: Victims & Offenders

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15564886.2013.877411

Abstract: Using data from the 2009 National Crime Victimization Survey, School Crime Supplement (NCVS-SCS) the current study explores the relationships between traditional bullying victimization, cyberbullying victimization, and victim adaptive avoidance behaviors. Like traditional forms of bullying, the cyberbullying literature base is developing and growing into a targeted area of emphasis in 21st century victimology. We explore the effects of these online victimization experiences, net of the impacts of traditional bullying and fear of victimization at school. Based on logistic regression analysis the results indicate that cyberbullying victimization experiences are significantly related to avoidance behaviors at school.

Citation: Randa, R., & Reyns, B. W. (2014). Cyberbullying victimization and adaptive avoidance behaviors at school. Victims & Offenders, 9(3), 255-275.


Author(s): Perlus, J. G., Brooks-Russell, A., Wang, J., & Iannotti, R. J.

Year: 2014

Title: Trends in Bullying, Physical Fighting, and Weapon Carrying Among 6th- Through 10th-Grade Students From 1998 to 2010: Findings From a National Study

Journal: American Journal of Public Health

URL: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301761

Abstract: We examined trends from 1998 to 2010 in bullying, bullying victimization, physical fighting, and weapon carrying and variations by gender, grade level, and race/ethnicity among US adolescents.

 

 

 

Citation: Perlus, J. G., Brooks-Russell, A., Wang, J., & Iannotti, R. J. (2014). Trends in bullying, physical fighting, and weapon carrying among 6th-through 10th-grade students from 1998 to 2010: findings from a national study. American journal of public health, 104(6), 1100-1106.


Author(s): Stewart, R. W., Drescher, C. F., Maack, D. J., Ebesutani, C., & Young, J.

Year: 2014

Title: The Development and Psychometric Investigation of the Cyberbullying Scale

Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence

URL: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/01/12/0886260513517552.abstract

Abstract: Accurate assessment of cyberbullying is essential for intervention planning and evaluation. Limitations to many currently available self-report measures of cyberbullying victimization include a lack of psychometric information and a limited scope (i.e., not assessing multiple electronic mediums of cybervictimization). To address these limitations, we developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a broad self-report measure of cyberbullying, the Cyberbullying Scale (CBS). We examined the factor structure and reliability of the CBS across 736 students in Grades 6 to 12 in six Northern Mississippi schools. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results indicated that the structure of the CBS was best represented by a one-factor model. The finding of a single-factor structure suggests that cyberbullying is a unidimensional construct, which is consistent with previous research. In the current sample, the CBS demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .94) and significant positive correlations with related constructs of anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Results from the present study provide initial support for the CBS as a measure of cybervictimization among adolescents.

Citation: Stewart, R. W., Drescher, C. F., Maack, D. J., Ebesutani, C., & Young, J. (2014). The development and psychometric investigation of the Cyberbullying Scale. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260513517552.


Author(s): Molluzzo, J. C., & Lawler, J.

Year: 2014

Title: A Comparison of Faculty and Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying

Journal: Information Systems Education Journal

URL: http://isedj.org/2014-12/n2/ISEDJv12n2p47.html

Abstract: Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are continuing to be featured frequently in the news. The authors of this study compare the perceptions of faculty and students on cyberbullying at an urban university. From the findings of surveys distributed to faculty and students in all schools of the university, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue, but low levels of perceptions on infrastructural and instructional methods of preemption and resolution, at the university. This studywill be beneficial to field researchers, as cyberbullying is considered an issue more often in high schools than in colleges and universities.

Citation: Molluzzo, J. C., & Lawler, J. (2014). A comparison of faculty and student perceptions of cyberbullying. Information Systems Education Journal, 12(2), 47.


Author(s): Davis, K., Reich, J., & James, C.

Year: 2014

Title: The Changing Landscape of Peer Aggression: A Literature Review on Cyberbullying and Interventions

Journal: Journal of Youth Development

URL: http://katiedavisresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/2014_JYouthDev_cyberbullying_lit_review.pdf

Abstract: While traditional forms of bullying have been steadily decreasing over the course of the last two decades, cyberbullying has emerged as a major concern among parents, teachers, and other professionals working with young people. Because cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, its research base is not as well developed as research on traditional bullying. In this literature review, the authors synthesize current knowledge on cyberbullying’s prevalence among youth; its relationship to offline bullying; which youth are most likely to be perpetrators and victims; the negative effects of cyberbullying on victims; and the landscape of intervention efforts currently employed in the United States. In the process, they highlight areas in need of future research.

Citation: Davis, K., Reich, J., & James, C. (2014). The Changing Landscape of Peer Aggression: A Literature Review on Cyberbullying and Interventions. Journal of Youth Development, 9(1), 130-142.


Author(s): Castile, H.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyberbullying: An Exploration of Secondary School Administrators’ Experiences with Cyberbullying Incidents in Louisiana

Journal: Education Leadership Review

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyberbullying&id=EJ1105599

Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore school administrators’ experiences with cyberbullying incidents. The eight participants were secondary administrators in Louisiana public schools. The data were collected through participant interviews, and the transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes. The findings of this qualitative research study were then expressed through a narrative discussion, and peer debriefing and member checks were used to ensure accuracy. Notable findings indicated that cyberbullying is a complex problem for school administrators to handle because the greatest amount of cyberbullying is occurring offcampus. In addition, this study found that Facebook and other social media sites are the most common places for cyberbullying to occur; therefore, students must be taught to understand and use social media responsibly. Findings also illustrated that female students were more likely to participate in cyberbullying, cellphones are used as a source for cyberbully, and there is a disparity between administrators related to the effectiveness of Louisiana cyberbullying laws. The research in this study provides educators with suggestions that could help to prevent cyberbullying on their campus which include examining their cellphone policy and using anti-bullying contracts.

Citation: Castile, H. (2013). Cyberbullying: An exploration of secondary school administrators’ experiences with cyberbullying incidents in Louisiana. LAMAR UNIVERSITY-BEAUMONT.


Author(s): Zidack, A.M.

Year: 2013

Title: Middle school responses to cyberbullying: An action research study

Journal: ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Washington State University

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyberbullying+in+the+united+states&pg=2&id=ED558405

Abstract: This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school’s cyberbullying issues in order to understand the problems and generate interventions appropriate to the school setting. This action research study was informed by a theoretical framework related to the “online disinhibition effect” (Suler, 2004) and the concept of moral disengagement, a part of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2002; Bauman, 2009; Mason, 2008). This study used the middle school’s existing School Improvement Team (SIT) to establish a collaborative action research team, facilitated by the researcher. The design of this action research study was guided by Stringer’s (2007) Look, Think, Act model for the research process. During the Look phase of this study, the SIT participants gathered information, shared their perceptions, and participated in individual interviews related to cyberbullying. During the Think phase, the participants engaged in discussions and analyzed data, incorporating documents and survey results to further their understanding. During the Act phase, SIT participants made decisions that resulted in the addition of student lesson plans and a school-wide internet safety plan that specifically addressed cyberbullying and the issues that surfaced during the study. Throughout the study, the SIT team cycled back and forth among the Look, Think, and Act phases multiple times. The SIT team concluded that collectively they had “learned so much” about cyberbullying and related issues due to the action research process. The major outcomes of this study included the understanding that teacher’s personal perspectives and fears regarding student technology use and cyberbullying affected their classroom decisions and professional practice. The team concluded that healthy online social skills were distinct in many ways from the skills necessary for healthy face-to-face communication. This understanding resulted in the SIT team incorporating information about online disinhibition (Suler, 2004) into classroom lesson plans. The action research process empowered and motivated the team to engage in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Citation: Zidack, A. M. (2013). Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study (Doctoral dissertation, WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY).


Author(s): Pelfrey Jr., W. V. & Weber, N. L.

Year: 2013

Title: Keyboard Gangsters: Analysis of Incidence and Correlates of Cyberbullying in a Large Urban Student Population

Journal: Deviant Behavior

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2012.707541

Abstract: The prevalence and pervasive nature of technology has fundamentally changed how individuals interact. Social networking has significantly altered communication and interaction patterns and created a dynamic venue for perpetration and victimization of bullying. A large population of middle and high school students was surveyed on perceptions and engagement in drug and alcohol usage, school violence, social networking usage, and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. Findings indicate that although cyberbullying has many similarities to traditional bullying, there are important differences. Participation in school violence and usage of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs predict both victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying.

Citation: Pelfrey Jr, W. V., & Weber, N. L. (2013). Keyboard gangsters: Analysis of incidence and correlates of cyberbullying in a large urban student population.Deviant Behavior, 34(1), 68-84.


Author(s): Green-Forde, C.

Year: 2013

Title: Addressing Bullying and Cyber-Bullying Behaviors among Adolescents: A Participatory Action Approach

Journal: ProQuest LLC, D.S.W. Dissertation

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=3&id=ED561805

Abstract: Bullying has been recognized as a significant social issue and research has shown that bullying behaviors tend to increase during the middle school years. Research trends indicate that current attention given to bullying has been influenced by public outcry against a growing number of tragic school and community-based events involving youth, many of which have been linked to bullying. Traditional face-to-face bullying has also evolved to include newer forms of harassment termed cyber-bullying; this is enacted through electronic mediums. Research indicates that experiencing traditional bullying and cyber-bullying is harmful to youth. While there has been a tremendous increase in the availability of research regarding bullying and cyber-bullying behaviors, what remains unclear is why interventions and programs aimed at addressing these behaviors among youth are often unsuccessful. The purpose of this mixed methodology participatory action research (PAR) study was to explore ways to help school personnel at “the Academy” (pseudonym), a predominately Black-Caribbean, K-8th grade Catholic Middle School in the New York City area, collaborate with their students in the development of anti-bullying interventions. Students between the 6-8th grade were surveyed regarding their willingness to collaborate with staff around bullying prevention and were also asked about bullying programming suggestions. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to help the staff identify ways to collaborate with their students. Participatory Action Research has been shown to be a useful tool in increasing collaboration between students and teachers; the findings of the study suggests the importance of adults actively engaging students through direct communication as well as involving students in the development of bullying rules and policies within their school. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Citation: Green-Forde, C. (2013). Addressing Bullying and Cyber-Bullying Behaviors among Adolescents: A Participatory Action Approach. ProQuest LLC.


Author(s): Kowalski, R. & Limber, S.

Year: 2013

Title: Psychological, Physical, and Academic Correlates of Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X12004132

Abstract: To examine the relationship between children’s and adolescents’ experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance.

Citation: Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), S13-S20.


Author(s): Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B. & Walker, J. L.

Year: 2013

Title: Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students

Journal: Journal of Adolescence

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197112001819

Abstract: This study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students.

Citation: Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B., & Walker, J. L. (2013). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. Journal of adolescence, 36(2), 341-350.


Author(s): Patton, D. U., Eschmann, R. D., & Butler, D. A.

Year: 2013

Title: Internet banging: New trends in social media, gang violence, masculinity and hip hop

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563212003779

Abstract: Gang members carry guns and twitter accounts. Media outlets nationally have reported on a new phenomenon of gang affiliates using social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to trade insults or make violence threats that lead homicide or victimization. We term this interaction internet banging. Police departments in metropolitan areas have increased resources in their gang violence units to combat this issue. Interestingly, there is little to no literature on this issue. We argue internet banging is a cultural phenomenon that has evolved from increased participation with social media and represents an adaptive structuration, or new and unintended use of existing online social media. We examine internet banging within the context of gang violence, paying close attention to the mechanisms and processes that may explain how and why internet banging has evolved. We examine the role of hip-hop in the development of internet banging and highlight the changing roles of both hip hop and computer mediated communication as social representations of life in violent communities. We explore the presentation of urban masculinity and its influence on social media behavior. Lastly, we conduct a textual analysis of music and video content that demonstrates violent responses to virtual interactions.

Citation: Patton, D. U., Eschmann, R. D., & Butler, D. A. (2013). Internet banging: New trends in social media, gang violence, masculinity and hip hop.Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), A54-A59.


