Here is the research we’ve found on cyberbullying in China and Hong Kong, with the most recent first. Please email us if you have any articles to add with the details ordered in the same format as the others.


Author(s): Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S.

Year: 2015

Title: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies: Prevalence and a review of the whole-school intervention approach.

Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178915000725

Abstract: Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying have been a growing concern globally. In this review, we first review the prevalence of traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in selected major Chinese societies, namely the Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Empirical findings on the characteristics of bullying perpetrators, victims, and the offense circumstances are described. As an intervention strategy, we then comprehensively review the whole-school intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. Its origin, key components, and different factors that may contribute to the effective implementation of the whole-school approach in preventing and reducing bullying behaviors among children and adolescents are discussed. We conclude the review with potential implications for the application of this intervention approach in tackling traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies.

Citation: Chan, H. C. O., & Wong, D. S. (2015). Traditional school bullying and cyberbullying in Chinese societies: Prevalence and a review of the whole-school intervention approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 98-108.


Author(s): Ong, R.

Year: 2015

Title: Cyber-bullying and young people: How Hong Kong keeps the new playground safe

Journal: Computer Law & Security Review

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364915001181

Abstract: The number of people using digital communication technologies and participating in networked public spheres (Twitter and Facebook) has escalated in recent years. While this digital revolution has brought immense benefits to the global society, its ability for anonymous communication, and its ability to generate, manipulate and disseminate digital information which can be accessed instantaneously and continuously has also led to an abuse of these technologies causing irreparable harm to another person’s reputation and creates a record that causes serious psychological and emotional trauma. Protecting citizens from these forms of abuse is a priority of most governments. This paper provides an overview of the traditional tort remedies and a summary of the statutory schemes in Hong Kong.

Citation: Ong, R. (2015). Cyber-bullying and young people: How Hong Kong keeps the new playground safe. Computer Law & Security Review, 31(5), 668-678.


Author(s): Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C.

Year: 2013

Title: Game on? Online friendship, cyberbullying, and psychosocial adjustment in Hong Kong Chinese children.

Journal: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

URL: http://search.proquest.com/openview/1adb1eda2970ad42ce6c7c74c9726a0e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar

Abstract: Across 626 Hong Kong Chinese fifth and sixth graders, children’s experiences of victimization and bullying in online and real life contexts were compared. Children reported their best friendships at school and online when playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). With demographic variables, computer gaming habits, school victimization and real life friendship measures statistically controlled, online victimization uniquely and negatively explained variance in friendship satisfaction, while online friendship positively and significantly explained additional variance in children’s social competence, friendship satisfaction, self esteem, and life satisfaction. This research demonstrates theoretical and practical importance of investigating social experiences (both negative, i.e., being cyber-bullied, and positive, i.e., building up online friendship) for early adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Citation: Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C. (2013). Game on? Online friendship, cyberbullying, and psychosocial

Author(s): Lam, L. T., & Li, Y.

Year: 2013

Title: The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents.

Journal: Computers in Human Behavior

URL: https://www.psy.cuhk.edu.hk/psy_media/Cammie_files/137.game%20on.pdf

Abstract: This study investigates the psychometric properties of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) designed to assess Cyber Bullying among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 484 adolescents aged between 11–16 years randomly recruited from high schools within a region. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied to investigate the factorial structure of these scales. Reliability was examined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients by sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among these scales and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children as well as the Zung’s Anxiety Scales. A single-factor model for the E-VS and a 2-factor model for the E-BS were resulted from the EFA with large factor loadings and about 47% and 56% of variance explained respectively. Cronhach’s alpha values provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.55 to 0.96. Correlations between the E-VS and Depression as well as Anxiety scales showed positive and significant relationships, however, the E-BS was only related to Depression. Psychometric evidence has shown that both E-VS and E-BS are valid instruments for measuring Cyber bullying behaviour and victimisation. Further studies are required on the test–retest reliability, discriminate validity, responsiveness, as well as normative information for standardisation.

Citation: Lam, L. T., & Li, Y. (2013). The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 3-7.


Author(s): Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M.

Year: 2013

Title: Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students.

Journal: School Psychology International

URL: http://spi.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/05/01/0143034313479692.abstract

Abstract: Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China. Findings revealed that cyberbullying among high school students in the heartland of central China is relatively common with 34.84% (N = 501) of participants reported having bullied someone and 56.88% (N = 818) reported having been bullied by online. Significant gender differences were found, suggesting that boys are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying both as perpetrators and victims. Students with lower academic achievement were more likely to be perpetrators online than were students with better academic achievement. Students who spend more time on online, have access to the internet in their bedrooms, have themselves experienced traditional bullying as victims, and are frequently involved in instant-messaging and other forms of online entertainment are more likely to experience cyberbullying. Increased parent and teacher supervision reduced students’ involvement in cyberbullying. Implications for intervention are explored.

Citation: Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M. (2013). Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students. School Psychology International,


Author(s): Bhat, C. S., Chang, S. H., & Linscott, J. A.

Year: 2010

Title: Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue.

Journal: New Horizons in Education

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ966658

Abstract: Background: The Asian region accounts for the highest number of internet and mobile cell phones consumers among the regions of the world. As the use of information and communications technology becomes more and more widespread, the misuse of such technology becomes a concern. Cyberbullying, or bullying using information and communications technology is an issue that youth are encountering in Asia and in other parts of the world. Students who are cyberbullied experience several detrimental psychosocial effects that detract from their ability be successful in school. In some instances, youth suicide has been linked to cyberbullying. Goals: The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for proactive media literacy initiatives that promote the ethical and responsible social use of technology by students. Results: Examples of initiatives to reduce cyberbullying and other harmful uses of social media are presented. These initiatives are targeted not just at students but at teachers, other school personnel, and parents. The need to address cyberbullying via school policies and country or regional laws is also discussed.

Citation: Bhat, C. S., Chang, S. H., & Linscott, J. A. (2010). Addressing Cyberbullying as a Media Literacy Issue. New Horizons in Education, 58(3), 34-43.


Author(s): Fung, A. L.

Year: 2010

Title: The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention

Journal: Journal of Youth Studies

URL: http://yrc.hkfyg.org.hk/page.aspx?corpname=yrc&i=3891

Abstract: This study preliminarily investigated the phenomenon of cyberbullying in Hong Kong. From a pool of 7,654 students, 48 Primary 4 to Form 3 students who were assessed as potential aggressors participated in the study. The purpose was to understand the frequency of cyberbullying behaviours and the relationship between cyberbullying and two types of aggression–proactive and reactive aggression. Results indicated that more cyberbullying behaviours were exhibited among secondary school students than among primary school students, with common practices including name calling, teasing, and gossiping. Emotional ventilation was regarded as the major reason for cyberbullying; for example, revenge was a form of reactive aggression and showing off a form of proactive aggression.

Citation: Fung, A. L. (2010). The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention. Journal of Youth Studies (10297847), 13(2).


Author(s): Li, Q.

Year: 2008

Title: A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying.

Journal: Educational Research

URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131880802309333

Abstract: Background and purpose: This study explores the issues of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of a sample of Canadian and Chinese adolescents’ experiences and possible culture differences related to bullying and cyberbullying.

Citation: Li, Q. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying. Educational Research, 50(3), 223-234.