Research into the causes and consequences of cyberbullying among adolescents has exploded in the past 5 years . However, much of the literature is largely descriptive in nature and/or suffers from methodological limitations associated with accessing and studying young people who are engaged in constantly changing high-tech behaviors. These challenges notwithstanding, a clearer picture is beginning to emerge detailing the social and psychological maladies linked to experiences with cyberbullying. Youth who experience cyberbullying, both as victims and as offenders, report lower self-esteem  and , higher depression and suicidal ideation ,  and , and increased school problems and participation in other problematic offline behaviors ,  and . It is also true that traditional bullying still occurs with more frequency than cyberbullying , although the gap could be narrowing .
Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2013). Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Implications for Empirical Research. Journal of Adolescent Health 53(4), 431-432.