Author(s): Wigderson, S., & Lynch, M.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyber- and Traditional Peer Victimization: Unique Relationships With Adolescent Well-Being

Journal: Psychology of Violence

URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/vio/3/4/297/

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cyber-victimization and adolescent well-being, alone and in combination with relational and physical victimization. Method: Questionnaires assessing the study constructs were administered in group settings during the school day. Data were collected from 388 adolescents. Multiple regression was used to examine the unique associations between different victimization experiences and indicators of emotional well-being and academic performance. Several potential modifiers of the relationship between cyber-victimization and adolescent functioning were examined as well. Results: Cyber-victimization was positively associated with emotional problems and negatively related to GPA even after experiences of physical and relational victimization were taken into consideration. The results also indicated that cyber-victimization significantly interacted with other forms of victimization, such that both relational and physical victimization modified the relationship between cyber-victimization and GPA. Conclusion: Overall, these data demonstrate that multiple forms of victimization are negatively associated with adolescent well-being, and that cyber-victimization can influence adolescents above and beyond traditional victimization. In addition, this study has policy implications for schools and parents in regard to adolescents’ victimization experiences. In particular, it will be necessary for schools to provide both academic and mental health resources for students experiencing victimization.

Citation: Wigderson, S., & Lynch, M. (2013). Cyber-and traditional peer victimization: Unique relationships with adolescent well-being. Psychology of Violence,3(4), 297.


Author(s): Turner, M. G., Exum, M. L., Brame, R., & Holt, T. J.

Year: 2013

Title: Bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: General and typological effects across sex

Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235212001468

Abstract: Victims of bullying are susceptible to a variety of detrimental consequences. It remains unclear, however, whether the type of bullying victimization and the gender of the victim matter as they relate to two mental health consequences: (1) depression, and (2) suicide ideation.

Citation: Turner, M. G., Exum, M. L., Brame, R., & Holt, T. J. (2013). Bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: General and typological effects across sex. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(1), 53-59.


Author(s): Barnett, M. A., Nichols, M. B., Sonnentag, T. L., & Wadian, T. W.

Year: 2013

Title: Factors associated with early adolescents’ anticipated emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous teases on Facebook

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563213001544

Abstract: A total of 69 sixth- through eighth-grade students rated their experiences with antisocial and prosocial teases as well as their general attitudes toward teases. Subsequently, the participants read hard copies of four ambiguous teases, one at a time, posted on a simulation of “their” Facebook wall by four different, hypothetical acquaintances. After reading each tease, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their emotional and behavioral response to the tease. Consistent with and cognitive (attribution)–emotion–action model of motivated behavior, path analyses revealed that the participants’ negative experiences with teases and negative attitudes toward teases were predictive of a negative emotional response to the ambiguous teases on Facebook which, in turn, was predictive of various negative behavioral responses to the ambiguous teasers. Therefore, consistent with the prior finding of a hostile attribution bias in some children’s reactions to ambiguous face-to-face teases (Barnett, Barlett, Livengood, Murphy, & Brewton, 2010), the early adolescents in the present study with relatively negative experiences with and attitudes toward teases appear to display a hostile attribution bias whereby teases on Facebook with an uncertain intent are viewed as if they were meant to be antagonistic and antisocial.

Citation: Barnett, M. A., Nichols, M. B., Sonnentag, T. L., & Wadian, T. W. (2013). Factors associated with early adolescents’ anticipated emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous teases on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2225-2229.


Author(s): Kota, R., & Moreno, M. A.

Year: 2013

Title: 70. The Nature of Cyber-Bullying Among College Students

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(12)00550-2/abstract

Abstract: Bullying is a serious public health problem that can happen at many stages in the life course- from childhood, to adolescence, even to emerging adulthood. Although traditional bullying still exists and remains an important problem, some of this behavior has migrated to an online platform. Through the Internet, children, adolescents, and young adults can use electronic media in ways that harass, humiliate, and even threaten their peers. While much attention has been paid to cyberbullying among younger teens and adolescents, less is known about older adolescents and college students. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of cyberbullying among diverse groups of college students.

Citation: Kota, R., & Moreno, M. A. (2013). 70. The Nature of Cyber-Bullying Among College Students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2), S55.12


Author(s): Schenk, A. M., Fremouw, W. J., & Keelan, C. M.

Year: 2013

Title: Characteristics of college cyberbullies

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563213001647

Abstract: Cyberbullying is a newer variation of bullying that utilizes technology to harass. This study investigated the psychological symptomology, suicidal behaviors, aggressive tendencies, and illegal behaviors of college cyberbullies. Sixty cyberbullies and 19 cyberbully/victims (participants who cyberbullied and were victims of cyberbullying) scored higher in psychological symptoms of depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoia, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism than participants who were uninvolved with cyberbullying. The cyberbullies also endorsed more suicidal behaviors and scored higher in aggression. The cyberbully/victims engaged in more violent and drug crimes than cyberbullies and controls. These findings indicate perpetrators of cyberbullying have more psychological distress, aggressive tendencies, and engage in more illegal behaviors than those who do not cyberbully. This is the first study to show the distress cyberbullies are experiencing.

Citation: Schenk, A. M., Fremouw, W. J., & Keelan, C. M. (2013). Characteristics of college cyberbullies. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2320-2327.


Author(s): France, K., Danesh, A., & Jirard, S.

Year: 2013

Title: Informing aggression–prevention efforts by comparing perpetrators of brief vs. extended cyber aggression

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563213001623

Abstract: As debate continues over the definition of cyberbullying, an important endeavor is identifying aggression–prevention efforts likely to impact reasons for cyberbullying and the broader phenomenon of cyber aggression. No empirical research has examined whether there are useful prevention-related distinctions between perpetrators of cyberbullying vs. perpetrators of brief cyber aggression. Using an online survey, this study explored perpetrators’ beliefs, emotions, and behaviors related to 72 brief vs. 128 extended episodes of cyber aggression. The most pronounced difference was that more extended-episode perpetrators reported having been hurt by something that happened in cyberspace. One pronounced similarity was that if there had been a news story about the perpetrator doing it, 79% or more of both groups said they would not have felt proud; whereas 63% or more said they would have felt ashamed. Among both groups, 76% or more did not agree with the assertion that there should be no offline consequence for online behavior. The findings support prevention efforts intended to do the following: encourage respect and empathy, facilitate adaptive communication and decision-making skills, promote socially appropriate ways of coping with anger and conflict, and increase knowledge and application of relevant rules and laws.

Citation: France, K., Danesh, A., & Jirard, S. (2013). Informing aggression–prevention efforts by comparing perpetrators of brief vs. extended cyber aggression.Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2143-2149.


Author(s): Krishna, N., Fischer, B. A., Miller, M., Register-Brown, K., Patchan, K., & Hackman, A.

Year: 2013

Title: The role of social media networks in psychotic disorders: a case report

Journal: General Hospital Psychiatry

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163834312003246

Abstract: We report the case of a young man diagnosed with schizophrenia who presented with stalking behaviors that may have been caused by problematic use or participation in social media networks (SMN). We review the possible role of SMN in the formation of his romantic delusion and offer suggestions for clinicians around incorporation of SMN questions into assessments. It is imperative to identify populations at risk of SMN-related stalking behaviors to stratify mental health resources and interventions. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the role of SMN in psychotic disorders.

Citation: Krishna, N., Fischer, B. A., Miller, M., Register-Brown, K., Patchan, K., & Hackman, A. (2013). The role of social media networks in psychotic disorders: a case report. General hospital psychiatry, 35(5), 576-e1.


Author(s): Sigel, E.

Year: 2013

Title: 66. Violence Risk Screening: Predicting Cyber Violence Perpetration and Victimization

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X12005460

Abstract: The Violence, Injury Protection and Risk Screen (VIPRS) predicts future serious violence involvement. This study sought to determine 1) whether scoring positively on the VIPRS predicts current cyber violence involvement- perpetration or victimization and 2) which of the 14 VIPRS questions may be associated with cyber violence involvement.

Citation: Sigel, E. (2013). 66. Violence Risk Screening: Predicting Cyber Violence Perpetration and Victimization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2), S53.


Author(s): Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P.

Year: 2013

Title: Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students

Journal: Journal of School Psychology

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022440513000381

Abstract: Research suggests that students who bully may perceive the school climate less favorably. Person-centered analyses were used to identify distinct groupings of bullying behaviors and related social–emotional factors (i.e., victimization, internalizing, and perception of school and bullying climate). Latent class analyses were conducted on a sample of 10,254 middle and 2509 high school students and indicated four classes in middle school (Low Involvement, Verbal, High Physical/High Verbal, and High Involvement) and three classes in high school (Low Involvement, Verbal, and High Involvement). A Low Involvement bullying class characterized most students and was related to positive adjustment, whereas a High Involvement bullying class represented the smallest proportion of the sample (1.6% middle school and 7.3% in high school). Students in the High Involvement class reported increased victimization and internalizing problems, feeling less safe and less belonging, and perceiving the school climate to be more supportive of bullying (i.e., perceiving adults’ prevention and intervention efforts as ineffective). In middle school, the High Physical/High Verbal class reported significantly higher levels of victimization as compared to the Verbal class. Findings highlight heterogeneity in bullying behaviors and underscore the importance of prevention and intervention programming that addresses safety and belonging.

Citation: Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2013). Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students. Journal of School Psychology,51(4), 469-485.


Author(s): Litwiller, B. J., & Brausch, A. M.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use

Journal: Journal of Youth and Adolescence

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/S10964-013-9925-5

Abstract: The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study’s findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent’s likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety.

Citation: Litwiller, B. J., & Brausch, A. M. (2013). Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.Journal of youth and adolescence, 42(5), 675-684.


Author(s): Low, S., & Espelage, D.

Year: 2013

Title: Differentiating cyber bullying perpetration from non-physical bullying: Commonalities across race, individual, and family predictors

Journal: Psychology of Violence

URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/vio/3/1/39/

Abstract: We are surprisingly limited in our understanding of mechanisms specific to cyber-bullying perpetration, and how these might be modified by subgroup differences such as race. Social learning theory was used to assess the role of maladaptive family social dynamics on cyber-bullying and nonphysical bullying (i.e., verbal and relational) involvement through individual risk and protective factors. Method: Moderated mediation models were analyzed using multiple regression analysis across three time points (each six months apart) to examine predictors of bullying perpetration among 1,023 early adolescents (5th through 7th grades). Students completed questionnaires assessing bullying perpetration, family conflict, parental monitoring, hostility, depressive symptoms, empathy, and alcohol and drug use (AOD). Two- and three-way interactions assessed moderation by race and gender. Results: At the simple bivariate level, cyber-bullying appears to have significant overlap with nonphysical bullying. Longitudinal analyses, however, reveal less overlap. Specifically, parental monitoring was associated with higher levels of cyber-bullying at wave 3, via AOD use (only for White females). Nonphysical bullying levels were associated with both higher family violence and lower parental monitoring, which were explained by hostility (for White males) and depressive symptoms (for African American males). Conclusions: Findings validate the importance of familial socialization but suggest that cultural context and gender modify the specific patterns. Further study is needed to determine the necessity of separate prevention strategies for cyber-bullying, as current findings suggest that comprehensive (universal) prevention programs that target self-regulation and social competencies would impact both forms of bullying, and are more feasible than family targets.

Citation: Low, S., & Espelage, D. (2013). Differentiating cyber bullying perpetration from non-physical bullying: Commonalities across race, individual, and family predictors. Psychology of Violence, 3(1), 39.


Author(s): Bauman, S., & Newman, M. L.

Year: 2013

Title: Testing assumptions about cyberbullying: Perceived distress associated with acts of conventional and cyber bullying

Journal: Psychology of Violence

URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/vio/3/1/27/

Abstract: Cyberbullying has received considerable attention, and experts have made several assumptions about this phenomenon. In particular, experts have speculated that the potential harm from cyberbullying is greater than that from conventional bullying, but this assumption has not been confirmed empirically. Method: In this study we tested this assumption by using a questionnaire with pairs of items describing similar experiences, one occurring in “traditional” ways and the other using digital technology. Respondents indicated the degree to which they would be upset by the incident on a scale from 1 (not at all upset) to 7 (extremely upset). Results: Findings from this study suggest that the distress associated with an incident of bullying is related to the nature of the bullying incident rather than the form. When comparing the parallel items, we discovered that although cyber-actions and conventional actions were significantly different for most pairs, the form that was more upsetting varied across items, providing further evidence that the form is not the distinguishing feature. Finally, we found significant gender differences on all subscales, with females reporting more distress than males. Conclusion: We close with a discussion of implications for both typologies of bullying and interventions designed to reduce bullying. Because cyberbullying may not be uniformly more harmful than other types of bullying, strategies to assist victims may be implemented with regard to the context and severity of the bullying, rather than its method of delivery.

Citation: Bauman, S., & Newman, M. L. (2013). Testing assumptions about cyberbullying: Perceived distress associated with acts of conventional and cyber bullying. Psychology of Violence, 3(1), 27.


