Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in Sweden, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.


Author(s): Forssell, R.

Year: 2016

Title: Exploring cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in working life–Prevalence, targets and expressions.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216300036

Abstract: While cyberbullying among children and adolescents is a well-investigated phenomenon, few studies have centred on adults’ exposure to cyberbullying in working life. Drawing on a large sample of 3371 respondents, this study investigates the prevalence of cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in Swedish working life and its relation to gender and organisational position. Using a cyberbullying behaviour questionnaire (CBQ), the result shows that 9.7% of the respondents can be labelled as cyberbullied in accordance with Leymann’s cut-off criterion. Fewer respondents, .7%, labelled themselves as cyberbullied and 3.5% labelled themselves as bullied face-to-face. While no significant relationships with gender or organisational position was found for individuals exposed to face-to-face bullying, this study showed that men to a higher degree than women were exposed to cyberbullying. Moreover, individuals with a supervisory position were more exposed to cyberbullying than individuals with no managerial responsibility.

Citation: Forssell, R. (2016). Exploring cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in working life–Prevalence, targets and expressions. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 454-460.


Author(s): Landstedt, E., & Persson, S.

Year: 2014

Title: Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people

Journal: Scandinavian journal of public health

URL: http://sjp.sagepub.com/content/42/4/393.abstract

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the factors associated with exposure to in-real-life (IRL) bullying, cyberbullying, and both IRL and cyberbullying and to explore the relationship between these types of bullying and mental health among 13–16-year-old Swedish boys and girls. Methods: Data was derived from a cross-sectional web-based study of 13–16-year-old students in northern Sweden (n=1214, response rate 81.9%). Results: The combination of IRL- and cyberbullying was the most common type of bullying. A non-supportive school environment and poor body image were related to exposure to bullying for both genders but the relationship was more distinct in girls. All types of bullying were associated with depressive symptoms in both boys and girls and all forms of bullying increased the likelihood of psychosomatic problems in girls

Citation: Landstedt, E., & Persson, S. (2014). Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people. Scandinavian journal of public health, 42(4), 393-399.


Author(s): Frisén, A., Berne, S., & Marin, L.

Year: 2014

Title: Swedish pupils’ suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: Differences related to age and gender.

Journal: Scandinavian journal of psychology

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sjop.12143/abstract

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies that Swedish 10 and 12 year-olds (N = 694) suggested they would use if they were cyberbullied, with a special focus on whether there are differences in these strategies related to age and gender. The most commonly suggested coping strategy was telling someone, especially parents and teachers (70.5%). Surprisingly few of the pupils reported that they would tell a friend (2.6%). Differences in suggested coping strategies were found related to age and gender. Findings are discussed in relation to the Swedish sociocultural context as well as in relation to the implications for prevention strategies against cyberbullying.

Citation: Frisén, A., Berne, S., & Marin, L. (2014). Swedish pupils’ suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: Differences related to age and gender. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 55(6), 578-584.


Author(s): Beckman, L., Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L.

Year: 2013

Title: Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying–An analysis of Swedish adolescent data.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074756321300099X

Abstract: In the wake of the rapid development of modern IT technology, cyberspace bullying has emerged among adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences among adolescents involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Cross-sectional data from 2989 Swedish students aged 13–15 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show discrepant gender patterns of involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. First, although there were only minimal gender differences among traditional victims, girls are more likely than boys to be cybervictims when occasional cyberbullying is used as a cut-off point. Second, whereas boys are more likely to be traditional bullies, girls are as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. In conclusion, compared to traditional bullying, girls are generally more involved in cyberbullying relative to boys. We discuss these results in the light of adolescents’ usage of computerized devices.

Citation: Beckman, L., Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L. (2013). Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying–An analysis of Swedish adolescent data. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1896-1903.


Author(s): Låftman, S. B., Modin, B., & Östberg, V.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden.

Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740912004021

Abstract: The increase in the use of mobile phones and the Internet has given rise to new opportunities for people to meet and communicate. However, there are also dark sides to these new forms of communication. One of these is cyberbullying, i.e. bullying via mobile phone and the Internet. Given that cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, empirical knowledge is still limited and particularly so in Sweden, which in international comparison has reported low rates of bullying in general. The aim of the study is to investigate: 1) the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Stockholm, Sweden; 2) the overlap between cyberbullying and traditional forms of school bullying, and 3) the association between the experience of cyberbullying and subjective health. The study uses the Stockholm School Survey of 2008 which is a total population survey of students in grade 9 of compulsory school (i.e. aged 15–16) and in the second year of upper secondary school (i.e. aged 17–18) in Stockholm and eighteen of its surrounding municipalities (N = 22,544). About 5 % of the students are victims of cyberbullying, 4% are perpetrators, and 2% are both victims and perpetrators. There is some overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying: those who are victims of traditional bullying are at increased risk of also being victims of cyberbullying; while being a traditional bully is strongly associated with the likelihood of also being a cyberbully. However, many students who are involved in cyberbullying are not involved in traditional bullying. OLS regression analyses show that being a victim of cyberbullying remains associated with worse subjective health when being the victim of traditional bullying and socioeconomic factors are taken into account. In addition, perpetrators of cyberbullying as well as students who are both victims and bullies, have worse subjective health than those who are not involved in cyberbullying.

Citation: Låftman, S. B., Modin, B., & Östberg, V. (2013). Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(1), 112-119.


Author(s): Beckman, L., Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L.

Year: 2012

Title: Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?.

Journal: Emotional and behavioural difficulties

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13632752.2012.704228

Abstract: The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample comprised 3820 students (13–16 years old) in Sweden. The results indicate an association between bullying and psychosomatic problems, regardless of type of bullying involvement. No statistically significant differences in psychosomatic problems were found between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, either for victims or for bullies. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that the association between bullying and mental health is stronger for cyberbullying than for traditional bullying. Another important finding is that cyberbullies seem as likely as cybervictims to be at risk for mental health problems.

Citation: Beckman, L., Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L. (2012). Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?. Emotional and behavioural difficulties, 17(3-4), 421-434.


Author(s): Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K.

Year: 2008

Title: Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying?

Journal: Scandinavian journal of psychology

URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18352984

Abstract: Cyberbullying has recently emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment. 360 adolescents (12–20 years), were surveyed to examine the nature and extent of cyberbullying in Swedish schools. Four categories of cyberbullying (by text message, email, phone call and picture/video clip) were examined in relation to age and gender, perceived impact, telling others, and perception of adults becoming aware of such bullying. There was a significant incidence of cyberbullying in lower secondary schools, less in sixth-form colleges. Gender differences were few. The impact of cyberbullying was perceived as highly negative for picture/video clip bullying. Cybervictims most often chose to either tell their friends or no one at all about the cyberbullying, so adults may not be aware of cyberbullying, and (apart from picture/video clip bullying) this is how it was perceived by pupils. Findings are discussed in relation to similarities and differences between cyberbullying and the more traditional forms of bullying.

Citation: Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian journal of psychology, 49(2), 147-154.