Author(s): Hazelwood, S. D., & Koon-Magnin, S.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyber Stalking and Cyber Harassment Legislation in the United States: A Qualitative Analysis

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/1c77abd8a748bd1282d09cccdfe26a36/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Despite growing concern among legal scholars and criminologists, our understanding of cyber stalking and cyber harassment legislation in the United States remains limited. Using a qualitative approach, this research work explored cyber stalking and cyber harassment legislation across the 50 states and identified themes present in the statutes. The primary themes that were identified using coaxial coding included intent, anonymity, communicating a message of alarm/distress/fear, prior contact with the criminal justice system, jurisdiction, and reference to minors. This may be the first step in developing clear definitions of the important phenomena of cyber stalking and cyber harassment. This more nuanced understanding of current legislation in the United States may help social scientists move forward and further explore the nature and extent of these important crimes.

Citation: Hazelwood, S. D., & Koon-Magnin, S. (2013). Cyber stalking and cyber harassment legislation in the United States: A qualitative analysis.International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 7(2), 155.


Author(s): Addington, L. A.

Year: 2013

Title: Reporting and Clearance of Cyberbullying Incidents: Applying “Offline” Theories to Online Victims

Journal: Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice

URL: http://ccj.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/10/24/1043986213507399.abstract

Abstract: Cyberbullying continues to receive growing research attention, but much of this work focuses on prevalence estimates. Little is known about responses to these incidents. The present study relies on traditional theoretical explanations as a basis for modeling predictors for reporting to authorities and police clearance of cyberbullying using two national data sources. Initial support is obtained for the importance of incident seriousness and solvability characteristics for cyberbullying reporting and clearance. These findings suggest the utility of traditional theory to explain responses to cyberbullying, and also highlight a need for measures tailored to the cyber context to comprehensively test such models.

Citation: Addington, L. A. (2013). Reporting and clearance of cyberbullying incidents: Applying “offline” theories to online victims. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 1043986213507399.


Author(s): Price, M., Chin, M. A., Higa-McMillan, C., Kim, S., & Frueh, B. C.

Year: 2013

Title: Prevalence and Internalizing Problems of Ethnoracially Diverse Victims of Traditional and Cyber Bullying

Journal: School Mental Health

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12310-013-9104-6

Abstract: The present study sought to gain a better understanding of cyber bullying (i.e., the use of information technologies to inflict harm on another person) by examining its prevalence, its relationship with traditional bullying, and the relationship between bullying, anxiety, and depression in a sample of rural and ethnoracially diverse youth (N = 211; ages 10–13). Thirty-three percent of participants reported being victims of traditional bullying and 9 % reported perpetrating traditional bullying behavior. Seven percent of participants were victims of cyber bullying, 4 % reported that they participated in cyber bully behavior, and 2 % were both of victims and perpetrators of cyber bullying. Bullying victims reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression compared with non-victims and bullies endorsed significant anxiety and depression. Results suggest that while cyber bullying does occur in rural communities, it often co-occurs with traditional bullying. Additionally, a novel cyber bullying measure was developed and utilized, and information regarding its reliability and validity is included.

Citation: Price, M., Chin, M. A., Higa-McMillan, C., Kim, S., & Frueh, B. C. (2013). Prevalence and internalizing problems of ethnoracially diverse victims of traditional and cyber bullying. School mental health, 5(4), 183-191.


Author(s): Romero, A. J., Wiggs, C. B., Valencia, C., & Bauman, S.

Year: 2013

Title: Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

Journal: Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

URL: http://hjb.sagepub.com/content/35/2/159.short

Abstract: Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for victimization at school (23%), cybervictimization (26%), school bully (18%), and cyberbully (18%). Rates for depressive symptoms (49%), suicide ideation (23%), suicide plan (17%), and suicide attempt(s; 13%) are higher than national averages. After controlling for depressive symptoms, girls who have been bullied were 1.5 times more likely to attempt suicide compared to girls who have not been victims. However, being a bully increased likelihood of suicide ideation (1.5) and suicide plan (1.4) compared to not being a bully. There is a continued need to prevent depressive symptoms and suicide among Latina girls and to further investigate the effects of bullying.

Citation: Romero, A. J., Wiggs, C. B., Valencia, C., & Bauman, S. (2013). Latina teen suicide and bullying. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 35(2), 159-173.


Author(s): Hvidston, D. J., Hvidston, B. A., Range, B. G., & Harbour, C. P.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyberbullying: Implications for Principal Leadership

Journal: NASSP Bulletin

URL: http://bul.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/09/24/0192636513504452.abstract

Abstract: Cyberbullying has been identified by school leaders and researchers as one of the most serious adverse consequences of incorporating information technology into the classroom. This article examines the legal status of cyberbullying by conducting an analysis of selected federal appellate court opinions. This analysis identifies a set of legal considerations that school leaders must attend to in confronting cyberbullying in order to protect students, teachers, and the interests of the school district. The article concludes with recommendations to district and school leaders before and during investigations of off-campus cyberbullying.

Citation: Hvidston, D. J., Hvidston, B. A., Range, B. G., & Harbour, C. P. (2013). Cyberbullying: Implications for principal leadership. NASSP Bulletin, 0192636513504452.


Author(s): Notar, C.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyberbullying: A Review of the Literature

Journal: Universal Journal of Educational Research

URL: http://www.hrpub.org/journals/article_info.php?aid=18

Abstract: The article is a literature review on cyberbullying from 2007-2013. Topics covered in the review have been categorized starting with definition of cyberbullying; roles of persons involved and statistics of who is being targeted; reasons for cyberbullying; differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying; and gender comparisons related to cyberbullying. This introduction to cyberbullying will provide a foundation for developing a cyberbullying intervention/prevention program

Citation: Notar, C. (2013). Cyberbullying: A review of the literature. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1(1), 1-9.


Author(s): Schneider, S. K., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A. & Coulter, R. W.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students

Journal: The American Journal of Public Health

URL: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300308

Abstract: Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress.

 

Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20 406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality.

 

Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress.

 

Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.

Citation: Schneider, S. K., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. W. (2012). Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 171-177.


Author(s): Barlett, C. P. & Gentile, D. A.

Year: 2012

Title: Attacking Others Online: The Formation of Cyberbullying in Late Adolescence

Journal: Psychology of Popular Media Culture

URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/ppm/1/2/123/

Abstract: Cyberbullying frequency is related to a wide range of negative outcomes. Little research has attempted to delineate the long-term predictors and mechanisms to predict cyberbullying. Study 1 (N 493) used a correlational study that tested our long-term model of cyberbullying. This model predicted that cyberbullying is a function of positive attitudes toward cyberbullying, which are formed by attitudes toward strength and anonymity that exists in aggressing against others in the mediated world. Results showed strong support for our model. Study 2 (N 181) used a longitudinal design to further test our model. Participants completed measures of cyberbullying and cyber-victimization at Wave 1, and again two months later. Positive attitudes toward cyberbullying and reinforcement of cyberbullying tactics were also assessed at Wave 2. Results showed that positive attitudes and reinforcement mediated the stability in cyberbullying. Future research and implications are discussed.

Citation: Barlett, C. P., & Gentile, D. A. (2012). Attacking others online: The formation of cyberbullying in late adolescence. Psychology of Popular Media Culture,1(2), 123.


Author(s): Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A. & Limber, S. P.

Year: 2012

Title: Traditional bullying as a potential warning sign of cyberbullying

Journal: School Psychology International

URL: http://spi.sagepub.com/content/33/5/505.short

Abstract: Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet, some researchers have suggested that involvement in the two types of bullying may be related. However, little research has modeled the system of relationships among the perpetration and victimization of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The present study uses path analysis to arrive at a suitable model of these relationships, and describes the gender differences in these relationships. Students (N = 4,531) in grades 6 through 12 completed a survey examining their involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analysis proceeded by making fit comparisons among hypothesized path models. More frequent traditional bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with higher frequency of their electronic counterparts. However, the relationship between traditional perpetration and victimization was stronger for females than males as was the effect of traditional victimization on cyber-victimization. Implications for school practitioners are presented.

Citation: Kowalski, R. M., Morgan, C. A., & Limber, S. P. (2012). Traditional bullying as a potential warning sign of cyberbullying. School Psychology International, 33(5), 505-519.


Author(s): Holfeld, B. & Grabe, M.

Year: 2012

Title: Middle School Students’ Perceptions of and Responses to Cyber Bullying

Journal: Journal of Educational Computing Research

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&id=EJ978842

Abstract: This study explored the nature and extent of middle school students’ (n = 665) experiences with cyber bullying. Approximately one in five students reported being cyber bullied in the past year, with 55% of those students being repeatedly victimized within the past 30 days. Female students were more likely to be involved in cyber bullying (victim, bully, and witness) compared to male students. One aspect of this study involved an examination of student disclosure and the consequences to victims and witnesses when informing others when they were affected by cyber bullying. Approximately 64% of youth reported the incident when they were cyber bullied and 60% reported when they witnessed cyber bullying. Peers and parents were told most frequently, while teachers were rarely informed. The likelihood of the cyber bullying behavior terminating was not influenced by the group informed of the incident. Overall, neither peers nor adults were very effective in assisting youth to reduce the cyber bullying behavior. These results suggest that peers, parents, and school personnel need to be prepared to offer more helpful strategies to youth who are involved in cyber bullying as victims, perpetrators, and witnesses. The common suggestion that youth report bullying behavior loses some of its credibility when those who do report do not receive helpful advice. (Contains 3 tables.)

Citation: Holfeld, B., & Grabe, M. (2012). Middle school students’ perceptions of and responses to cyber bullying. Journal of Educational Computing Research,46(4), 395-413.


Author(s): Heretick, J. A.

Year: 2012

Title: The Relationship between Type of Bullying Experienced in Childhood and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Adulthood

Journal: ProQuest LLC

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=4&id=ED554718

Abstract: Bullying is well recognized as an experience with negative and potentially adverse consequences. Specifically, research has consistently shown that involvement in bullying has been linked to a wide range of psychosocial difficulties. There are three forms of bullying that have been identified in the literature: Overt bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. Although many studies have investigated the relationship between one specific type of bullying and one or two psychosocial constructs, there is limited research that has focused on all three bullying types, and even fewer studies focused on the long-term relationship. The purposes of this study were to comprehensively examine the relationship between each specific bullying type identified in the research (overt, relational, and cyber) and long term psychosocial functioning and to investigate whether specific bullying types were more prevalent among specific risk factors. A total of 277 undergraduates from Gainesville, FL participated in this study. Gender differences existed, such that females reported a higher rate of involvement as victims of cyber bullying, and males reported a higher rate of involvement as overt aggressors. Each bullying type was related to specific psychosocial difficulties, with relational victimization being associated with the most psychosocial difficulties. In regards to overt bullying, overt aggression was related to current symptoms of Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, sensation seeking, depression, and school maladjustment. Overt victimization was related to symptoms of depression in young adulthood. Specific to relational bullying, relational aggression was related to school maladjustment and relational victimization was related to loneliness, fear of negative evaluation, social stress, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and internalizing problems. In regards to cyber bullying, cyber victimization was related to symptoms of sensation seeking. Finally, the study found that higher rates of involvement as a perpetrator of aggressive bullying behaviors were positively associated with self-esteem and negatively associated with school maladjustment. In regards to victimization, higher rates of victimization were negatively associated with sensation seeking behaviors and positively associated with social stress in young adulthood. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]

Citation: Heretick, J. A. (2012). The Relationship between Type of Bullying Experienced in Childhood and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Adulthood. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.


Author(s): Piotrowski, C.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyberbullying: A Research-Based Content Analysis of the Psychological Literature

Journal: Alabama Counseling Association Journal

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=3&id=EJ990744

Abstract: Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on children through adolescents. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest on the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using the term cyberbullying in a keyword search. In rank order, the major foci of the research involved the issues of intervention or treatment, profile of offenders, comparisons to traditional bullying, legal implications, risk factors, social dynamics, gender, prevalence, and measurement issues. In addition, the following journals were the top publication outlets for cyber-bullying research: “Journal of Psychology,” “CyberPsychology & Behavior,” “Journal of Adolescent Health,” “Journal of School Violence,” “Psychology in the Schools,” “School Psychology International,” and “Preventing School Failure.” (Contains 2 tables.)

Citation: Piotrowski, C. (2012). Cyberbullying: A Research-Based Content Analysis of the Psychological Literature. Alabama Counseling Association Journal,38(1), 13-19.


Author(s): Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J. & Luk, J. W.

Year: 2012

Title: Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

Journal: Journal of School Psychology

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=3&id=EJ970187

Abstract: Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 and 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

Citation: Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Luk, J. W. (2012). Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: Physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber. Journal of school psychology, 50(4), 521-534.


Author(s): Smith, B. W., Dempsey, A.G., Jackson, S. E., Olenchak, F. R. & Gaa, J.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyberbullying among Gifted Children

Journal: Gifted Education International

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cyberbullying+among+Gifted+Children&id=EJ954392

Abstract: Peer victimization, or bullying, is a phenomenon that has received increasing global attention, and the use of technology, or cyberbullying, to bring about acts of bullying has certainly increased as access to various technological tools has escalated. While it is unclear whether this attention is a function of actual increases in cyberbullying or is simply a function of the fact that the same boom in technological access also enables more rapid reporting of such incidents, the reality remains the same: a number of young people use cyberspace as a means for attacking peers. An examination of the literature pertaining to cyberbullying serves as a backdrop for considering cyberbullying and its particular effects on gifted and talented students, and a call for increasing research efforts in this arena is issued.

Citation: Smith, B. W., Dempsey, A. G., Jackson, S. E., Olenchak, F. R., & Gaa, J. (2012). Cyberbullying among gifted children. Gifted Education International,28(1), 112-126.


Author(s): Roberts-Pittman, B., Slavens, J. & Balch, B. V.

Year: 2012

Title: The Basics of Cyberbullying

Journal: School Administrator

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=10&id=EJ982358

Abstract: Bullying is not simply the same act of misbehavior taking place electronically. While the two phenomena share common characteristics (use of power, harmful intent), distinct and important differences exist. The first is the concept of power. Power in cyberspace is not measured by physical size or family income. Instead, power lies in the anonymity that is possible with cyber communication. By using a false name, a cyberbully can go undetected. Similarly, cyber communication can be difficult, although not impossible, to track and trace. Further, cyberbullying through the use of a computer or cell phone can occur anytime. Finally, cyberbullies are able to reach a wide audience quickly. School officials need to keep in mind their duty of care for all students. This includes the bully and the victim. Many state laws that prohibit bullying and/or mandate discipline of students who engage in bullying also require schools to provide educational and preventative programs on bullying to students, school staff members (not just classroom teachers), and parents. Implementing these programs for each of these school community groups provides an opportunity to create a safe environment for students. State laws require safe use of the Internet curriculum to be taught at all or most grades beginning at the elementary level. This curriculum should address cyberbullying, notably how to recognize it, report it and avoid getting involved in it. School boards can adopt policies to address not only the student discipline issues surrounding bullying and cyberbullying but also the reporting of such activity, especially when it occurs off of school grounds and/or during nonschool hours. While a school may not be able to discipline a student for such action, it can provide counseling and/or intervention programs to help prevent future activity. Prevention programs that address the well-being of students as well as the bully can be provided through collaboration with community resources or through outside grants. Implementing such programs shows the students that all levels of the school organization care for their safety and well-being.

Citation: Roberts-Pittman, B., Slavens, J., & Balch, B. V. (2012). The Basics of Cyberbullying. School Administrator, 69(4), 33-37.


Author(s):

Cooper, G. D., Clements, P.T. & Holt, K. E.

Year: 2012

Title: Examining Childhood Bullying and Adolescent Suicide Implications for School Nurses

Journal: The Journal of School Nursing

URL: http://jsn.sagepub.com/content/28/4/275.short

Abstract: Adolescent suicide is a preventable tragedy yet is still the third leading cause of death in young people of age 10–24. Contrary to the idea that childhood bullying is a normal part of growing up or a rite of passage, it is now correlated with adolescent suicidality. An integrative review of the contemporary, extant literature was conducted to examine the following question: Are adolescents who have been involved in childhood bullying or cyberbullying as victim, offender, or victim/offender at greater risk for suicidality than those who have not. It is important to empower school nurses with current and evidence-based information regarding childhood bullying and examine empirical science and tools to effectively address the current serious problem of adolescent suicide risk assessment and intervention.

Citation: Cooper, G. D., Clements, P. T., & Holt, K. E. (2012). Examining childhood bullying and adolescent suicide implications for school nurses. The Journal of School Nursing, 28(4), 275-283.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L., Boyd, D., Korchmaros, J. D. & Oppenheim, J. K.

Year: 2012

Title: Defining and Measuring Cyberbullying Within the Larger Context of Bullying Victimization

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X11007208

Abstract: To inform the scientific debate about bullying, including cyberbullying, measurement.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., Boyd, D., Korchmaros, J. D., & Oppenheim, J. K. (2012). Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 53-58.


Author(s): Gentile, B., Twenge, J. M., Freeman, E. C., & Campbell, W. K.

Year: 2012

Title: The effect of social networking websites on positive self-views: An experimental investigation

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563212001409

Abstract: Millions of people use social networking sites (SNSs), but it is unclear how these sites shape personality traits and identity. In Experiment 1, college students were randomly assigned to either edit their MySpace page or complete a control task online (interacting with Google Maps). Those who focused on their MySpace page scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) than a control group. In Experiment 2, those who focused on their Facebook page scored significantly higher in general self-esteem, but not narcissism, than a control group. Thus, spending time on SNSs profiles causes young people to endorse more positive self-views, although the specific form this takes depends on the site. Consistent with previous research, narcissism was associated with a larger number of SNSs “friends” in both experiments.

Citation: Gentile, B., Twenge, J. M., Freeman, E. C., & Campbell, W. K. (2012). The effect of social networking websites on positive self-views: An experimental investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1929-1933.


Author(s): Sinclair, K. O., Bauman, S., Poteat, V. P., Koenig, B., & Russell, S. T.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyber and Bias-based Harassment: Associations With Academic, Substance Use, and Mental Health Problems

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X11003326

Abstract: To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems.

Citation: Sinclair, K. O., Bauman, S., Poteat, V. P., Koenig, B., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Cyber and bias-based harassment: Associations with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. Journal of Adolescent Health,50(5), 521-523.


Author(s): Stauffer, S., Heath, M. A., Coyne, S. M., & Ferrin, S.

Year: 2012

Title: High school teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying prevention and intervention strategies

Journal: Psychology in the Schools

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pits.21603/full

Abstract: Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers’ perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in preventing cyberbullying. Almost one fourth of teachers indicated cyberbullying does not have long-lasting negative effects and that cyberbullying “prepares students for life.” Fewer than half of teachers favored implementing a formal cyberbully prevention program. Teachers perceived the following strategies as most helpful in addressing cyberbullying: increasing parental involvement, warning students about consequences for cyberbullying, and increasing consequences for cyberbullying. School administrators should consider teachers’ perceptions before implementing prevention programs that target cyberbullying. Additionally, strategies should consider fostering greater teacher buy-in, thus improving intervention fidelity and creating a unified effort focused on decreasing student cyberbullying.

Citation: Stauffer, S., Heath, M. A., Coyne, S. M., & Ferrin, S. (2012). High school teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying prevention and intervention strategies.Psychology in the Schools, 49(4), 352-367.


Author(s): Schenk, A. M., & Fremouw, W. J.

Year: 2012

Title: Prevalence, Psychological Impact, and Coping of Cyberbully Victims Among College Students

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15388220.2011.630310

Abstract: With the growth of technology, bullying has expanded into the technological realm. Labeled cyberbullying, individuals are utilizing technology, such as cell phones and the Internet, to bully and harass others with the intention of causing harm. The purpose of this study was to expand prevalence, psychological impact, and coping strategy research with college victims of cyberbullying in the United States. Among 799 college students surveyed via the Internet, 8.6% were victims of cyberbullying. On the Symptom Checklist-90-R, the 69 victims scored higher than 69 matched controls on depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and paranoia, and were elevated on global severity index and positive symptom distress index scales. Victims had significantly more suicidal ideations, planning, and attempts. Victims generally coped with cyberbullying by telling someone and avoiding friends and peers, with few differences between genders. The results indicated that cyberbullying is occurring in a college sample and having a negative impact upon victims.

Citation: Schenk, A. M., & Fremouw, W. J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of School Violence, 11(1), 21-37.


Author(s): Hillier, L., Mitchell, K. J., & Ybarra, M. L.

Year: 2012

Title: The Internet As a Safety Net: Findings From a Series of Online Focus Groups With LGB and Non-LGB Young People in the United States

Journal: Journal of LGBT Youth

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19361653.2012.684642

Abstract: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth face special challenges during adolescence including stigma, alienation, and abuse which have been linked with social costs and negative health outcomes. The Internet has been shown to ameliorate the negative impacts of homophobia by providing access to friendships and support, information, romantic partners, and a gay community. In this qualitative study, internet use of LGB and Non-LGB young people were compared. The LGB young people were more adventurous in their internet use than non LGB young people, including meeting new people online. Findings have implications for adolescent health professionals and policy makers.

Citation: Hillier, L., Mitchell, K. J., & Ybarra, M. L. (2012). The Internet as a safety net: Findings from a series of online focus groups with LGB and non-LGB young people in the United States. Journal of LGBT Youth, 9(3), 225-246.


Author(s): Molluzzo, J. C., & Lawler, J.

Year: 2012

Title: A Study of the Perceptions of College Students on Cyberbullying

Journal: Information Systems Education Journal

URL: http://isedj.org/2012-10/N4/ISEDJv10n4p84.html

Abstract: Cyberbullying is a concern for all citizens. Harassment and hostility continue to be evident on digital media in society. In this study, the authors evaluate the perceptions of college students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. The findings from a research survey disclose a higher level of knowledge of the perceived prevalence of cyberbullying and of the perceived perpetration of cyberbullying towards distinct populations of students. The findings from the study concurrently disclosed a lower level of knowledge of perceptions of institutional pro-action on problems of cyberbullying at the university. This study will benefit administrators, counselors and instructors, and especially information systems instructors, considering an improved process to respond to the sensitivity of students confronting cyberbullying in both society and university.

Citation: Molluzzo, J. C., & Lawler, J. (2012). A study of the perceptions of college students on cyberbullying. Information Systems Education Journal, 10(4), 84.


Author(s): Strom, P. S., Strom, R. D., Wingate, J. J., Kraska, M. F., & Beckert, T. E.

Year: 2012

Title: Cyberbullying: Assessment of Student Experience for Continuous Improvement Planning

Journal: NASSP Bulletin

URL: http://bul.sagepub.com/content/96/2/137.short

Abstract: This study examines the use of polling students to improve conditions of learning in their school. Students from three schools (N = 2,006) in Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 completed an online poll about how cyberbullying affects their personal lives. Principals’ impressions about the benefits of student polling are explained along with the Cyberbullying Poll outcomes. Principals concluded that student input is an important contribution for consideration in development of continuous improvement planning for their school.

Citation: Strom, P. S., Strom, R. D., Wingate, J. J., Kraska, M. F., & Beckert, T. E. (2012). Cyberbullying Assessment of Student Experience for Continuous Improvement Planning. NASSP Bulletin, 96(2), 137-153.


Author(s): Moore, P. M., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J.

Year: 2012

Title: Electronic Bullying and Victimization and Life Satisfaction in Middle School Students

Journal: Social Indicators Research

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-011-9856-z

Abstract: This study examined the nature and prevalence of electronic bullying and victimization in a sample of middle school students in a southeastern USA school. Relationships among measures of electronic bullying and victimization and global and domain-specific life satisfaction were also investigated. A total of 855 7th and 8th grade US students responded to questions regarding global and domain-based life satisfaction, electronic bullying and victimization behaviors. Although a majority of students reported not engaging in or being the victim of electronic bullying, the small percentage of students who did report these behaviors as being problematic indicated that the behaviors occurred several times a week. Statistically significant correlates of electronic bullying were self-reported grades in school, gender, and parent marital status. Significant correlates of victimization were self-reported grades in school, parent marital status, and ethnicity. The results suggested modest, but pervasive relationships between experiences of electronic bullying and victimization and adolescents’ life satisfaction reports across a variety of important life domains. When the effects of demographic variables were controlled, the relationship between electronic victimization and global life satisfaction became non-significant, suggesting that global life satisfaction reports may mask the effects of specific life satisfaction domains.

Citation: Moore, P. M., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2012). Electronic bullying and victimization and life satisfaction in middle school students. Social Indicators Research, 107(3), 429-447.


Author(s): Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., Freiburger, T. L., & Ricketts, M. L.

Year: 2012

Title: Battle of the sexes: An examination of male and female cyber bullying

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/d0919414917dde47816ba14c4832ef5f/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Cyber bullying is defined as intentional, aggressive behavior toward another person that is performed through electronic means (i.e., computers, cell phones, PDAs) (Hinduja & Patchin 2007, 2008; Reekman & Cannard, 2009). In other words, it is behavior performed on the Internet that is intended to psychologically and emotionally harm someone. The present study will explore the differences in male and female cyber bullying in an undergraduate study, specifically in regard to posting gossip online with the intent to hurt others. The results indicate there are similar predictors of cyber bullying for the sexes, as well as unique predictors for male and female undergraduates.

Citation: Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., Freiburger, T. L., & Ricketts, M. L. (2012). Battle of the sexes: An examination of male and female cyber bullying.International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 6(1), 904.


Author(s): Madlock, P. E., & Westerman, D.

Year: 2011

Title: Hurtful Cyber-Teasing and Violence: Who’s Laughing out Loud?

Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=9&id=EJ943101

Abstract: The current study sought to specifically examine the affect of teasing by way of technology (cyber-teasing) and the importance of the redressive component of a tease. A triangulated approach was used here to gain better insight into the concept of “hurtful” cyber-teasing between romantic partners. A pretheoretical model was developed highlighting the possible associations between teasing via technology and relational outcomes. Findings provide researchers with the prevalence of hurtful cyber-teasing and the associated personal and relational outcomes. In addition, the relationship between hurtful cyber-teasing and the reasons why certain messages escalated into face-to-face verbal aggression and physical violence were also revealed. These results are discussed in light of the inability of technology to fully transmit the redressive nonverbal component of a cyber-tease. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)

Citation: Madlock, P. E., & Westerman, D. (2011). Hurtful Cyber-Teasing and Violence Who’s Laughing Out Loud?. Journal of interpersonal violence, 26(17), 3542-3560.


Author(s): Mark, L. & Ratliffe, K. T.

Year: 2011

Title: Cyber Worlds: New Playgrounds for Bullying

Journal: Computers in the Schools

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=11&id=EJ928815

Abstract: The experiences of 247 middle school children around cyberbullying were examined through in-class questionnaires. Their use of different media, their experiences with cyberbullying, and the relationships among school type, gender, and grade level were analyzed. Of the students in this sample 33% of female and 20% of male students reported being a cybervictim or a bully. Social networking sites and cell phones were the media most often used. Interesting results included a nonlinear relationship between Internet use and cyberbullying and the increase in cyberbullying throughout middle school. Also, students perceived that neither teachers nor parents were prepared to assist them with cyberbullying problems. (Contains 4 tables.)

Citation: Mark, L., & Ratliffe, K. T. (2011). Cyber worlds: New playgrounds for bullying.Computers in the Schools, 28(2), 92-116.


Author(s): Wang, J., Nansel, T.R. & Iannotti, R. J.

Year: 2011

Title: Cyber and Traditional Bullying: Differential Association With Depression

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X10003435

Abstract: The study compared levels of depression among bullies, victims, and bully-victims of traditional (physical, verbal, and relational) and cyber bullying that is a relatively new form of bullying. The study also examined the association between depression and frequency of involvement in each form of bullying.

Citation: Wang, J., Nansel, T. R., & Iannotti, R. J. (2011). Cyber and traditional bullying: Differential association with depression. Journal of adolescent health, 48(4), 415-417.


Author(s): Kowalski, R. M. & Fedina, C.

Year: 2011

Title: Cyber bullying in ADHD and Asperger Syndrome populations

Journal: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946711000134

Abstract: Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the prevalence of both “traditional” bullying and cyber bullying in youth with ADHD and/or Asperger’s Syndrome, and assessed the social, psychological, and health effects of bullying on participants. In addition, the study addressed the disconnect between parents’ understanding of their child’s online experiences and their child’s actual experiences in the virtual world. Forty-two children and youth reported high rates of bullying victimization through both traditional and electronic means. Individuals not involved with bullying showed greater levels of physical and psychological health relative to those involved with bullying. Parents and children disagreed on a number of issues related to use of the Internet, indicating the need for more clear communication between parents and their children. The results are discussed in terms of theory of mind, both for self and for others.

Citation: Kowalski, R. M., & Fedina, C. (2011). Cyber bullying in ADHD and Asperger Syndrome populations. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1201-1208.


Author(s): Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Wolak, J., Ybarra, M. L. & Turner, H.

Year: 2011

Title: Youth Internet Victimization in a Broader Victimization Context

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X1000279X

Abstract: To examine past-year and lifetime rates of online victimization and associations with offline victimizations, trauma symptomatology, and delinquency among adolescents.

Citation: Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Wolak, J., Ybarra, M. L., & Turner, H. (2011). Youth internet victimization in a broader victimization context. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 128-134.


Author(s): Tokunaga, R.S.

Year: 2011

Title: Social networking site or social surveillance site? Understanding the use of interpersonal electronic surveillance in romantic relationships

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563210002724

Abstract: Social network sites (SNSs) are commonly used to maintain existing relationships and form connections with new contacts. Recently, concerns of have been expressed over the way these Web-based technologies are used. Estimates suggest that people are increasingly using SNSs for engaging in the surveillance of others. Given the relatively high rates of prevalence, it can be argued that SNSs have been reinvented into a tool for interpersonal surveillance along with their social networking capabilities. This article expands on the concept of interpersonal electronic surveillance and applies it in the specific context of romantic partners’ use of SNSs. The relationships between surveillance over SNSs and demographic, relational, and Internet use and efficacy variables are studied. The findings reveal that interpersonal surveillance over SNSs is influenced by age, the time individuals spend on their partners’ profiles, the integration of SNSs into daily routines, and Internet self-efficacy.

Citation: Tokunaga, R. S. (2011). Social networking site or social surveillance site? Understanding the use of interpersonal electronic surveillance in romantic relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 705-713.


Author(s): Sengupta, A., & Chaudhuri, A.

Year: 2011

Title: Are social networking sites a source of online harassment for teens? Evidence from survey data

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740910003208

Abstract: Media reports on incidences of abuse on the internet, particularly among teenagers, are growing at an alarming rate causing much concern among parents of teenagers and prompting legislations aimed at regulating internet use among teenagers. Social networking sites (SNS) have been criticized for serving as a breeding ground for cyber-bullying and harassment by strangers. However, there is a lack of serious research studies that explicitly identify factors that make teenagers prone to internet abuse, and study whether it is SNS that is causing this recent rise in online abuse or is it something else. This study attempts to identify the key factors associated with cyber-bullying and online harassment of teenagers in the United States using the 2006 round of Pew Internet™ American Life Survey that is uniquely suited for this study. Results fail to corroborate the claim that having social networking site memberships is a strong predictor of online abuse of teenagers. Instead this study finds that demographic and behavioral characteristics of teenagers are stronger predictors of online abuse.

Citation: Sengupta, A., & Chaudhuri, A. (2011). Are social networking sites a source of online harassment for teens? Evidence from survey data. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(2), 284-290.


Author(s): Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Dempsey, J., & Storch, E. A.

Year: 2011

Title: Has Cyber Technology Produced a New Group of Peer Aggressors?

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2010.0108

Abstract: Cyber technology provides a new venue for the expression of aggression. However, whether cyber technology has produced a new group of peer aggressors or simply allowed aggressive peers new tools to victimize others is unclear. This study sampled 1,672 adolescents to assess their engagement in cyber aggression. Although “cyber,” “overt,” and “relational” represent distinct subtypes of aggressive behavior, our results indicate that adolescents’ behaviors clustered according to their frequency—not type—of aggression. Thus cyber technology provides new tools for youth who already engage in aggressive behaviors in the physical world to victimize peers in cyberspace.

Citation: Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Dempsey, J., & Storch, E. A. (2011). Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors?.Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(5), 297-302.


Author(s): Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M.

Year: 2011

Title: Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies

Journal: Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1045988X.2011.539429

Abstract: Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a result, episodes of digital aggression may be camouflaged by the advancement in technology. Nonetheless, the effects of this digital form of peer aggression can be as detrimental as face-to-face bullying.

Citation: Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M. (2011). Digital aggression: Cyberworld meets school bullies. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 64-70.


Author(s): Williams, S. G., & Godfrey, A. J.

Year: 2011

Title: What is Cyberbullying & How Can Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses Recognize It?

Journal: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services

URL: http://www.healio.com/psychiatry/journals/jpn/2011-10-49-10/%7B20c49a0a-2a49-42e4-8c31-378cc04959ad%7D/what-is-cyberbullying–how-can-psychiatric-mental-health-nurses-recognize-it

Abstract: Cyberbullying is an emerging issue within our society, particularly among adolescents. The phenomenon is similar to traditional bullying in that it is hurtful, repetitive behavior involving a power imbalance, often causing psychosocial issues. With the availability of cell phones, Internet, and video gaming systems, adolescents are constantly plugged into technology and therefore at risk of being a victim or a perpetrator of cyberbullying. Both physical and mental health problems can result from cyberbullying, which, in turn, can affect an adolescent’s performance in school and other crucial areas of life. Legal action is an option, but many times the law is not clear. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in a position to help educate children about resources to prevent or cope with cyberbullying in a way that will help not only the patients themselves but also parents, teachers, school administrators, and the community.

Citation: Williams, S. G., & Godfrey, A. J. (2011). What is cyberbullying & how can psychiatric-mental health nurses recognize it?. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services, 49(10), 36-41.


Author(s): Sbarbaro, V., & Smith, T. M. E.

Year: 2011

Title: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING BEHAVIORS AMONG ECONOMICALLY/EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS.

Journal: American Journal of Health Studies

URL: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67310837/exploratory-study-bullying-cyberbullying-behaviors-among-economically-educationally-disadvantaged-middle-school-students

Abstract: This exploratory study investigated influential factors associated with bullying and cyberbullying and identifying possible correlations. A sample of 106 middle school students was surveyed utilizing the Cyberbullying and Online Aggression Survey Instrument and the Bullying Survey measuring physical, verbal, social, and cyberbullying behaviors. Results indicated significant correlations among grade level and location of bullying, types of bullying behaviors, frequency of bullying, bullying behaviors observed, observing cyberbullying and types of cyberbullying. Significant relationships were also found between gender and grade level when independently correlated to outlets of cyberbullying. Results may assist in preventative methods to reduce and eliminate bullying in middle schools.

Citation: Sbarbaro, V., & Smith, T. M. E. (2011). AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING BEHAVIORS AMONG ECONOMICALLY/EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS. American Journal of Health Studies, 26(3).


Author(s): Goebert, D., Else, I., Matsu, C., Chung-Do, J., & Chang, J. Y.

Year: 2011

Title: The Impact of Cyberbullying on Substance Use and Mental Health in a Multiethnic Sample

Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-010-0672-x

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cyberbullying and mental health problems among a multiethnic sample of high school students in Hawai`i. A University-Community partnership was established to direct the research. Using a mixed-methods approach, we explored violence among Asian and Pacific Islander youth. In the first phase, focus groups were conducted to identify areas of youth concern and develop survey questions. Responses from 677 high school students on interpersonal youth violence and risk and protective factors were utilized in this study. More than 1 in 2 youth (56.1%) had been victims of cyberbullying in the last year. Filipino and Samoan youth were more likely to report feeling badly about themselves as a result of cyberbullying. While cyberbullying and mental health problems varied by sex and ethnicity, we found that cyberbullying is widespread with serious potential consequences among Asian and Pacific Islander youth. A multifaceted approach is needed to reduce and prevent cyberbullying. School, family and community programs that strengthen positive relationships and promote safe use of technology provide promise for reducing cyberbullying.

Citation: Goebert, D., Else, I., Matsu, C., Chung-Do, J., & Chang, J. Y. (2011). The impact of cyberbullying on substance use and mental health in a multiethnic sample. Maternal and child health journal, 15(8), 1282-1286.


Author(s): Strom, P., Strom, R., Walker, J., Sindel-Arrington, T., & Beckert, T.

Year: 2011

Title: Adolescent Bullies on Cyber Island

Journal: NASSP Bulletin

URL: http://bul.sagepub.com/content/95/3/195.short

Abstract: Decisions regarding school improvement are based on observations of adults. A more accurate picture of institutional assets and limitations emerges when observations of students are also considered. This presentation shows how student polling can help principals enhance conditions of learning and safety. Implications of Cyberbully Poll results at one junior high are summarized so that stakeholders can understand local severity, motivation for abuse, and need for greater parent orientation to this danger. The leadership role of principles is emphasized.

Citation: Strom, P., Strom, R., Walker, J., Sindel-Arrington, T., & Beckert, T. (2011). Adolescent bullies on cyber island. NASSP Bulletin, 95(3), 195-211.


Author(s): Accordino, D. B., DED, M. P. A., & CRC, L.

Year: 2011

Title: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF FACE-TO-FACE AND CYBERBULLYING IN SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS

Journal: American Secondary Education

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/6c1d987463dacf640eb7482d5f6adddf/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: In a pilot study, sixth grade students (N = 124) completed a questionnaire assessing students’ experience with bullying and cyberbullying, demographic information, quality of parent-child relationship, and ways they have dealt with bullying/cyberbullying in the past. Two multiple regression analyses were conducted. The multiple regression analysis of the number of times in their lifetime that students were bullied yielded an R2 of .18 and two significant predictors. Telling a parent when a victim of bullying was related to an increase in bullying, and having a history of bullying others was associated with a significantly higher rate of being bullied. The analysis of being cyberbullied in one’s lifetime revealed an R2 of .29 and three significant predictors. Students with close parental relationships were bullied less often, internet chat/social network frequency was positively associated with an increase in being cyberbullied, and students who participated in cyberbullying were cyberbullied more often.

Citation: Accordino, D. B., DED, M. P. A., & CRC, L. (2011). An exploratory study of face-to-face and cyberbullying in sixth grade students. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 14.


Author(s): O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K.

Year: 2011

Title: The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families

Journal: Pediatrics

URL: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/4/800.full

Abstract: Using social media Web sites is among the most common activity of today’s children and adolescents. Any Web site that allows social interaction is considered a social media site, including social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Club Penguin, Second Life, and the Sims; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs. Such sites offer today’s youth a portal for entertainment and communication and have grown exponentially in recent years. For this reason, it is important that parents become aware of the nature of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Pediatricians are in a unique position to help families understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and urge parents to monitor for potential problems with cyberbullying, “Facebook depression,” sexting, and exposure to inappropriate content.

Citation: O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804.


Author(s): Mark, L., & Ratliffe, K. T.

Year: 2011

Title: Cyber Worlds: New Playgrounds for Bullying

Journal: Computers in the Schools

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07380569.2011.575753

Abstract: The experiences of 247 middle school children around cyberbullying were examined through in-class questionnaires. Their use of different media, their experiences with cyberbullying, and the relationships among school type, gender, and grade level were analyzed. Of the students in this sample 33% of female and 20% of male students reported being a cybervictim or a bully. Social networking sites and cell phones were the media most often used. Interesting results included a nonlinear relationship between Internet use and cyberbullying and the increase in cyberbullying throughout middle school. Also, students perceived that neither teachers nor parents were prepared to assist them with cyberbullying problems.

Citation: Mark, L., & Ratliffe, K. T. (2011). Cyber worlds: New playgrounds for bullying.Computers in the Schools, 28(2), 92-116.


Author(s): Hay, C. & Meldrum, R.

Year: 2010

Title: Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

Journal: Journal of Youth and Adolescence

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=5&id=EJ882991

Abstract: Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent’s social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm.

Citation: Hay, C., & Meldrum, R. (2010). Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: Testing hypotheses from general strain theory. Journal of youth and adolescence, 39(5), 446-459.


Author(s): Tokunaga, R.S.

Year: 2010

Title: Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074756320900185X

Abstract: More than 97% of youths in the United States are connected to the Internet in some way. An unintended outcome of the Internet’s pervasive reach is the growing rate of harmful offenses against children and teens. Cyberbullying victimization is one such offense that has recently received a fair amount of attention. The present report synthesizes findings from quantitative research on cyberbullying victimization. An integrative definition for the term cyberbullying is provided, differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying are explained, areas of convergence and divergence are offered, and sampling and/or methodological explanations for the inconsistencies in the literature are considered. About 20–40% of all youths have experienced cyberbullying at least once in their lives. Demographic variables such as age and gender do not appear to predict cyberbullying victimization. Evidence suggests that victimization is associated with serious psychosocial, affective, and academic problems. The report concludes by outlining several areas of concern in cyberbullying research and discusses ways that future research can remedy them.

Citation: Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in human behavior, 26(3), 277-287.


Author(s): Bossler, A. M. & Holt, T. J.

Year: 2010

Title: The effect of self-control on victimization in the cyberworld

Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210000358

Abstract: In light of the differences between traditional forms of victimization and cybercrime victimization, this study examined whether the expansion of self-control theory to the field of victimization could help explain cybercrime victimization as well. This study found that self-control had a weak relationship with multiple forms of cybercrime victimization, but it did not have a direct effect on victimization after controlling for offending measures. Considering that this was incongruent with previous victimization research, these findings raise theoretical and empirical questions for the entire field of victimization regarding the importance of self-control when controlling for relevant peer offending.

Citation: Bossler, A. M., & Holt, T. J. (2010). The effect of self-control on victimization in the cyberworld. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(3), 227-236.


Author(s): Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Zhao, Y., & Witt, E. A.

Year: 2010

Title: Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563209001721

Abstract: This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem and technology use? Approximately 500 youth, average age 12 years old, one-third of whom were African American and the remaining two-thirds were Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (email and instant messaging), videogame playing and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of selfconcept and self-esteem, with videogame playing having a negative influence, and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions but contrary to expectations not on the social self-concept dimension. Only one race difference was observed and this was in behavioral self-concept. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth’s current and future technology use are discussed

Citation: Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Zhao, Y., & Witt, E. A. (2010). Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 323-328.


Author(s): Varjas, K., Talley, J., Meyers, J., Parris, L., & Cutts, H.

Year: 2010

Title: High School Students’ Perceptions of Motivations for Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Study

Journal: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941365/?tool=pmcentrez

Abstract: Internet usage has increased in recent years resulting in a growing number of documented reports of cyberbullying. Despite the rise in cyberbullying incidents, there is a dearth of research regarding high school students’ motivations for cyberbullying. The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students’ perceptions of the motivations for cyberbullying.

Citation: Varjas, K., Talley, J., Meyers, J., Parris, L., & Cutts, H. (2010). High school students’ perceptions of motivations for cyberbullying: An exploratory study.Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11(3).


Author(s): Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Luk, J. W.

Year: 2010

Title: Bullying Victimization Among Underweight and Overweight U.S. Youth: Differential Associations for Boys and Girls

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X09006752

Abstract: To examine the associations between body weight and physical, verbal, relational, and cyber victimization among U.S. boys and girls in grade 6 through 10. Underweight boys and girls were more likely to be physical and relational victims, respectively. Overweight boys and obese girls were more likely to be verbal victims.

Citation: Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Luk, J. W. (2010). Bullying victimization among underweight and overweight US youth: Differential associations for boys and girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(1), 99-101.


Author(s): Hay, C., Meldrum, R., & Mann, K.

Year: 2010

Title: Traditional Bullying, Cyber Bullying, and Deviance: A General Strain Theory Approach

Journal: Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice

URL: http://ccj.sagepub.com/content/26/2/130.short

Abstract: Agnew’s general strain theory (GST) has received significant empirical attention, but important issues remain unresolved. This study addresses three such issues. First, the authors examine the effects of bullying—a source of strain that may be consequential, but that has been neglected in GST research to date. Second, drawing from recent research on deliberate self-harm among adolescents, the authors examine the effects of bullying not just on externalizing deviance (aggressive acts committed against others and their property) but also on internalizing deviance directed against the self. Third, the authors examine these relationships separately for males and females to assess sex differences in responses to strain. These three issues are examined with self-report data collected from a sample of middle and high school students in a Southeastern state. The analysis reveals that bullying is consequential for both externalizing and internalizing forms of deviance and that these relationships are in some instances moderated by sex.

Citation: Hay, C., Meldrum, R., & Mann, K. (2010). Traditional bullying, cyber bullying, and deviance: A general strain theory approach. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26(2), 130-147.


Author(s): Twyman, K., Saylor, C., Taylor, L. A., & Comeaux, C.

Year: 2010

Title: Comparing Children and Adolescents Engaged in Cyberbullying to Matched Peers

Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior,

and Social Networking

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cyber.2009.0137

Abstract: Although characteristics of traditional bullying participants have been identified and studied for years, research on cyberbullying is limited. The purpose of this study is to expand the literature on cyberbullying with a particular focus on the relationships among cyberbullying characteristics, typical social activities, and more traditional forms of bullying. The typical activities and experiences with traditional bullying and cyberbullying of 52 children ages 11 to 17 were compared to those of 52 matched controls. Children exposed to cyberbullying, whether as a cyberbully, cybervictim, or both (bully/victim), spent more time on computer-based social activities. Nearly two thirds of cyberbully/victims were also traditional bully/victims. While preliminary, results suggest that efforts to prevent cyberbullying may need to focus on patterns of Internet use, amount and type of social activities, and exposure to traditional bullying as risk factors for engaging in cyberbullying.

Citation: Twyman, K., Saylor, C., Taylor, L. A., & Comeaux, C. (2010). Comparing children and adolescents engaged in cyberbullying to matched peers.Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(2), 195-199.


Author(s): Vanderbilt, D., & Augustyn, M.

Year: 2010

Title: The effects of bullying

Journal: Paediatrics and Child Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751722210000715

Abstract: Bullying is a major problem for children. There are well-defined risk factors for bullying that are individual and social. Beyond the immediate trauma of experiencing bullying, victims are at high risk of later physical and emotional disorders. Bullies are the generators of this trauma but also suffer poor long-term effects as a result of their participation. Bystanders are also not immune from bullying’s toxic effects nor innocent from its occurrence. While most often occurring at schools, paediatric clinicians can identify and support children suffering from bullying. They also have the unique opportunity to engage the schools and wider society on anti-bullying initiatives. This article will outline the risk, signs and symptoms of bullying to help clinicians identify and address these children in need.

Citation: Vanderbilt, D., & Augustyn, M. (2010). The effects of bullying. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20(7), 315-320.


Author(s): Peleg-Oren, N., Cardenas, G. A., Comerford, M., & Galea, S.

Year: 2010

Title: An Association Between Bullying Behaviors and Alcohol Use Among Middle School Students

Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence

URL: http://jea.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/11/13/0272431610387144.abstract

Abstract: Although a high prevalence of bullying behaviors among adolescents has been documented, little is known about the association between bullying behaviors and alcohol use among perpetrators or victims. This study used data from a representative two-stage cluster random sample of 44,532 middle school adolescents in Florida. We found a high prevalence of bullying behaviors (30% physical, 52% verbal, 12% cyber). A higher proportion of students (21%) who were involved in any type of bullying behavior used alcohol than students who were not involved (13%). Students involved in bullying behaviors as perpetrators or victims were significantly more likely to have used alcohol in the past-30-days than students who were not involved in bullying. Results suggest that bullying behaviors may be associated with alcohol use and that early evaluation of bullying behavior may be important as part of alcohol-use prevention programs among young adolescents.

Citation: Peleg-Oren, N., Cardenas, G. A., Comerford, M., & Galea, S. (2010). An association between bullying behaviors and alcohol use among middle school students. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 0272431610387144.


Author(s): Pujazon-Zazik, M., & Park, M. J.

Year: 2010

Title: To Tweet, or Not to Tweet: Gender Differences and Potential Positive and Negative Health Outcomes of Adolescents’ Social Internet Use

Journal: American Journal of Men’s Health

URL: http://jmh.sagepub.com/content/4/1/77.short

Abstract: Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents’ and young adults’ lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to “teenage online dating.” This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents’ online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents’ online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents’ at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

Citation: Pujazon-Zazik, M., & Park, M. J. (2010). To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents’ social internet use. American journal of men’s health, 4(1), 77-85.


Author(s): Moore, R., Guntupalli, N. T., & Lee, T.

Year: 2010

Title: Parental Regulation and Online Activities: Examining factors that influence a Youth’s potential to become a Victim of Online Harassment

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/1ab4d56c9590a255710ed6c8fd6618ca/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Online harassment has been defined as an overt act of aggression committed against a person through use of a

variety of online communication tools (i.e. e-mail, website, etc.). The current study examined adolescent

Internet-related behaviors and parental regulations to determine which, if any, factors influenced a young

person’s reporting of online harassment victimization. The results of this analysis revealed that adolescent

females were more likely to report being a victim of online harassment. There were no differences in the

victimization reporting among youths based on race and family income. In examining the Internet behaviors

that were found to influence online harassment victimization, youths who used the Internet to engage in instant

messaging, chatting, blogging, and downloading music files were more likely to report online victimization.

Factors related to parental regulation of Internet use were found to have no effect on a respondent reporting

victimization from online harassment. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, as are

recommendations for future research in this emerging area.

Citation: Moore, R., Guntupalli, N. T., & Lee, T. (2010). Parental Regulation and Online Activities: Examining factors that influence a Youth’s potential to become a Victim of Online Harassment. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 4(1/2), 685.


Author(s): Tynes, B. M., Rose, C. A., & Williams, D. R.

Year: 2010

Title: The Development and Validation of the Online Victimization Scale for Adolescents

Journal: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace

URL: http://www.cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2010112901This

Abstract: This article outlines the development and validation of the Online Victimization Scale (OVS). The OVS consists of four subscales capturing individuals’ experiences with online victimization across general, sexual, and racial domains. Online surveys were administered in two studies from 2007-2009 to two diverse groups of adolescents ages 14-19 from high schools in the United States. A confirmatory factor analytic procedure was performed in Study 1 and Study 2, and both sets of analyses supported the hypothesized four-factor model for online victimization. Correlation results showed that online experiences associated with each domain of victimization were related to increased depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and anxiety and decreased self-esteem and satisfaction with life. The OVS is a comprehensive measure of online experiences that may be used in research, clinical and educational settings. Results are consistent with other victimization and discrimination measures that show correlations with poor mental health outcomes.

Citation: Tynes, B. M., Rose, C. A., & Williams, D. R. (2010). The development and validation of the online victimization scale for adolescents.Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 4(2), 1-17.


Author(s): Hay, C., & Meldrum, R.

Year: 2010

Title: Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

Journal: Journal of Youth and Adolescence

URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-009-9502-0

Abstract: Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew’s (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation. The data come from a school-based survey of adolescents in a rural county of a southeastern state (n = 426); 50% of subjects are female, their mean age was 15 years, and non-Hispanic whites represent 66% of the sample. The analysis revealed that both types of bullying are positively related to self-harm and suicidal ideation, net of controls. Moreover, those relationships are partially mediated by the negative emotions experienced by those who are bullied and partially moderated by features of the adolescent’s social environment and self. Regarding the latter, exposure to authoritative parenting and high self-control diminished the harmful effects of bullying victimization on self-harm and suicidal ideation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these conclusions for future research and for policy efforts designed to reduce self-harm.

Citation: Hay, C., & Meldrum, R. (2010). Bullying victimization and adolescent self-harm: Testing hypotheses from general strain theory. Journal of youth and adolescence, 39(5), 446-459.


Author(s): Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R.

Year: 2010

Title: Co-occurrence of Victimization from Five Subtypes of Bullying: Physical, Verbal, Social Exclusion, Spreading Rumors, and Cyber

Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

URL: http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/10/1103.short

Abstract: Objective To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Methods Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying. Results Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females), a verbal/relational victims class (28.1% of males and 35.1% of females), and a nonvictim class (62.2% of males and 58.7% of females). Males were more likely to be all-type victims. There was a graded relationship between the three latent classes and level of depression, frequency of medically attended injuries, and medicine use, especially among females. Conclusions  Increased co-occurrence of victimization types put adolescents at greater risks for poorer physical and psychological outcomes.

Citation: Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: Physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. Journal of Pediatric Psychology,35(10), 1103-1112.


Author(s): Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J. & Nansel, T. R.

Year: 2009

Title: School Bullying Among Adolescents in the United States: Physical, Verbal, Relational, and Cyber

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X09001384

Abstract: Purpose: Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, parental support, and friends were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally representative sample of grades 6–10 (N ¼ 7,182). The revised Olweus Bully/ Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with sociodemographic variables, parental support, and number of friends as predictors. Results: Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially, or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, whereas girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, whereas girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal, or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal, and relational forms but was not associated with cyber bullying. Conclusions: Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying is a distinct nature from that of traditional bullying

Citation: Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber.Journal of Adolescent health, 45(4), 368-375.


Author(s): Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Nichols, R. & Storch, E. A.

Year: 2009

Title: Differences between Peer Victimization in Cyber and Physical Settings and Associated Psychosocial Adjustment in Early Adolescence

Journal: Psychology in the Schools

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=10&id=EJ867123

Abstract: The increasing use of cyberspace as a social networking forum creates a new medium for youth to become victims of peer aggression. This study used factor analysis techniques to confirm whether survey questions about frequency of cyber victimization formed a distinct latent construct from questions about relational and overt victimization information in a large (N = 1,665) sample of middle school students. A secondary goal was to relate experiences of cyber victimization to symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Results indicate that cyber victimization is separate latent factor from overt and relational victimization. Experiences of cyber victimization were weakly associated with symptoms of social anxiety, but not depression. These results signify that cyber victimization deserves future empirical and clinical attention. (Contains 6 tables.)

Citation: Dempsey, A. G., Sulkowski, M. L., Nichols, R., & Storch, E. A. (2009). Differences between peer victimization in cyber and physical settings and associated psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 46(10), 962-972.


Author(s): Varjas, K., Henrich, C. C., & Meyers, J.

Year: 2009

Title: Urban Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Safety

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15388220802074165

Abstract: This study examined 427 urban middle school students’ perceptions of bullying, cyberbullying, and school safety utilizing the Student Survey of Bullying Behavior-Revised 2 (Varjas, Meyers, & Hunt, 2006Varjas, K., Meyers, J. and Hunt, M. H. 2006. Student Survey of Bullying Behavior – Revised 2 (SSBB-R2),Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, Center for Research on School Safety, School Climate and Classroom Management.). A unique finding is that cyberbullying may represent a unique modality of victimization and bullying compared with other school-based modalities. Cyberbullying and relational bullying were not associated with perceived school safety. Males reported more physical victimization, verbal victimization, and verbal bullying, and less relational victimization. Males and older students reported feeling safer at school. Older students reported less physical, verbal, and relational victimization, and less physical and verbal bullying. Importantly, physical, verbal, and relational bullying and victimization may represent more general underlying constructs of bullying and victimization, calling into question the distinctiveness of individual forms.

Citation: Varjas, K., Henrich, C. C., & Meyers, J. (2009). Urban middle school students’ perceptions of bullying, cyberbullying, and school safety. Journal of School Violence, 8(2), 159-176.


Author(s): Kraft, E. M., & Wang, J.

Year: 2009

Title: Effectiveness of Cyber bullying Prevention Strategies: A Study on Students’ Perspectives

Journal: International Journal of Cyber Criminology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/75ff9576e029c3f2cd9cd67228886c06/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: This study examined teenagers’ perspectives on the effectiveness of a variety of cyber bullying prevention strategies. The data was collected from a nation-wide online survey of middle school and high school students. The 713 students who had completed responses to all of the 39 survey questions were grouped into four categories according to their roles played in cyber bullying: pure-offender, purevictim, both-offender-and-victim, and neither-offender-nor-victim. Correlation between a student’s role in cyber bullying and his or her perspective on the effectiveness of a prevention strategy is studied. The five most effective cyber bullying prevention strategies for the students in each of the four categories are analyzed. Teens in this study perceive the theme of taking away the offender’s access to technology as the most effective measure, regardless of their roles in cyber bullying. The findings of this study could be useful for schools and communities in setting up policies and regulations to effectively reduce cyber bullying.

Citation: Kraft, E. M., & Wang, J. (2009). Effectiveness of cyber bullying prevention strategies: A study on students’ perspectives. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 3(2), 513.


Author(s): Wright, V. H., Burnham, J. J., Christopher, T. I., & Heather, N. O.

Year: 2009

Title: Cyberbullying: using virtual scenarios to educate and raise awareness

Journal: Journal of Computing in Teacher Education

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10402454.2009.10784629

Abstract: This study examined cyberbullying in three distinct phases to facilitate a multifaceted understanding of cyberbullying. The phases included (a) a quantitative survey, (b) a qualitative focus group, and(c) development of educational scenarios/simulations (within the Second Life virtual environment). Phase III was based on adolescent feedback about cyberbullying from Phases I and II of this study. In all three phases, adolescent reactions to cyberbullying were examined and reported to raise awareness and to educate others about cyberbullying. Results from scenario development indicate that simulations created in a virtual environment are engaging and have the potential to be powerful tools in helping schools address problems such as cyberbullying education and prevention.

Citation: Wright, V. H., Burnham, J. J., Christopher, T. I., & Heather, N. O. (2009). Cyberbullying: Using virtual scenarios to educate and raise awareness.Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 26(1), 35-42.


Author(s): Dayton, J., & Proffitt Dupre, A.

Year: 2009

Title: A child’s right to human dignity: reforming anti-bullying laws in the United States

Journal: Irish Educational Studies

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03323310903335435

Abstract: This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children’s rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and provides a framework for further efforts to improve laws and school policies to better protect children in schools.

Citation: Dayton, J., & Proffitt Dupre, A. (2009). A child’s right to human dignity: reforming anti-bullying laws in the United States. Irish Educational Studies,28(3), 333-350.


Author(s): Dowell, E. B., Burgess, A. W., & Cavanaugh, D. J.

Year: 2009

Title: Clustering of Internet Risk Behaviors in a Middle School Student Population

Journal: Journal of School Health

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00447.x/full

Abstract: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an “instant messaging” world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors of middle school students.

Citation: Dowell, E. B., Burgess, A. W., & Cavanaugh, D. J. (2009). Clustering of Internet risk behaviors in a middle school student population. Journal of School Health, 79(11), 547-553.


Author(s): Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Luk, J. W.

Year: 2009

Title: Computer Use and Internet Bullying among US Adolescents: Gender and Grade Differences

Journal: Journal of Ehealth Technology and Application

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583206/

Abstract: The purposes of the current study were to examine gender and grade differences in computer use and Internet bullying, and the relationship between computer use and Internet bullying.

Citation: Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Luk, J. W. (2009). Computer use and Internet bullying among US adolescents: Gender and grade differences. Journal of ehealth technology and application, 7(2), 72.


Author(s): Pergolizzi, F., Richmond, D., Macario, S., Gan, Z., Richmond, C., & Macario, E.

Year: 2009

Title: Bullying in Middle Schools: Results from a Four-School Survey

Journal: Journal of School Violence

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.fau.edu/doi/abs/10.1080/15388220902910839

Abstract: The suicide of a cyberbullied student prompted the school-aged authors of this article to administer a Child Abuse Prevention Services survey to 587 students in seventh and eighth grades at four schools. Results showed that 4 of 5 students felt bullying is a problem, with 1 in 3 admitting to having bullied someone. Of those who did nothing when they witnessed bullying, 4 of 10 gave as the reason, “It wasn’t my business.” While three quarters of respondents felt “safe/very safe” in school, many are perpetrators (one third) and victims (half). With over half reporting doing nothing the last time they saw someone being bullied, and 1 in 4 stating they did not intervene because they “didn’t care,” a concerning level of apathy toward bullying was revealed.

Citation: Pergolizzi, F., Richmond, D., Macario, S., Gan, Z., Richmond, C., & Macario, E. (2009). Bullying in middle schools: Results from a four-school survey. Journal of School Violence, 8(3), 264-279.


Author(s): Juvonen, J. & Gross, E. F.

Year: 2008

Title: Extending the School Grounds?—Bullying Experiences in Cyberspace

Journal: Journal of School Health

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00335.x/full

Abstract: Bullying is a national public health problem affecting millions of students. With the rapid increase in electronic or online communication, bullying is no longer limited to schools. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the overlap among targets of, and the similarities between, online and in-school bullying among Internet-using adolescents. Additionally, a number of common assumptions regarding online or cyberbullying were tested.

Citation: Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds?—Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School health, 78(9), 496-505.


Author(s): Mason, K. L.

Year: 2008

Title: Cyberbullying: A preliminary assessment for school personnel

Journal: Psychology in the Schools

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pits.20301/full

Abstract: Because of the advent and growth of technology, a new variation of bullying—cyberbullying—has transformed from the physical to the virtual. Cyberbullying is a form of psychological cruelty. Although cyberbullying usually occurs off school grounds, schools are experiencing its repercussions (Li, 2006). This article provides an overview of cyberbullying, defines the difference between bullying and cyberbullying, and provides a psychological explanation of cyberbullying behaviors and the psychological impact of cyberbullying. The review of literature suggests that there is a lapse in preventative intervention to create and maintain awareness and safety for young people. Implications and guidelines are provided for school personnel to address this problem and develop prevention strategies.

Citation: Mason, K. L. (2008). Cyberbullying: A preliminary assessment for school personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 323-348.


Author(s): Srabstein, J. C., Berkman, B. E., & Pyntikova, E.

Year: 2008

Title: Antibullying Legislation: A Public Health Perspective

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07004223

Abstract: To determine the extent to which aspects of public health policy have been incorporated into the antibullying statutes enacted in the United States.

Citation: Srabstein, J. C., Berkman, B. E., & Pyntikova, E. (2008). Antibullying legislation: A public health perspective. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(1), 11-20.


Author(s): Agatston, P.W., Kowalski, R. & Limber, S.

Year: 2007

Title: Students’ Perspectives on Cyber Bullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003680

Abstract: The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students’ comments during the focus groups suggest that students—particularly females—view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

Citation: Agatston, P. W., Kowalski, R., & Limber, S. (2007). Students’ perspectives on cyber bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S59-S60.


Author(s): Kowalski, R. & Limber, S.

Year: 2007

Title: Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003618

Abstract: Electronic communications technologies are affording children and adolescents new means of bullying one another. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyberbullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. The present study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students.

Citation: Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of adolescent health, 41(6), S22-S30.


Author(s): Williams, K. R. & Guerra, N. G.

Year: 2007

Title: Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X0700362X

Abstract: With the Internet quickly becoming a new arena for social interaction, it has also become a growing venue for bullying among youth. The purpose of the present study was to contrast the prevalence of Internet bullying with physical and verbal bullying among elementary, middle, and high school boys and girls, and to examine whether key predictors of physical and verbal bullying also predicted Internet bullying.

Citation: Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of adolescent health, 41(6), S14-S21.


Author(s): Willard, N. E.

Year: 2007

Title: The Authority and Responsibility of School Officials in Responding to Cyberbullying

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003473

Abstract: Online social aggression, or cyberbullying, involves speech. Many incidents involve off-campus online speech that either creates or has the potential to create disruption at school or that may interfere with the targeted student’s ability to participate in educational activities and programs. Addressing these situations requires an assessment of the extent of authority and responsibility of school officials to respond. “Authority” refers to the legally justified right to impose formal discipline. Because cyberbullying involves online speech, the question of legal authority necessarily involves addressing the balance between the student right of free speech and student safety and security. “Responsibility” refers to the legal obligation under negligence theory and civil rights laws to exercise reasonable precautions to protect students from online social aggression and to intervene in response to reports of actual incidents.

Citation: Willard, N. E. (2007). The authority and responsibility of school officials in responding to cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S64-S65.


Author(s): David- Ferdon, C. & Hertz, M. F.

Year: 2007

Title: Electronic Media, Violence, and Adolescents: An Emerging Public Health Problem

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003643

Abstract: Adolescents’ access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.

Citation: David-Ferdon, C., & Hertz, M. F. (2007). Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: An emerging public health problem. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S1-S5.


Author(s): Wolak, J. W., Mitchell, K. J. & Finkelhor, D.

Year: 2007

Title: Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003631

Abstract: To shed light on the nature of online harassment and the extent to which it may be bullying by examining differences in the characteristics of harassed youth, online harassment incidents, and distressing online harassment based on the identity of online harassers (known peer vs. online-only contact).

Citation: Wolak, J., Mitchell, K. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers and online-only contacts. Journal of adolescent health, 41(6), S51-S58.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M. & Leaf, P. J.

Year: 2007

Title: Examining the Overlap in Internet Harassment and School Bullying: Implications for School Intervention

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003692

Abstract: As more and more youth utilize the Internet, concern about Internet harassment and its consequences for adolescents is growing. This paper examines the potential overlap in online and school harassment, as well as the concurrence of Internet harassment and school behavior problems.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S42-S50.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L. & Mitchell, K. J.

Year: 2007

Title: Prevalence and Frequency of Internet Harassment Instigation: Implications for Adolescent Health

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X0700136X

Abstract: Youth psychosocial and behavioral characteristics are examined based upon varying frequency of Internet harassment perpetration online.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). Prevalence and frequency of Internet harassment instigation: Implications for adolescent health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(2), 189-195.


Author(s): Berger, K. S.

Year: 2007

Title: Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten?

Journal: Developmental Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027322970600061X

Abstract: Research on bullying has increased dramatically worldwide, from only 62 citations in PsycINFO from 1900–1990, to 289 in the 1990s, to 562 from 2000–2004. Much has been learned, including that bullying takes many forms (physical, verbal, relational), is prevalent in every school, with long-lasting consequences. It is not known how genes, parents, peers, cultural values, and school practices interact to affect bullying and victimization nor why some schools fail to reduce the harm. This paper reviews past findings on school bullying, notes a slowing of publication, reminds readers of the need for the scientific process, and highlights the reasons for additional research, especially in data collection, evaluation, developmental understanding, and prevention.

Citation: Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten?.Developmental review, 27(1), 90-126.


Author(s): Huesmann, L. R.

Year: 2007

Title: The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003916

Abstract: Since the early 1960s, research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the Internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered.

Citation: Huesmann, L. R. (2007). The impact of electronic media violence: Scientific theory and research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S6-S13.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Mitchell, K. J.

Year: 2007

Title: The Co-occurrence of Internet Harassment and Unwanted Sexual Solicitation Victimization and Perpetration: Associations with Psychosocial Indicators

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003965

Abstract: Previous research in offline environments suggests that there may be an overlap in bullying and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization; however to what extent this may be true for perpetration and victimization of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation is unknown.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: Associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S31-S41.


Author(s): Worthen, M. R.

Year: 2007

Title: Education Policy Implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003953

Abstract: The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms.

Citation: Worthen, M. R. (2007). Education policy implications from the expert panel on electronic media and youth violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S61-S63.


Author(s): King, J. E., Walpole, C. E., & Lamon, K.

Year: 2007

Title: Surf and Turf Wars Online—Growing Implications of Internet Gang Violence

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X07003667

Abstract: To examine use of the Internet by gangs and its affect on youth, i-SAFE Inc. collected information from more than 100,000 students and 137 gang associates from an urban population. Although individuals who associate with a gang have distinguishable discrepancies in the amount of time spent online, they have similar online behavior as compared with those who are not involved with gangs. Additional research is necessary to develop a substantive link between gangs online and the school and community culture.

Citation: King, J. E., Walpole, C. E., & Lamon, K. (2007). Surf and turf wars online—growing implications of internet gang violence. Journal of Adolescent Health,41(6), S66-S68.


Author(s): Christopherson, K. M.

Year: 2007

Title: The positive and negative implications of anonymity in Internet social interactions: “On the Internet, Nobody Knows You’re a Dog”

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563206001221

Abstract: The growth of the Internet at a means of communication has sparked the interest of researchers in several fields (e.g. communication, social psychology, industrial-organizational psychology) to investigate the issues surrounding the expression of different social behaviors in this unique social context. Of special interest to researchers is the increased importance that anonymity seems to play in computer-mediated communication (CMC). This paper reviews the literature related to the issues of anonymity within the social context, particularly in CMC, demonstrating the usefulness of established social psychological theory to explain behavior in CMC and discussing the evolution of the current theoretical explanations in explaining the effects of anonymity in social behavior in CMC environments. Several suggestions for future research are proposed in an attempt to provide researchers with new avenues to investigate how anonymity can play both positive and negative roles in CMC.

Citation: Christopherson, K. M. (2007). The positive and negative implications of anonymity in Internet social interactions:“On the Internet, Nobody Knows You’re a Dog”. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(6), 3038-3056.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor, D.

Year: 2006

Title: Examining Characteristics and Associated Distress Related to Internet Harassment: Findings From the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey

Journal: Pediatrics

URL: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/4/e1169.short

Abstract: We sought to identify the characteristics of youth who are targets of Internet harassment and characteristics related to reporting distress as a result of the incident.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor, D. (2006). Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics, 118(4), e1169-e1177.


Author(s): Bollmer, J. M., Harris, M. J., & Milich, R.

Year: 2006

Title: Reactions to bullying and peer victimization: Narratives, physiological arousal, and personality

Journal: Journal of Research in Personality

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656605000619

Abstract: A mediational model of bullying and victimization is proposed and tested. Ninety-nine 10- to 13-year-old children provided two oral narratives of their victimization experiences, as perpetrator and victim, with their physiological arousal being measured while they told the narratives. The children and one of their parents also completed a variety of questionnaires, including a Big 5 measure of personality and measures of bullying and victimization tendencies. Mediational analyses indicated that children who score low on Conscientiousness and high on Neuroticism are more likely to experience negative affect during peer conflict, such as feeling angrier, blaming the bully more, and forgiving less, and that these reactions are related to higher levels of victimization. For bullies, relations among Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and bullying appear to be mediated by lesser feelings of guilt and gains in physiological arousal while telling a bullying narrative. Advantages of a mediational model of peer victimization processes and implications for interventions are discussed.

Citation: Bollmer, J. M., Harris, M. J., & Milich, R. (2006). Reactions to bullying and peer victimization: Narratives, physiological arousal, and personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(5), 803-828.


Author(s): Chisholm, J. F.

Year: 2006

Title: Cyberspace Violence against Girls and Adolescent Females

Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1196/annals.1385.022/full

Abstract: Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.

Citation: Chisholm, J. F. (2006). Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1087(1), 74-89.


Author(s): Keith, S. & Martin, M. E.

Year: 2005

Title: Cyber-Bullying: Creating a Culture of Respect in a Cyber World

Journal: Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber+bullying&pg=5&id=EJ710387

Abstract: In the 1990s, many incidents revolved around student-on-student violence, usually involving guns. Schools implemented many programs to keep guns and gangs out of schools. In the 21st Century, school violence is taking on a new and more insidious form. New technologies have made it easier for bullies to gain access to their victims. This form of bullying has become known as cyber-bullying. This article provides a window to this little known world and offers practical suggestions for dealing with this new challenge.

Citation: Keith, S., & Martin, M. E. (2005). Cyber-bullying: Creating a culture of respect in a cyber world. Reclaiming children and youth, 13(4), 224.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J.

Year: 2004

Title: Youth engaging in online harassment: associations with caregiver–child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics

Journal: Journal of Adolescence

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197104000399

Abstract: To date, research focused on “traditional” (i.e. in-person) youth bullying behaviour has documented serious psychosocial challenges for those involved. How this literature translates to youth engaging in aggressive behaviours online has yet to be examined. Using the largest US sample of youth Internet users to date, psychosocial characteristics of youth engaging in Internet harassment were examined. Results from the nationally representative survey suggested that Internet harassment is a significant public health issue, with aggressors facing multiple psychosocial challenges including poor parent–child relationships, substance use, and delinquency. Comparisons to traditional bullies were made, with similarities and differences noted.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Youth engaging in online harassment: Associations with caregiver–child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics. Journal of adolescence, 27(3), 319-336.


Author(s): Gross, E. F.

Year: 2004

Title: Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report

Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397304000772

Abstract: As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents’ home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys’ and girls’ online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.

Citation: Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 633-649.


Author(s): Ybarra, M. L.

Year: 2004

Title: Linkages between Depressive Symptomatology and Internet Harassment among Young Regular Internet Users

Journal: CyberPsychology & Behavior

URL: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/109493104323024500

Abstract: Recent reports indicate 97% of youth are connected to the Internet. As more young people have access to online communication, it is integrally important to identify youth who may be more vulnerable to negative experiences. Based upon accounts of traditional bullying, youth with depressive symptomatology may be especially likely to be the target of Internet harassment. The current investigation will examine the cross-sectional relationship between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment, as well as underlying factors that may help explain the observed association. Youth between the ages of 10 and 17 (N = 1,501) participated in a telephone survey about their Internet behaviors and experiences. Subjects were required to have used the Internet at least six times in the previous 6 months to ensure a minimum level of exposure. The caregiver self-identified as most knowledgeable about the young person’s Internet behaviors was also interviewed. The odds of reporting an Internet harassment experience in the previous year were more than three times higher (OR: 3.38, CI: 1.78, 6.45) for youth who reported major depressive symptomatology compared to mild/absent symptomatology. When female and male respondents were assessed separately, the adjusted odds of reporting Internet harassment for males who also reported DSM IV symptoms of major depression were more than three times greater (OR: 3.64, CI: 1.16, 11.39) than for males who indicated mild or no symptoms of depression. No significant association was observed among otherwise similar females. Instead, the association was largely explained by differences in Internet usage characteristics and other psychosocial challenges. Internet harassment is an important public mental health issue affecting youth today. Among young, regular Internet users, those who report DSM IV–like depressive symptomatology are significantly more likely to also report being the target of Internet harassment. Future studies should focus on establishing the temporality of events, that is, whether young people report depressive symptoms in response to the negative Internet experience, or whether symptomatology confers risks for later negative online incidents. Based on these cross-sectional results, gender differences in the odds of reporting an unwanted Internet experience are suggested, and deserve special attention in future studies.

Citation: Ybarra, M. L. (2004). Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(2), 247-257.